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Electric Vehicles and Their

Batteries Development in China


Prof. Feiyu Kang
Dept. of Materials Sci. & Eng.
Tsinghua University, China
17th November, 2009
Outline
• The development trends of electric
vehicles
• Fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV)
• Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
• Purely battery-powered electric vehicle
(BEV)
– Lithium iron battery (LIB)
– Super-capacitor (EDLC)
• Future development trends (LIB+EDLC)
Electric Vehicles
Classification of EV
• Electric vehicles (EVs): fuel replaced with
electricity, combustion engine replaced with
electric motors.
• EVs are classified into three categories:
– Purely battery-powered electric vehicles, BEV;
– Hybrid electric vehicles, HEV and plug-in hybrid
electric vehicles, PHEV ;
– Fuel cell electric vehicles, FCEV
EV Market
Europe: electric vans China: buses

USA: cars India: mini cars


USA strongly develops LIB cars
• On 7th Jan. 2009, A123 Systems of the US announced the
plan to build the first LIB factory in Southeast of Michigan
in order to help the US economy get rid of the dependency
on petroleum. After that several factories will be built in the
US to meet the battery demands for 5 million hybrids and
500,000 Plug-in hybrids by the end of 2013.
• A123 Systems will invest 2,3 billion US dollars in the new
factory and apply a loan of 1.84 billion dollars from the
stimulation program named ATVMIP with a total sum of
loan for 25 billion dollars for high-tech cars operated by the
Energy Ministry of US.
• Before that LIB manufacturer EnerDel has also applied
480,000 dollars of low-interest load from the Ministry of
Energy. The manufacturing capacity of LIB will reach
600,000 battery bags by 2011 and 1.2 million by 2015.
Ministry of Finance,
Ministry of Science and Technology
“Announcement about promoting pilot cities of energy
saving and new energy cars”
• Programs of energy saving • Hybrid cars and light
and new energy cars have
been implemented and business cars must save
promoted in 13 cities in China, energy for over 5% and
such as Beijing, Shanghai, hybrid buses should save
Chongqing, Changchun, energy for over 10%.
Dalian, Hangzhou, Jinan,
Wuhan, Shenzhen, Hefei, • Battery manufacturers
Changsha, Kunming and must provide a quality
Nanchang. The program gives guarantee of over 3 years
financial support to encourage or 150 thousand km.
energy saving and new energy
cars in public transportation,
taxes, public service,
environment and hygiene and
postal services.
Financial surpport for public and
business vehicles (x10,000 Yuan)
Energy saving Fuel saving Highest power rate
and new rate
energy BSG type 10-20% 20-30% 30-100%
vehicles

Hybrid 5-10% 0.4 -- -- --


10-20% 2.8 3.2 --
20-30% -- 3.2 3.6 4.2
30-40% -- -- 4.2 4.5
over 40% -- -- -- 5.0
BEV 100% -- -- -- 6.0
FCEV 100% -- -- -- 25.0
“Ten cities thousand cars” –
program to promote EVs
• The aim of the program is to test 1000
new energy cars in 10 cities within the
next 3 years, in order to promote the scale
and commercialization of new energy
cars. The national goal of new energy cars
is to reach 10,000 cars by 2010 and EV
will take up 10% of market share by 2012.
2 national projects of priority
• “Energy saving and new energy cars” and
“High technology of cars” are the two
important national projects with a focus on
research and commercialization of new
energy cars and LIBs.
Government approved 10 types
new energy cars
• BYD : F3DM, F6DM and E6
• Huachen: 华晨尊驰混合动力
• Changan: 长安杰勋混合动力
• Cherry: 奇瑞 A516 混合动力
• Yiqi: 一汽奔腾混合动力;
• Joint ventures:
• SAIC-Volkswagen: 上海大众途安混合动力车和领
驭电动车
• SAIC-GM: 上海通用君越混合动力。
Bottlenecks and Priority
• Advanced batteries, motors and control
system are bottlenecks.
– LIB, improve the energy and power densities,
cycle life (target: 2000 recently, 5000 in
future), reliability, and quick charge, low cost.
– Driving motor, using permanent magnet,
improve power, power density, efficiency, life
and reliability, low cost.
• Priority:
– Buses, low-speed cars and special vehicles
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel
Cell, PEMFC
Advantages of PEMFC
• Not limited by Carnot cycle
• High energy conversion
• Quick start in room temperature and no
loss of electrolyte
• Easy water emission and long life
• High power and energy rate
• Suitable for mobile power and ideal power
for EV
Fuel Cell City Bus
Tsinghua University and Shenli Science Technology Company

