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Centrifuge 101

Bernhard Brauner Josef Gttgens Technical Support Engineers ANDRITZ


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Summary of Seminar

Covers the basics of:


Design Operation Maintenance Ask questions at any time!!! Presentation in booklet form.

Informational session:

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Agenda
Principles of Centrifugation Decanter Design Decanter Operation Decanter Maintenance Condition Monitoring

Vibration Analysis

Special Items
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Settling Tank

Centrifugation stems from concept of the settling tank...

Pool Depth

Pool Depth

Pool Depth

Settling occurs at 1 G
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Settling Vessel

Form the tank into a cylinder...

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Centrifuge

Rotate the tank...

G
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Pool Depth
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Solids Movement

What about the solids?

Solids Beach
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Conveyor turns at a slightly Effluent lower rate than bowl.


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Solids Dewatering
Straight Beach 5o Compound Beach 3o 7o

Beach

Liquid

Solids
Solids have to pass through liquid in order to exit bowl!!!
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Centrifugation
(IDBowl)(RPMBowl)2 G= 70414

where:

IDBowl is in inches 70414 is a conversion constant

Fast and efficient way to obtain product. Continuous feed and output. RPM has a very strong effect on total Gs:

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For 2X Gs, you need 2X the ID. RPMs would increase by only 41%.
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Decanter Components

Rotating Assembly

Bowl Shell
Heads

(Solids and Effluent) Bowl (Cylindrical, Screen, and Conical Section)


Conveyor Gear Unit Drive Motor Backdrive


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Drive Assembly

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Bowl Shell Components


Effluent Head Solids Head Bowl

Cylinders
Screen Section

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Effluent Head
From the inside... How is pool depth controlled???

Effluent Wiers

Deep Pond
Shallow Pond
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Screen Section / Types


TC Dogbone

Screens

Cut Plate
Slot Size

Slot Size Wedge Wire

Slot Size
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Screen Wash / Dewatering


Bowl Screen Section

Wash nozzles may be added to rinse the solids.

Finish
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Start
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Conveyor Components
Conveyor Flight(s)
Feed Trunnion Gear Trunnion

Blank-Off Plate Conveyor Body (Hub)

Accelerator
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Flight Wear Protection


Ceramic Tiles Tungsten Carbide Tiles

...with Piggyback Holder


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T/C Tiled Conveyor Flights

Conveyor Flight

Conveyor Hub Weld

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Ceramic Tiled Flights

Conveyor Hub Epoxy

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Gear Unit
Gear Unit Housing (2 Ring Gears) 1st Stage Carrier (2nd Stage Sun)

1st

Stage Sun (Pinion)

2nd Stage Planets

1st Stage Planets


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2nd Stage Carrier (Female Spline)


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Rotating Assembly

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Gear Flange
Gear Unit Housing is the Input
Gear Flange

Gear Trunnion

Gear Trunnion is the Output Pinion is Stationary


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Machine Frame and Motor


Feed Pipe Bracket

Feed End Pillow Block

Gear End Pillow Block

Feed Pipe Motor


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Machine Frame

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Case & Hopper Design


Case Top

Hoppers

Solids
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Wash

Effluent
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Backdrive
Machine Gear End
Jackshaft

Backdrive Motor

Shear Pin
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Jackshaft Coupling
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Decanter with Backdrive

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Decanter Operation
The R/A does the actual work of separation. Four factors affect centrifuge performance:

Bowl Speed (RPM) Feed Rate (Qf) Pool Depth (d) Differential (D)

Each factor relates to residence time.


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Bowl Speed
Bowl speed determines centrifugal force. G RPM2 -- doubling RPM results in 4X the G force felt by slurry. Higher Gs increase solids dryness and effluent clarity. Too many Gs result in the inability to convey solids.

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Recognized by decreasing effluent clarity.


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Feed Rate
Feed rate affects liquid residence time. Qf 1/Rl -- increase in feed rate decreases liquid residence time. Increased feed rate decreases effluent clarity.

