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Class 37 Western Expansion

Test Practice: Which group separated men and women and thought that they should be celibate to prepare for the Second Coming of Christ?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Oneida Shakers New Harmony La Reunion All of the answers None of the answers

15% 6% 0%
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.





ATF response opportunity (you can do a maximum of four of these for credit)

F Apr 11

M Apr 14 W Apr 16

F Apr 18


Test 3

Last chance extra-credit talk!

Review of Grading Procedures

TESTS: 3 Tests (300 points each) + an OPTIONAL test 4 to replace one of these tests (also 300 points) will take the highest grades Test 4 is cumulative AND will include any new material on Reconstruction Although I drop 1 test, do not blow off any tests as I will take that into account On t-square the tests show up as 100 so multiply x 3 to get your points OTHER POINTS: Class work 50 points ATF up to 50 points Extra credit up to 20 points Curving might take place

Last class we discussed reform movements and started to go west with the Mormons Today we will complete the westward journey first we will look at the Oregon trail, and then we will turn our attention to Texas

California, 1650

Nueva Espana c. 1800

Fremonts map of California, 1844

The Journey West

The numbers
1841-1867 - 350,000 Americans emigrated on Overland Trail 1-15 miles a day First half easier 2nd half is harsh Arrived California or Oregon late fall or early winter 6 months 2000 miles
The Overland Trails, 1840

Winter 400 emigrants died due to cold weather 1840-1860

Mary Jones:
In the winter of 18 and 46 our neighbor got hold of Fremonts history of California and began talking of moving to a new country and brought the book to my husband to read and he was carried away with the idea too. I said o let us not go but it made no difference. We sold our home and what we could not sell we gave away.

Mary Jones on the trail

We camped that night. My husband stopped the team and said Mary did you ever see anything so beautiful? There was nothing in sight but nature. Nothing except a little mud and stick hut.


The trip

Other transportation Handcarts!!!

Mormons over 3000 Ten groups in 1856-1860 Two did not start early enough and people died in snows

Work on the trail

Work roles on the Trail

The men and boys have driven the cattle down to water and I am waiting for water to get supper. This forenoon we bought a few potatoes from an Indian, which will be a treat for our supper. . . Amelia Stewart Knight 1853

Food, cooking and cleaning What are they doing?

Food, cooking and cleaning What are they doing?

Collecting firewood Or buffalo chips (ie. buffalo dung!!)

Womens chores
'Kept busy in preparing tea and doing other things preparatory for the morrow. I baked a cracker pudding, warm biscuits and made tea, and after supper stewed two pans of dried apples, and made two loaves of bread, got my work done up, beds made, and child asleep, and have written in my journal. Pretty tired of course."

Gender Roles on the Trail (not always traditional)

"Now while out at the wagon we kept trying until I was fairly successful. How my heart pounded a few days later when I chanced to hear father say to mother, 'Do you know that Mary Ellen is beginning to crack the whip.' Then how it fell again when mother replied, 'I am afraid it isn't a very lady-like thing for a girl to do.' After this, while I felt a secret joy in being able to have a power that set things going, there was also a sense of shame over this new accomplishment.
Mary Ellen Todd

The night before Christmas, John Kirkwood the pathfinder stayed at our house over night. I had met him before and when he heard the discussion of my brother Jaspers wedding, he suggested that he and I also get married. I was nearly fifteen years old and I thought it was high time I got married. -- Martha Minto

More on marriage
"I am tired of keeping an old bachelor's hall. I want someone to get me a good supper and let me take my ease and when I am very tired in the morning I want someone to get up and get breakfast and let me lay in bed and take my rest.
Elkanah Walker



Fremonts Slough Friday May the 29th. This days journal Commences with a very serious accident. While fixing to drive the cattle Columbus Thurlow Discharged a Shot Gun. The shot passed through the rear end of our wagon and through Billy Pleges Buggy just over his daughter Katy and three of the shot struck Joseph Kennedy killing him instantly - two of the shot penetrating his skull and the other his leg. He was 41 years of age. Left a wife and 10 children, 3 teams. He was buried on a Knoll 300 yards north of the road and about the same distance from the camp and 5 miles East of Fremont Spring. we Traveled about 8 miles in the afternoon and camped on the Platt 2 miles from Trail Diary of George R. Hamerick, Missouri to California in 1863

Indians: Cynthia Parker

400 killed 1840-1860 (same as cold weather)

Some Q and A about death rates

Q: How many people died on the Oregon Trail? A: About 20,000 people died on the Oregon Trail. Q: What kinds of illnesses did people get while traveling? A: Typhoid, mountain fever, cholera, the flu, measles, and smallpox. Q: What other things happened that caused people to die? A: Some people had milk that came from a cow who had eaten poisonous weeds. Some people fell from the wagons. Others were killed by Indians. Q: How many travelers were killed by Indians and vice versa? A: From the time period 1840-1860, figures show that 362 travelers were killed by Indians and 426 Indians were killed by travelers.

Texas population expansion (rounded numbers)

1806 -- 7000 (excluding Indians) 1835 c. 35,000 1836 52,700
30,000 Anglo 14,200 Indians 5000 Blacks 3,500 Hispanic

1850 212,600
154,000 whites 58,200 slaves 400 free blacks

1860 -- 604,000

Hispanic Texas
To 1821 Texas = Spanish After 1821 Texas = Mexico

Americans start coming to Mexican Texas

Empresario Steven Austin Cotton = slavery

Surfing Steve

Why would Mexicans encourage Anglo-American migrations?

Why would Mexicans encourage Anglo-American migrations under empresarios?

Couldnt get Mexicans to move to this remote and dangerous area Empresarios less likely to rebel and promote revolution Americans were coming in anyway

Illegal Anglo migrations, cotton, and slavery

Some Anglos come in under empresarios many others come in illegally and become squatters 1829 Mexico bans slavery and declares everyone equal Austin and Texas and Coahuila elites: free slaves and then make them indentured servants for life 1830 Mexico forbids further US immigration

Conflict 1835-36

The Alamo (John Wayne)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Agpg2GY Wcpc

Madam Candelaria (Alamo Historian)

The Alamo (Pee Wee Herman)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZAIVktlpO T8

Battle of San Jacinto, April 1836