Tsinghua University project group provided 5 fuel cell


buses for the 2008 Olympic games.
Fuel Cell Vehicles
Tongji University & Shangqi
Properties:
Power : 24KW
FCE Power : 30KW
Battery stack : 30AH
Peak Speed : 108.3 km/h
Gradient : > 20°
Acceleration : 14.9s(0-80km)
Range : 209 km
Economy : .394kgH2/100km
Tongji University project
group provided 20 fuel cell
Passats for the Olympic
games.
Hydrogen Station in Beijing
Practical Difficulties of Hydrogen Energy
• The popularization of Production of H2 :
hydrogen depends on • Hot methods: steam restructuring,
the production, storage heat chemical hydrolysis,
and transportation of vaporization and high temperature
hydrogen. pyrolysis
• At present, the costs of • Electro-chemical methods:
producing hydrogen are electrolysis, photo-electrolysis
too high and no good • Biological methods: photo-
methods have been biological, microbial fermentation
invented to store and Storage and Transportation of H2 :
transport hydrogen. • Gas: Carbon fiber composite
• Storing hydrogen by material tank
metal hydride suffers • Liquid: ultra low temperature
from low hydrogen rate insulation vacuum flask
and storing by pressure • Solid: Metal hydride
tank consumes too high
energy.
Fuel cells need nano-technology
• Catalyst
– Metal
– Support
• Hydrogen
– Producing
– Storage
Hybrid electric vehicles,
HEV and plug-in hybrid
electric vehicles ,
PHEV
BYD’s F3DM hybrid electric car

The car came to the market


on 15th Dec. 2008 and the
price is 150,000 yuan.
Purely battery-powered
electric vehicles, EV

Lithium Ion Battery


Advantages of BEV
• BEV is highly efficient, independent of fuel and
has zero emission. It has become the most
competitive technology.
• BEV takes advantage of cheap off-peak
electricity during the night. In 2007 electricity
capacity of China exceeds 700 million KW and
off-peak capacity is 920 million KW, which can
charge 40 million LIB cars.
• In Chen Liquan’s article “Developing LIB cars is
the strategic choice of financial crisis”, LIB cars
can replace petroleum with electricity, reduce
CO2 emission and store off-peak electricity.
Electric bus for the Olympic games
• Developed by Beijing
University of
Technology
• Represented by bus
line No. 121
• Change batteries in
10 min.
Secondary batteries
• Secondary batteries can be charged repeatedly. They
are also called rechargeable batteries. It is convertible
direct power. Charging process is to convert electric
power into chemical power and releasing process is to
convert chemical power into electricity.
• Lead acid battery ( high usage )
• Nickel secondary battery ( Nickel-cadmium, nickel-
metal battery )
• Lithium ion secondary battery
The characteristics of lead acid battery
Cathode : PbO2 • Low energy density
Anode : Pb and efficiency
Electrolyte : H2SO4 • Pollution
Ni-H battery
• Cathode : Nickel • Ni-H batteries’ energy
density is high.
Theoretically density of
• High density sphere Ni-H is 1.5-2 times higher
Ni(OH)2 than Ni-Cd batteries.
• Ni-H battery is more
• Ni(OH)2 environmental friendly. It
∀ α -Ni(OH)2 does not use cadmium,
nor poisonous elements.
• Ni-H battery basically
• Nano-size removes the “memory
controlled? effects”.
Lithium Ion Battery

