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INTRODUCTION TO DATABASES

What is a database (DB)?

What is a database (DB)?


A collection of data Needs to be stored Needs to be retrieved (possibly only parts) at some later moment Might need to be updated/modified at some later moment

What is a database-management system (DBMS)?


A collection of data (ie, database) and

A set of programs to access these data Read, add, delete, update records or parts of records Often invisible to end-users of a database

Examples where databases are used


What are some real-life applications of databases?

Examples where databases are used


University: List of instructors, their department, classes, taught, salary, address List of students, major, classes taken, GPA, address List of classes at the university, room, time

Airline: List and status of airplanes, pilots, support personnel List and status of flights
Hospital: List of doctors, their specialization, their availability List of patients and their health history

We interact with a database daily (without even realizing it)


Register for a class

Search a list of movies playing in a nearby cinema


Look current weather conditions Check Facebook news feed Create LinkedIn profile Add a friend on Google+

A practical example: Netflix


An online store of movies and TV shows

A person pays monthly subscription to rent any amount

of movies/TV shows that are available Netflix recommends movies/TV shows based on history of usage by a person TASK: Lets come up with a list of information that needs to be stored
Ignore HR department and personnel working for Netflix

Netflix: info to store


User: Username and password Real name (first name and last name) Credit card info (or bank account info) Account is active or not History of movies/TV shows watched Recommendations ??? Movie/TV show: Its a movie or a TV show Title Genre Director(s) Main actor(s) Year produced Oscar recipient/nomination

Different methods to store information


Pen and paper

Microsoft excel sheet


File-processing system (supported by operating system) Database

Advantages of DB
Can store large amount of information in a very organized

way. Data redundancy and inconsistency can be removed. Easy to access data. All data is at the same place. Integrity (ie, consistency constraints can be imposed). Atomicity (ie, multiple operations are considered as one). Concurrent access is not a problem. No security problems (ie, different types of users can be given access to different data).

We will revisit each of these topics.

DB is a set of tables
User table:
Userna me
Jsmith3

Password Real name


Pass1 John A. Smith Mary Raynolds Stan Gomez

Credit card
xxxxx

Active account
Y

History

Recomm endation s
Law and Order

NCIS, 12 Years of Slave Hobbit, Hunger Games

Mrayn

Pass2

xxxxx

gomezs

Pass3

xxxxx

DB is a set of tables
User table:
Userna me
Jsmith3

Password Real name


Pass1 John A. Smith Mary Raynolds Stan Gomez

Credit card
xxxxx

Active account
Y

History

Recomm endation s
Law and Order

NCIS, 12 Years of Slave Hobbit, Hunger Games

Mrayn

Pass2

xxxxx

gomezs

Pass3

xxxxx

Any issues/concerns/difficulties?

DB is a set of tables
User table:
Userna me
Jsmith3

Password Real name


Pass1 John A. Smith Mary Raynolds Stan Gomez

Credit card
xxxxx

Active account
Y

History

Recomm endation s
Law and Order

NCIS, 12 Years of Slave Hobbit, Hunger Games

Mrayn

Pass2

xxxxx

gomezs

Pass3

xxxxx

Username should be unique!!! -> not a problem, but we

need to have that constraint programmed.

DB is a set of tables
User table:
Userna me
Jsmith3

Password Real name


Pass1 John A. Smith Mary Raynolds Stan Gomez

Credit card
xxxxx

Active account
Y

History

Recomm endation s
Law and Order

NCIS, 12 Years of Slave Hobbit, Hunger Games

Mrayn

Pass2

xxxxx

gomezs

Pass3

xxxxx

Password should satisfy some predetermined conditions

not a problem, but needs to be programmed.

DB is a set of tables
User table:
Userna me
Jsmith3

Password Real name


Pass1 John A. Smith Mary Raynolds Stan Gomez

Credit card
xxxxx

Active account
Y

History

Recomm endation s
Law and Order

NCIS, 12 Years of Slave Hobbit, Hunger Games

Mrayn

Pass2

xxxxx

gomezs

Pass3

xxxxx

Real name: maybe we want to split it into 2 columns: first

name and last name.

DB is a set of tables
User table:
Userna me
Jsmith3

Password Real name


Pass1 John A. Smith Mary Raynolds Stan Gomez

Credit card
xxxxx

Active account
Y

History

Recomm endation s
Law and Order

NCIS, 12 Years of Slave Hobbit, Hunger Games

Mrayn

Pass2

xxxxx

gomezs

Pass3

xxxxx

Credit card: we need lots of info: number, expiration date,

security number -> maybe we need more than one field.