Over a given period, more slurry enters bowl, more solids displace liquid -- less time for lighter solids to precipitate from the liquid.
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Increased feed rate increases amp draw.

Pond Depth
Pool depth affects liquid residence time. d Rl -- increase in pond depth increases liquid residence time. Higher pool increases effluent clarity. Higher pool decreases solids dryness.

Beach is shorter, less area to dewater the solids. Adjust only after other options have been used.
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Extremely sensitive:

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Differential
Differential affects solids residence time. D 1/Rs -- decrease in differential increases solids residence time. Decrease in D increases solids dryness.

Conveyor RPM approaches that of the bowl, less net motion, solids move more slowly on beach -- more time to dewater. More solids build up on bowl wall.
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Decrease in D decreases effluent clarity.

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Differential II
(RPMBowl - RPMPinion) D= Gear Box Ratio Backdrives effectively cause the gear box ratio to increase, which speeds up the conveyor relative to the bowl. Large amounts of torque must be overcome in order to turn the pinion.

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Daily Checklist
Inspect

machine for oil leaks. Check for excessive vibration:

With and without feed.

Listen

for excessive bearing noise. Inspect machine for any loose hardware. Verify proper lube oil flow. Verify proper oil supply pressure. Check ammeter readings.
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Daily Checklist II
bearing input oil below 100o F. Verify bearing ouput oil below 155o F. Inspect condition of isolators:
Verify

Snubbers properly set, springs in OK condition.

Inspect

condition of flexible connectors. Test fault light lamps. Ensure proper backdrive operation.
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Monthly Checklist
Inspect

hydraulic hoses for abrasion. Check that centrifuge is level:

Adjust isolators if needed.

Remove

feed tube and check for clogging. Inspect machine interior for material packing.

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Three Month Checklist


Review

operation procedures.

Review / retrain personnel.

Inspect

conveyor for flight / tile wear. Check gear box oil level. Check drive belt tension. Have vibration analysis performed.

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Vibration Analysis

Why?

Data transformed into easily read and interpreted form. Overall vibration data can be broken down into component vibrations associated with specific machine parts. Using consistent methods of data collection, component vibrations can be tracked over time.
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Time Domain

Time

Amplitude
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Waveform Components
Period (Ty) = 0.9 Seconds

Time

Amplitude
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Tg = 0.3 Seconds
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Frequency / CPM

f=1/T

Previous example (Yellow 0.9, Green 0.3): fy = 1 / 0.9 = 1.11 Hz fg = 1 / 0.3 = 3.33 Hz CPMy = 1.11 / 60 = 66.6 CPM CPMg = 3.33 / 60 = 199.8 CPM

CPM = f / 60

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These waves and others add together.


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Waveform Summation
t=x Ay= .95

S = .55

Time

Ag= -0.4
Amplitude
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S = Ay + Ag = .95 + (-.4) = .55


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All Waveform Components


All waves add up to form SUM WAVEFORM.

Amplitude
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Frequency Domain

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Frequency Domain II
Amplitude

y ( f ) = x (t )e

j 2ft

dt

FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM Provides a clear and easy way to interpret data. 1.11
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3.33

5.55

7.77

Frequency
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Decanter Vibration
Gear End Pillow Block Feed End Pillow Block

Gear Pinion

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What Can Be Pulled Out?


Bowl Unbalance Conveyor Unbalance Bearing Wear / Damage Gear Unit and Components Mechanical Looseness Misaligned Parts

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How is wear recognized?


Data from previous visits are compared with data just taken. A change in the amplitude of a components vibration from one time to the next creates a trend. Trending (in the wrong direction) indicates wear and potential damage which allows repair or maintenance to be scheduled, and parts to be ordered.

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What This Means


Component wear can be identified and tracked. Maintenance or repair can be scheduled at your convinence. Repair costs will be reduced. No catastophic failure!

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Special Items (Q & A)

Ask away!!!

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Thank you for your time.

Please do not hesitate to call me with any questions or problems at: +49 175 4054649

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