 High power pressure , about


3.6V ;
 High energy density, about
150Wh/kg ;
 Environmental friendly, does
not contain lead, cadmium or
other harmful elements ;
 Low energy releasing ;
 No memory effects
The charge and discharge mechanism of lithium ion battery
Cathode Materials
• LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2
• LiMn2O4
• LiFePO4
• Li-V-O compound
• 5V cathode material
• Multiple anion cathode materials
• Other cathode materials
Anode Materials-Carbon
Natural graphite300 - 350mAh/g
Oxidation
High regul. Modifications Fluorination
Synthesis, mainly MCMB Coating
300 - 330mAh/g Film
Coke 200 - 230 mAh/g

Carbon Low regul. Needle coke 220 - 250 mAh/g


Pitch coke 200 - 230 mAh/g
Phenolic resin 400 - 500 mAh/g
Non regul. Polymer 400 mAh/g
Anode Material-
• Li4Ti5O12 (LTO), nano-particles
• Was usually synthesized by solid state
reaction using Li2CO3 and TiO2.
• Very long life cycles (more than 10,000).
ATL- Polymer LIB

Capacity : From 10 mAh to 10 Ah


Size : From 10x20 mm to 70x200 mm
50V/200Ah
Battery Cable (50 Sq. mm, Flat)

BATTERY
TRAY

HEATING PAD
Mini Electric Car
Electric Truck
• Mail delivery car
EVs
• Buses
– Power requirement
• 390V/360Ah
– ATL solution
• Module 3.2V/180Ah
• Pack: 122S2P

• Water spraying vehicles


– Power requirement
• 380V/400Ah
– ATL solution
• Module: 3.2V/200Ah
• Pack: 120S2P

• Garbage compressed vehicles


– Power requirement
• 336V/200Ah
– ATL solution
• Module: 3.2V/200Ah
• Pack: 104S1P
Battery & Modulus
Electrical core Modules
Dimension:5.9*162*255mm Dimension:71*170*285mm
Energy: 3.2V/20Ah Energy: 3.2V/200Ah
10ea cell in parallel
Purely battery-powered
electric vehicles, BEV

Supercapacitor
Supercapacitors
Nissan’s capacitor for Japanese super capacitor Sizuki’s100 kW UPS
hybrid EV 2002 hybrid buses 2002
EDLC Working principles
Power

e-
e-
+ +
+- -+ e-
+- - - +
+ - + e-
+- +-+ - -+
- + e-
+
+ e- 2.8V
+
-+ -
-+ - + +- e-
+
+- + + + - e-
+ + -

+ + e-
e-
Comparison between capacitors, super
capacitors and batteries
Capacitor Supercapacitor Battery

Discharge Time 10-6 -10-3 sec 1-30 sec 0.3-3 hours


Charge Time 10-6 -10-3 sec 1-30 sec 1-5 hours
Energy Density < 0.1 1-10 20-100
( Wh/kg )
Power density > 10,000 1000-2000 50-200
( W/kg )
Efficiency About 1.0 0.90-0.95 0.70-0.85
Cycle Life Unlimited > 100,000 500-2000

 Super capacitor has the advantages of capacitors and batteries and


complements the two traditional technologies. It aims for high power and
energy density.
Supercapacitor 3 .0
b
2 .5 0 .1 A
2 .0 0 .2 A

Voltage ( V)
1 .5
0 .5 A
1 .0

0 .5
1A
2A
0 .0 4 .5 A
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
D is c h a rg e tim e (s )

