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Southeast Asia, South Asia, Austral and Pacific Realm, and the Middle East

(Lectures 9-12)
April 27, 2014

FINAL EXAM:

Tuesday May 6 4:00 6:00 p.m. ICC Building

Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia Map


Myanmar (Burma) Thailand Laos Vietnam Cambodia Philippines Malaysia Indonesia Singapore Brunei East Timor

Geography
Mainland
Melting from Himalayan Mountains creates rivers that flow south (Chao Phraya, Irrawaddy, Mekong, Red) River basins surplus longstanding kingships

Maritime
Earthquakes because of tectonic plate collisions Fragmentation of societies

Thailand (Example from Mainland SEA)


Never foreign occupied King Bumibol respected but getting older Yellow Shirts (Pro monarchy, middle class, military, minority) Red Shirts (rural Northern Thai majority, poor, rally around Thaksin Shinawatra) Yingluck Shinawatra won 2011 prime minister elections; but the yellow shirts provided resistance

Indonesia and Philippines (Examples from Maritime SEA)


Indonesia
Over 17,500 islands Unification process initiated by Dutch East India company Sukarno

Philippines
Luzon Catholicism Mindanao Islam Conflict unresolved

INDONESIA Borneo Celebes Java

Sumatra

Outside Powers in SEA


History of outside influence (Japan, Vietnam War, China) Senkaku Islands Spratly and Parcel Islands

South Asia

Geography and Effects


Monsoons Tectonic Plate collision India slammed into Asia with a continent-continent collision Durand Line mapped by a British secretary, and currently represents the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, but it is unclear and not recognized Khyber Pass Gap within the Hindu Kush mountain range that allows for communication between Pakistan and Afghanistan

Afghanistan and Outside Control


Pashtuns = dominant ethnic group in Afghanistan living on eastern border, divided by physical conditions Great Britain (1841, 1880, 1919) Soviet Union (1979 to 1989) Mujahedeen opposition
Taliban was a student subgroup of the Mujahedeen

USA (9-11 to present)

Pakistan
Eastern center of economy and population Western area is difficult to control and home to Taliban Pakistan as a way to pull U.S. troops out of Afghanistan

India
British Raj (1858 -1947) 1858 British government takes control of region from British East India Company 1947 country is partitioned and huge population exchange Deep religious animosities
1984 Indira Gandhi assassination 1942 Hindus destroy Mughal Mosque

Kashmir
1947: Hindu provincial leader but Muslim majority Currently occupied by forces from India, Pakistan and China Local Muslim population is demanding a vote to determine who the region belongs to

Austral and Pacific Realm

Agriculture and Movement in the Pacific


Independent development of agriculture based on yam and taro on the Island of Papua Austronesians and movement across the Pacific The sweet potato (Kumara) story

Mau Piailug

Easter Island
One of the most remote islands in the world Within Polynesia island group Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen arrived in 1722 Famous for giant heads

New Zealand
Indigenous Maori people Slash and burn agriculture Crosby argument impact of Europeans

Middle East

Inequalities in Water and Oil


Water
Anatolian Plateau and Zagros Mountains are highland sources of water Tigris and Euphrates Ataturk Dam

Oil and Gas


Reasons for abundance in Gulf area Saudi Arabia and Iran

Side note: Members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)


Algeria Angola Ecuador Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela

Saudi Arabia
Monarchy started with King Ibn Saud and alliance with Sunni-Wahhabis (1932) Arab Sunni Status quo Pro-U.S.

Iran
1979 Revolution: Shah Pahlavi Ayatollah Khomeini (first Supreme Leader) Islamic Republic Persian Shia Revolutionary Anti-U.S.

Clashes between Saudi Arabia and Iran


In Syria
Sunni majority arms provided by Saudi Arabia Bashar al-Assad (Alawite) (~Shia minority government) arms provided by Iran

In Iraq
Sunni population in western Iraq is supported by Saudi Arabia Iranian support for Shia government

Further Review
Map Quiz Game Show in Sellinger on April 28th, 6-8pm Additional review sessions (2:00pm- 3:00pm)
Monday, April 28th, ICC 115 Lectures 6-8 Tuesday, April 29th, ICC 116 Lectures 3-5 Wednesday, April 30th, ICC 116 Lectures 1-2 and 13-14

Sporcle quizzes for capitals An almost complete map of selected rivers, mountains, cities, and lakes:
https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msid=205309172433222736 897.000485f98f366feb217c5&msa=0&dg=feature

Email kmw227@georgetown.edu with further questions