DB is a set of tables
User table:
Userna me
Jsmith3

Password Real name


Pass1 John A. Smith Mary Raynolds Stan Gomez

Credit card
xxxxx

Active account
Y

History

Recomm endation s
Law and Order

NCIS, 12 Years of Slave Hobbit, Hunger Games

Mrayn

Pass2

xxxxx

gomezs

Pass3

xxxxx

Credit card: what if we allowed credit card info or bank

account? -> Different fields for bank account -> new table.

DB is a set of tables
User table:
Userna me
Jsmith3

Password Real name


Pass1 John A. Smith Mary Raynolds Stan Gomez

Payment

Active account
Y

History

Recomm endation s
Law and Order

Credit card Bank account Bank account

NCIS, 12 Years of Slave Hobbit, Hunger Games

Mrayn

Pass2

gomezs

Pass3

Payment tables
Credit card:
Credit card number 98674325543212 23 Expiration date 12/2017 Security number 543

Bank account:
Routing number 1231231231 4343434343 Account number 9765432134 7543009990

Payment tables
Credit card:
Credit card number 98674325543212 23 Expiration date 12/2017 Security number 543

Bank account:
Routing number 1231231231 4343434343 Account number 9765432134 7543009990

Any issues???

Payment tables
Credit card:
Username Jsmith3 Credit card number 9867432554 321223 Expiration date 12/2017 Security number 543

Bank account:
Username Mrayn gomezs Routing number 1231231231 4343434343 Account number 9765432134 7543009990

Payment tables
Credit card:
Username Jsmith3 Credit card number 9867432554 321223 Expiration date 12/2017 Security number 543

Bank account:
Username Mrayn gomezs Routing number 1231231231 4343434343 Account number 9765432134 7543009990

Could have we used first and last name? Address?

DB is a set of tables
User table:
Userna me
Jsmith3

Password Real name


Pass1 John A. Smith Mary Raynolds Stan Gomez

Credit card
xxxxx

Active account
Y

History

Recomm endation s
Law and Order

NCIS, 12 Years of Slave Hobbit, Hunger Games

Mrayn

Pass2

xxxxx

gomezs

Pass3

xxxxx

History: multiple titles in the same fieldhard to

distinguish between title, hard to search -> new table

History table
Username jsmith3 jsmith3 Mrayn Mrayn Show 12 Years of Slave NCIS Hobbit Hunger Games

DB is a set of tables
User table:
Userna me
Jsmith3

Password Real name


Pass1 John A. Smith Mary Raynolds Stan Gomez

Credit card
xxxxx

Active account
Y

History

Recomm endation s
Law and Order

NCIS, 12 Years of Slave Hobbit, Hunger Games

Mrayn

Pass2

xxxxx

gomezs

Pass3

xxxxx

Recommendations: multiple titles in the same fieldhard

to distinguish between title, hard to search -> new table

Advantages of DB
Can store large amount of information in a very organized

way. Data redundancy and inconsistency can be removed. Easy to access data. All data is at the same place. Integrity (ie, consistency constraints can be imposed). Atomicity (ie, multiple operations are considered as one). Concurrent access is not a problem. No security problems (ie, different types of users can be given access to different data).

Advantages of DB
Can store large amount of information in a very organized

way
There is no limit on number of tables in a DB. There is no limit on number of columns and rows in a DB. We can store large amount of data.

We can organize data anyway we want.

Advantages of DB
Data redundancy and inconsistency can be removed. Data redundancy = store same information in multiple places.
Eg., we have a table for movies and a table for TV shows, and for each

of them, we have separate list of customers (username, password, first name, last name, etc.) this is unnecessary redundancy bad DB design
Inconsistency = pieces of data do not agree.
What if a person changes her name? Updates might have to be made in

both lists of customers, but the customer might remember to do it only at one place. Creates inconsistency.

Advantages of DB
Easy to access data. It is easy to search data by any value in any column in any table (if DB is designed well).
Eg., A person forgot username and password, it is easy to search by

first name and last name columns (at the same time), and then ask for additional info (address, email) to verify the correct person is found or to filter out wrong records if multiple records have same first and last names. We can search for all customers who saw a particular movie (this is another reason why we might want to have history as a separate table and each movie seen by a person on a separate line). We can search for all customers who have had membership for more than one year. Or can we?

Advantages of DB
All data is at the same place. There are no different files or folders to search. It seems as everything is stored together.

Advantages of DB
Integrity (ie, consistency constraints can be imposed). Eg., username should satisfy certain constraints (at least 6 characters long, must be unique). It is easy to impose these constraints in a DB. It is programmer once even though username might be used in multiple tables.