3
a (2.8V/100F)
100W/Kg
200W/Kg
500W/Kg
2 1000W/Kg

Voltage (V)
1

0
0 2 4 6 8
Energy density / (Wh/Kg)
Aowei’s Ultracap Bus
Supercapacitor buses produced by
Shanghai Aowei
• Vehicle Size:37 Feet 6 Inches Length ; 8 Feet 2 Inches Width ;
11 Feet 1 Inch Height ; 41 Passengers
• Maximum Speed: 30 MPH
• Power Source: 5.9 KWH
• Ultracapacitors Electric Usage: 1.5 KWH per Mile
• Recharging Time: 5-10 Min.
• Maximum Range: 3.5 Miles with full air conditioning; 5.5 Miles
without air conditioning
• Bus Weight: 12.5 Tons
• Acceleration: 4 Feet / S
• Maximum Slope: 12 Degrees
• Voltage & Current: 600-720V, 200A
• Air Conditioning: 15 KW
• Vehicle Life: 8-12 Years
Other supercapacitor vehicles
produced by Aowei
Properties of hybrid buses produced
by Harbin Jurong Co.
• Motor power 20 ~ 30KW
• Fuel capacity 100L
• Super capacitor capacity
3KWh
• Max. power of super capacitor
120KW
• Capacitor pressure 600V
• Max. 41 seats
• Total mass 17,000kg
• Max. speed>50km/h
• Starting acceleration >1.2m/s2
• Kinetic energy saving and
recycling
• Max. slope degree >12%
• Electric air conditioner 9KW
Future Trends for
Purely battery-powered
electric vehicles

Lithium Ion Battery +


Supercapacitor
Bottleneck of LIB EV’s
commercialization
• In order to commercialize LIB EVs, 3 key
problems must be solved:
– Expensive battery, 80,000 Yuan, which
accounts for over half of the costs of the car
– Limited driving distance per charge, less than
200 kilometers and thus battery capacity
needs to be improved
– The safety of BEV battery has always been a
challenging problem for the researchers.
Potential Solution
• Safety : • Lower cost :
• Cathode materials : • LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2
LiFePO4 • LiMn2O4
• Small-sized batteries
design
• Hybrid battery system
LIB+EDLC
Hybrid System: LIB+EDLC
• Combining LIB and EDLC. EDLC has the advantages
of quick charge, no memory discharge, high recycling
times and no pollution, but the weaknesses include quick
electricity discharge and low energy density. LIB has the
advantages of high electricity capacity and long storage
time, but the charging time is long. Hybrid EDLC
combines the advantages of the two technologies.
• Replacing fuel by electricity and zero emission are the
main advantages. Hybrid EDLC EV drives long distance
per charge (reaches 300 kilometers) and has high speed
(100-120 km per hour) and high energy recycling
efficiency.
Comparison of energy and power stored
Future study for LIB+EDLC EVs
• Polymer LIB • Supercapacitor
• High efficiency • Improve energy
• Safety density
• Quick charge and • Improve voltage
discharge range
Charge storage mechanism
• Bivalent cation charging to improve capacitance

univalent cation

Mn4+

Mn3+
Mn4+ + e- ↔ Mn3+

Univalent cation charging

bivalent cation

2Mn4+ + 2e- ↔ 2Mn3+


α-MnO2
Bivalent cation charging
Charge storage mechanism
• Comparison of Na+, Ca2+ ,and Al3+ .

Na: 194 F/g


Ca: 310 F/g
Al: 40 F/g

CVs of MnO2 at 2 mV/s


Asymmetric supercapacitor
Electrolyte: 0.1 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2

△EAC △EMnO2 Negative CAC: 80 F/g


Positive CMnO2: 310 F/g

Mass ratio : 1:4

Coin cell:
Current collector

The schematic working voltage of asymmetric capacitor


Asymmetric supercapacitor
Electrochemical performance of capacitor

CVs of MnO2/AC asymmetric supercapacitor at 2 mV/s


Asymmetric supercapacitor
Electrochemical performance of capacitor

I = 0.5 A/g

C=It/E
C = 45 F/g

Energy density : 25
Wh/Kg

Charge-discharge curves of asymmetric capacitor


electrolyte : 0.1 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2
Thank you so much for your
attention!