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Information system Basics

Data, information, knowledge

Making sense of information systems requires a clear concept of what information is remember that information systems are concerned with providing information to support people taking actions

Data, information, knowledge

Data data as being one of more symbols that are used to represent something. Another view is to think of data as being facts about the world keep in mind that there are a huge amount of facts about the world, only some of which are significant or of interest to people.

Information as being processed, or valueadded data Another view is to see information as data interpreted in some meaningful context. This implies one or more people having an interest in the data and doing some form of interpretation

The process by which data is converted into meaningful information can lead to larger structures of related information. Knowledge can also be considered as being an understanding of what the information means, or implies

An Information System (IS) is the system of persons, data records and activities that process the data and information in a given organization, including manual processes or automated processes

Management Information Systems

A system is a combination or arrangement of parts to form an integrated

whole. A system includes an orderly arrangement according to some common principles or rules. A system is a plan or method of doing something.

Management information systems are those systems that allow managers to make decisions for the successful operation of businesses. Management information systems consist of computer resources, people, and procedures used in the modern business enterprise.

Management Information Systems

A management support system that produces pre specified reports, displays and responses on a periodic, exception, demand or push reporting basis is called MIS.


(Role of information system in todays competitive business environment)

Most organizations need information system to survive and prosper.

Information system help companies

extend their reach to faraway locations, offer new products and services,

reshape jobs and work flows and

change the way they conduct the business. Information system is essential to deal with the changes in the competitive business environment.

Competitive Business Environment

The four powerful worldwide changes have altered the business environment
1. The emergence and strengthening of the global economy.

A growing percentage of the American economy and other advanced industrial economies in Europe and Asia -depends on imports and exports.
Companies are distributing core business functions in product design, manufacturing, finance, and customer support to locations in other countries where work can be performed more cost effectively.(Business process outsourcing).

The success of firms today and in future depends on their ability to operate globally.
Information system provide communication and analytic power that firms need for conducting the business on a global scale.

2. Transformation of industrial economies and societies into knowledge and information based services economies.
The United States , Japan , Germany and other major industrial powers are being transformed from industrial economies to knowledge and information based economies. Today, most people no longer work on farms or in factories (blue collar workers) but are found in sales, education, healthcare, banks, insurance firms, IT firms.(white collar workers-employed in offices)

In a knowledge and information based economy information systems and technology take on great importance.
Knowledge and information are becoming the foundation for many new services and products.

3. The transformation of the business enterprise.

There has been transformation in the possibilities for organizing and managing the business enterprise.
Traditional business firm was - and still is- a hierarchical , centralized , structured arrangement of specialists that typically relied on a fixed set of standard operating procedure to deliver a mass- produced product (or service). The new style of business firm is flattened (less hierarchical ), decentralized , flexible arrangement of generalists who rely on nearly instant information to deliver mass-customized products and services uniquely suited to specific markets or customers. The modern management relies on knowledge, learning and decision making of individual employees to ensure proper operation of the firm. Information technology makes this style of management possible.

4. The emergence of the digital firm .

A digital firm is one where nearly all of the organization's significant business relationships with customers, suppliers, and employees are digitally enabled and mediated.
Core business processes are accomplished through digital networks spanning the entire organizations or multiple organizations. For managers of digital firm, information technology is the core of the business and a primary management tool.

The changes in the business environment pose a number of new challenges to the business firms and their management. (Customer can shop in a worldwide market) Organizations are trying to become more competitive and efficient by transforming themselves into digital firms where nearly all core business processes and relationships with customers, suppliers and employees are digitally enabled

Contemporary Approach To Information System

Study of information system is a multidisciplinary field. No single theory or perspective dominates. The contemporary approach to information systems deals with issues and insights contributed from technical and behavioral disciplines.

Contemporary Approach To Information System

In general, the field can be divided into technical and behavioral approaches. Information systems are sociotechnical systems. Though they are composed of machines, devices, and hard physical technology they require substantial social, organisational and intellectual investments to make the work properly.

Technical approach Computer science

Operations research

Management science


Political Science

Psycho logy

Behavioral approach

Contemporary approach to information systems

Technical Approach
The disciplines that contribute to the technical approach are computer science, management science and operations research. Computer science deals with establishing theories, computability, methods of computation and methods of efficient data storage and access.

Technical Approach
Management science emphasizes the development of models for decision making and management practices. Operations research focuses on mathematical techniques for optimizing selected parameters of organizations such as transportation, inventory control, and transaction costs

Behavioral Approach
An important part of the information systems field is concerned with behavioral issues that arise in the development and long term maintenance of information systems. Issues such as strategic business integration, design, implementation, utilization and management cannot be explored usefully with the models in technical approach.

Behavioral Approach
Behavioral disciplines contribute important concepts and methods. Sociologists study information system focusing how groups and organizations shape the development of the system and also how systems affect individuals, groups and organizations

Sociotechnical Systems
MIS combines the theoretical work of computer science, management science, and operations research with a practical orientation toward developing system solutions

to real-world problems and managing information

technology resources. It also pays attention to behavioral issues surrounding the development , use, and impact of information systems raised by sociology, economics, and psychology.

Sociotechnical Systems
Both the technical and behavioral components need attention. This means that technology must be changed and designed in such a way as to fit organizational and individual needs. At times, the technology may have to be de-optimized to accomplish this fit. Organizations and individuals must also be changed through training, learning and planned organizational change. People and organizations change to take advantage of new information technology

Prerequisites of MIS
Data Base
It should be user oriented and should be capable of being used as a common data source for different users and avoid duplication of efforts in storage and retrieval of necessary data and information. Maintenance of DB requires hardware, software and computer professionals

Qualified System and Management Staff

- Two types of experts, computer and system expert who
prepares the system and other the management staff who directs the system experts about their need and requirements from a MIS

Top management Support

To use or implement Top mgt support is needed Helps subordinate to accept and perform those activities To gain support, place a cost and benefit analysis of having a MIS and other supporting facts before the top management

Active Participation of Operating management

it is a basic requirement for successful implementation Behavioural problems arising after the implementation can be handled by educating the operative management about benefits of MIS

Control and maintenance of MIS

Control the operation of the system as it was designed to operate Use of shortcuts reduce effectiveness Devise check mechanism for information system control Maintenance means alteration and modification according to the need and requirement of the user

Evaluation of MIS
should have regular evaluation to meet future needs Evaluation process should have below steps
1. Evaluate whether flexibility exists in the system to cope with any expected or unseen information requirement in future 2. Take feedback from users as well as designers about the capabilities and shortcoming in the system 3. Guiding the appropriate authority about the criterion to be taken to maintain the effectiveness of MIS