Advantages of DB
Atomicity = multiple operations are considered as one When credit card is charged, the customer must be given an active status. What if something happens (ie, system failure) between charging credit card and setting customers status to active?

Advantages of DB
Concurrent access is not a problem. Multiple users may access DB at the same time.

Advantages of DB
No security problems (ie, different types of users can be

given access to different data).


Eg., Users are not allowed to update any record in movies table,

but they can search this table. Eg., On the other hand, Netflix workers can update movies table.

DB terminology
DB schema = DB design
DB instance = a collection of information stored in DB at

the moment
Data-definition language (DDL) = language used to

specify DB schema Data-manipulation language (DML) = language used to manipulate (add, delete, update) information in DB
It changes DB instance

DB schema
How many tables? Each table has a name. It represent an object. How many columns in each table? Each column is an attribute of the object it represents. Each column saves data of a particular type: char(50), bigint(30), date How do we differentiate each record in a table? By a unique key. DB schema defines a key for each table. There might be foreign keys present in some tables.

Data-definition language
Eg.,

CREATE TABLE user (username VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL, first_name VARCHAR(15) NOT NULL, last_name VARCHAR(15) NOT NULL, account_active CHAR(1), date_enrolled DATE, number_movies_watched BIGINT(30), PRIMARY KEY username);
SQL (Structured Query Language) for DDL

Data-definition language
Defines/ensures: Domain constraints
Must exist for each attribute Eg., bigint, varchar

Referential integrity Eg., Each movie that show in a users history mist exist in movies table.

Assertions
Any domain constraint is an assertion Any referential integrity is an assertion Other assertions exist Eg., password must satisfy some criteria (at least 6 characters long, contain at least one letter and one digit)

Authorization Read authorization in movies table for users Update authorization in movies for administrators

Data-manipulation language
SQL

Used to Retrieve data from DB Insert new info in DB Delete info from DB Modify a piece of info in DB
Eg.,

SELECT user.first_name,user.last_name FROM user WHERE user.active=Y;

DB design
DB has lots of advantage, but it has to be designed well to use

these advantages. Several steps in DB design:


Understand requirements
What information will be saved? Users (username, password) How information will be used? Customers: search movies by title, actor, genre, What additional functionalities might be required later? Allow payments by bank account

Conceptual design
Describe data and relationships among pieces of information. Types of data (char, int, date) Can one user have multiple movies listed in history? Should history be a table on its own?

Physical design
Translate conceptual design into DB

Understanding requirements
Lots of conversations between DB developers (ie., tech

people) and business people of the company or endusers. Usually several iterations happening between all parties involved to clarify details. Some of them happen after conceptual design has already started.

Conceptual design
The most important and hardest part of DB design.

Two common methods: Entity-relationship (E-R) model Normalization

E-R model
Graphical representation of DB model. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is most commonly used for this representation. Entity = an object. Represented by a rectangle. It has entity name (on top) and a set of attributes. Relationship = relationship between two entities. Represented by a diamond. Relationship name is written inside the diamond. It connects two entities. It might contain cardinalities.

E-R model
user Username Password First name Last name Address Email Active account 1 Belongs to N History Movie title Date watched N

Used by

Credit card Number Expiration date Security code

Normalization
A set of algorithms to make sure that data are represented

in normal form. Normal form:


No redundancy
Eg., We could have all TV show information in history rather than having

a separate table for TV show usename Jsmith3 title NCIA actors MH,PP,SS director Bellisario genre drama

but we would repeat all this info for every person who watches NCIS. What if director changes at some moment or a new actor is added?

Normalization
Normal form (cont): No inability to represent information
In a previous example (if we didnt have separate table for TV shows),

what would happen if there is a TV show that noone has watched yet (eg., a new TV show)? The info would not be able to be stored anywhere.

Physical design
Pretty simple for a DB expert.

Translation from detailed human language to SQL or other

DB language.

Who interacts with a DB?


DB administrators They create/update/manage DB Sophisticated (tech) users They analyze data They use SQL-type language to directly interact with DB

Nave (non-tech) end-users (eg., Netflix customers) They search DB They use application programing interface to interact with DB
Often via web

Application programmers They create/program application programming interface for nave end-user

Types of DBs
Relational DB

Object-based data models Developed to suit better object-oriented programming languages. Extension of E-R model to allow for structured and collection types, encapsulation, inheritance Semistructured data models Allows specification of data where a data item might have different set of attributes for different records. XML language