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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Microwave Remote Sensing


(MRS)

Presented by

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313

Under the guidance of


Mr. Rowdra Ghatak

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

What is microwave remote sensing?


Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

•A special application of microwave communications


technologies for the purpose of collecting geophysical
information about targets (objects and media) without
making physical contact.
•Microwave reflections or emissions from earth
materials bear no direct relationship to their counterparts
in the visible portions of the spectrum.

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

How does it work?


Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

•There is an interaction between the EM waves and


matter.

•The target imposes a modulation on the EM wave which


becomes its identifying characteristics.

•Sensors use microwave communications technologies.

•Active (radar) and passive (microwave radiometry)


measurements.

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Active and Passive Microwave Sensors


Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

•Passive: uses natural energy, either reflected sunlight or


emitted thermal or microwave radiation

•Active: sensor creates its own energy

•Transmitted toward Earth

•Interacts with atmosphere and/or surface

•Reflects back toward sensor (backscatter)

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Microwave Radiometry
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

In the microwave region of the EM spectrum, the


power collected by a microwave antenna is:

P blackbody = k Tb * bandwidth

Microwave Brightness Temperature, Tb, of a


media is the product of the media emissivity and its physical
temperature.
For blackbodies, ε = 1.0
Tb = ε * T phys

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Microwave Radiometer
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Antenna Receiver

+ Square
Law LPF
detector
Trec

Resistor
noise
Tsys = Radiometer Output power
Tsys = T ant + T Rec KB*(receiver gain)
Where K=Boltzman’s constant
B=bandwidth
TRec = (1-NF)*290 K; NF=Receiver noise figure
Tant= scene brightness temp collected by antenna

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Radiative Transfer Theory


Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

The TB measured by spaceborne radiometer is the linear sum of


individual contributions from the atmosphere and surface

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Defense Meteorological Support Program (DMSP)

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Three Day Average of Some MRS Parameters

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

What is a Microwave Scatterometer?


Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

•A special purpose radar sensor that measures scattering from


the earth’s surface i.e., a scatter-meter

•If the objects are having smaller wavelengths,then scattering


occurs

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Satellite Microwave Scatterometer


Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

P r = Pt * σ
Where σ = ocean
Scattering coeff. Or
Normalized radar
Cross-section

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Scatterometer Applications

•Ocean Wind Vector (wind speed & direction)


• Hurricanes & Typhoons
• Sea Ice Imaging
• Land Imaging

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Antarctic Sea Ice Imaging


Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)


Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

• Microwave remote sensing of rainfall


• TRMM Microwave (Radiometer) Imager
• Precipitation Radar

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Greenland Ice Melt - 4 day intervals


Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Precipitation Radar - Hurricane Rainfall Image


Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Synthetic Aperture Radar


Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

•Generally refers to the case of a moving radar and a


stationary target- usually an extended scene, such as the
surface of the Earth.

•ISAR refers to the case in which the radar is relatively


stationary and a rotating target provides all(or most) of the
motion to create the synthetic aperture.

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Comparison Between RAR and SAR


Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Comparison Between RAR and SAR


Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

SAR Modes

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Side-Looking Radar System

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

SLR Operation
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

Conclusion
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

•microwave sensors provide valuable geophysical


measurements
• Remote sensing satellites provide global coverage each day
• Day/night all weather
• Atmosphere
• Water vapor, cloud liquid water, precipitation
• Sea Ice and land snow cover
• Ocean
• Surface winds, sea surface temperature

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

REFERENCES
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

[1] Lillesand Thomas M. and Ralph W. Kiefer,”Remote Sensing


and Image Interpretation”, fourth edition, chapter 8,pp. 616-692
[2] Sullivan Roger J., “Radar Foundations for Imaging and
Advanced Concepts”, Chapter 7, pp.191-194
[3] http://www.engr.ucf.edu/centers/cfrsl/
[4] http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/
[5] Ulaby, F.T., R.K.Moore, and A.K.Fung, Microwave Remote
Sensing: Active and Passive, Addison-Welsey, Reading, MA;
vol.1: Microwave Remote Sensing Fundamentals and
Radiometry, 1981;vol. II: Radar Remote Sensing and Surface
Scattering and Emission Theory, 1982;vol. III.

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING
Technical Seminar Presentation-2004

THANK YOU

Kishore Kumar Parida EC200117313


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