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Chemical Process Control

What if.

.you drive your car with
your eyes shut?

IMPORTANCE OF PROCESS CONTROL

SAFETY
PRODUCT QUALITY
PRODUCTION RATES
REDUCE ENERGY
*dynamic
time-dependent behavior of a process.


Why we need to control a process?
Because processes are dynamic changes
always occurred

What does a control system do?
Maintain certain variables within some limit
e.g temperature in a room

There are many applications where part
or all of a process has to be controlled.
e.g.
temperature
pressure
flow
level
composition
others

Automatic Control
Maintaining the process variables
(temperature, pressures, flows, compositions)
at some desired operating value.

Systems that control the variables without
requiring intervention from the operator.
System
SYSTEM
input
output
VARIABLES

Controlled variables the variable that must be
maintained at the desired value (set point)

Manipulated variables the variable that need to be
regulated in order to maintain the controlled variable at the
set point

Disturbances variables that tend to drive the controlled
variable away from the set point

c. Uncontrolled variables. Variables in the process that
are not controlled.


An Everyday Example of
Process Control
Control Objective (Setpoint):
Maintain the temperature in the room (27
o
C)

Controlled variable:
Temperature in the room

Manipulated variable:
Speed of the fan

Disturbance:
Weather



An Everyday Example of Process
Control
Driving a Car
Control Objective (Setpoint):
Maintain car in proper lane.

Controlled variable-
Location of car on the road
Manipulated variable-
Orientation of the front wheels
Disturbance-
Curve in road

Exercise
Select one control objective from a simple process and
determine the controlled variable, manipulated variable and
disturbances of the process.
HEAT EXCHANGER
Heat Exchanger
Fluid in
Fluid out
Steam in
Steam out
Ti
T desired
HEAT EXCHANGER
Heat Exchanger
Fluid in
Fluid out
Steam in
Steam out
Ti
T desired
(Manipulated variables)
(Load disturbances )
(Uncontrolled variables)
(Controlled variables)
THREE BASIC COMPONENT OF
CONTROL SYSTEM
Measurement (M)
measure the variable to be controlled.
sensor-transmitter
combination

Decision (D)
Controller decides what to do to maintain the variables
at its desired value
feedback controller

Action (A)
System must take an action based on controllers
decision
control valve (final control element)

Another important term

Set point (SP)-desired value of the control variable.

Open loop system - The behavior with no
controllers in the system

Closed loop system the controller is connected to
the process, comparing the set point to the
controlled variable and determining and taking
corrective action


Heat Exchanger
Fluid in
Fluid out
Steam in
Steam out
Ti
T desired
TT
TC
Measured = T desired (sensor transmitter)
Control = Steam in
Action = valve (final control element)
Measure
Decide
Action
SP
Heat Exchanger
Fluid in
Fluid out
Steam in
Steam out
Ti
T desired
(Manipulated variables)
(Controlled variables)
(Uncontrolled variables)
(Load disturbances )
TT
TC
Question
- How to ensure that T remains at or near the
set point?

w1, T1
w, T
Q
M
Process & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)
Purpose
1. To indicate the instruments or control devices attached to the process.
2. To indicate the control system architecture associated with the process.
How it is done?
Standard symbols and notations representing instruments or control devices are placed to
the pipings and vessels.Standard symbols and notations are available from ISA-5.1(1984)
standard.
Methodology?
Process piping and sub-piping
A thick straight line represent main process piping
A thin straight line represent process sub-piping either
to instruments or by-pass process line.
Unit 1: Process & Instrumentation Diagram
PG
Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)
Instruments / control devices:
A circle representing locally
mounted instrument
A circle with horizontal line
representing control room
panel mounted instrument.
A circle with horizontal line
inside a square representing
its function in DCS.
Unit 1: Process & Instrumentation Diagram
Symbols
Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)
Final control elements
Unit 1: Process & Instrumentation Diagram
Control
valves
=
Manual
valve
=
Manual
valve
=
Not darkened
Always open
Darkened Always
closed
O
R
O
R
Solenoid
valve
=
Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)
Naming rule
Unit 1: Process & Instrumentation Diagram
Examples
1 2 3 4
Measurement Device Device / Condition Condition
P
T
L
F
A

Pressure
Temperature
Level
Flow
Analysis

C
T
R
I
A
S
G
Controller
Transmitter
Recorder
Indicator
Alarm
Switch /
Safety
Gauge
C
T
R
H
L
V
Controller
Transmitter
Recorder
High
Low
Valve
H
L
High
Low
No such
devices yet.


PC
PIC
LG
FR
TAL
TALL
TAHL
Pressure Controller
Pressure Indicating Controller
Level Gauge
Flow Recorder
Temperature Alarm Low
Temperature Alarm Low Low
Temperature Alarm High Low
PCC
PTC
PTR
PIR
TRR
TRA
TAV
Complete guide on P&ID symbols & notations are available from ISA 5.1 (R1984)
Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)
Transmission signal
3 principle type of signals in in in process
industries









Usually signal is in percent

Example 0-100% = 3-15 psig















Signal Range Symbol


Pneumatic 3 15 psig
Electrical 4 20 mA
1 to 5 V

Digital/discrete
Signal are used by devices transmitters,
controllers, final control element to
communicate.


Change type of signal using transducer /
converter

Example of transducer
Current to pneumatic (I/P)
Digital-to-analog (D to A)
Pneumatic to current (P/I)




Heat Exchanger
Fluid in
Fluid out
Steam in
Steam out
Ti
T desired
(Manipulated variables)
(Controlled variables)
(Uncontrolled variables)
(Load disturbances )
TT
TC
Unit 1: Process Control Loop
Process control loop
I/P
Process
Sensor
Transmitter
Controller
Transducer
Control valve
4-20 mA
1-5 Vdc
PID
Fuzzy logic
4-20 mA
3-15 psig
dP cell
Capacitance
Radar, Sonic
Magnetic
Resistance
IR/Laser
Pressure
Flow
Level
Temperature
pH
Linear
Equal percentage
Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)
Unit 1: Tutorial 1
Can you read the following P&ID.
FT
FC
I/P
TC
TT
+ SP
product
Fuel
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O Main process line
O Process instrument piping
O Temperature transmitter
O Temperature controller
O Flow controller
O Current to pnuematic transducer
O Control valve
O Electrical signal
O Pneumatic signal
Feed
TC
ASD
G
11 12
G Temperature controller DCS function
11 Automatic shut down PLC unit
12 Solenoid valve
6:41 PM
Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)
Regulatory and servo control
For process that the controlled variable
deviates from set point because of
disturbance regulatory control

For process that the most important
disturbance is the set point itself servo
control