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SURVEY, SYSTEM DESIGN, ENGINEERING FOR LINE OF SIGHT LINKS AND GUIDELINES FOR SURVEY

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Transmission Concepts. Parameters for path loss calculations Survey of LOS links: Preliminary survey Map studies Detailed survey Feasibility study and report generation Guidelines for LOS Survey Transmission Planning Guidelines-Nokia for Bharti Cellular Limited

LINE OF SIGHT LINKS (LOS)


AIMS OF THE COURSE
TO ENABLE YOU TO PLAN LINE OF SIGHT POINT TO POINT MICROWAVE LINKS AND PERDICT THE PERFORMANCEOF THE LINK YOU HAVE PLANNED. STUDY OF SURVEY OF INDIA MAPS, MARKING OF SITES, ESTABLISHING OF HOP AND LOCATION OF CRITICAL POINTS. CARRY OUT SURVEY, WHICH IS MOST IMPORTANT PART OF LINK DESIGNING TO FIND OUT WHAT IS GOING TO BE THE TOWER HEIGHTS BETWEEN ANY TWO POINTS OF A HOP.

LINE OF SIGHT LINKS (LOS)


(PURPOSE AND REQUIREMENT) 1. 2. Purpose For the establishment of short / long haul LOS links Feasibility studies Submission of tenders Up gradation of existing links Requirements of LOS links Signals follow straight lines Signals are affected by free space attenuation and precipitation Use of frequencies greater than 150 MHz Use of spread spectrum and time sharing techniques
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TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
A simplified transmission system:

Transmission Media
Transmitter

Receiver

TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
Types of Media: 1. Open wire copper cable system 2. Coaxial cable systems 3. High frequency radio communication systems 4. Line of sight communication systems 5. Troposphere scatter systems 6. Satellite communication systems 7. Optical fiber cable systems

TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
Transmission Concepts: 1. Decibel (dB):- The decibel is a unit that describes a ratio. Number of decibels (dB)=10 log10 P2/P1, P1 is lower and P2 is higher power.
P1 If P1=1W P2=2W Gain dB=10 log 2/1 =3 dB Network P2 P1=1000W P2=1W Loss dB=10 log 1000/1 =30 dB

2.

dBm:- Is a power level related to 1 m W power (0 dBm=1 mW) Power (dBm) = 10 log power (mW)/1 mW If power of an amplifier is 20 W, Whats it output in dBm? Power dBm = 10 log 20x103 mW/1 mW = + 43 dBm (Plus sign indicates that the quantity is above reference of 0 dBm) If input to a network is 0.0004 W, Whats the input in dBm? Power dBm = 10 log 4 x 10-1 mW/1 mW = - 4 dBm (minus sign indicates that the quantity is below reference of 0 dBm)
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TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
3. dBW:- is extensively used in microwave applications. It is an absolute decibel unit referred to 1W. Power level (dBW) = 10 log power (W) /1 W (+30 dBm=0 dBW) dBmV:- is extensively used in video transmission. It is voltage level in decibels above and below 1 mV across 75 . Voltage level dBmV =20 log mV/1 mV 10 V = + 80 dBmV 1V = + 60 dBmV 1mV = 0 1V = -60 dBmV
dBm +66 +60 +33 +33 +30 +30 +27 +20 +10 dBW +36 +30 +13 +3 0 0 -3 -10 -20 Watts 4000 1000 20 2 1 mill watts 1000 500 100 10

4.

+7
0 -10

-23
-30 -40

5
1 0.1

TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
Signal-to-Noise Ratio: The signal-to-noise ratio expressed in decibels (dB) is the amount by which a signal level exceeds its corresponding noise.
60 Signal

30 2 0 0 Noise Frequency

S/N dB = Signal Level dBm Noise Level dBm Noise Figure: All networks active or passive contribute noise to a transmission system. The noise figure is a measure produced by a practical network compared to an ideal network i.e. one that is noise less. For a linear system noise figure is expressed by:NF (dB) = 10 log 10 Signal-to-Noise in / Signal-to Noise out
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TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
Effective Isotropic ally Radiated Power (EIRP): This is an antenna performance expressed in dBm or dBW over an isotropic antenna, which radiates energy uniformly in all directions and has a gain of 1 or 0 dB and is an imaginary antenna used as a reference. High Frequency Radio (HF): Radio frequency transmission between 3 and 30 MHz is called HF. HF propagation is characterized by ground waves and sky wave component. Ground waves follow surface of the earth and can provide useful communication up to about 650 Km. Sky waves permits reliable communication (up to 90 % path reliability) for distances of 6500 Km and even more. The ionosphere is the key to HF sky wave communication*.

TRANSMISSION CONCEPTS
Terminal, Repeater (R/R), Drop Insert, Hop and Link concept for LOS links:
Terminal-B Microwave Vs OFC Route Hop-10 65 Km

R/R-9
139 Km R/R-7 Drop Insert-4 Hop-4 R/R-3 130 Km Hop-3 R/R-1 Hop-1 Hop-2 Terminal-A R/R-2 Hop-5 Hop-7 Hop-6 R/R-5 Hop-8 Drop Insert-8 Hop-9

R/R-6

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LINE OF SIGHT LINKS (LOS)


(LINK ENGINEERING)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Selection of sites which are in line-of-sight of each other Selection of an operational frequency Development of path profiles to determine economic tower heights Path calculations so as to achieve Desired reliability for given fade margin and threshold level Making path survey to ensure correctness of steps 1-4 Equipment configuration to achieve fade margins Establishment of frequency plan Finalization of bill of quantities Placement of orders for equipments & towers Installation testing and commissioning of links

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LINE OF SIGHT LINKS (LOS)


(LINK ENGINEERING) GENERAL FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENTS (BANDS) FREQUENCY WAVE LENGTH (CM) 1. LF : 30 kHz-300 kHz 2. MF : 300 kHz-3 MHz 3. HF : 3 MHZ-30 MHz 4. VHF : 30 MHZ-300 MHz 5. UHF : 300 MHz-3GHz 6. SHF : 3 GHz-30 GHz 100mm-10mm 7. EHF : 30 GHz-300 GHZ THESE BANDS ARE FURTHER DIVIDED INTO SUBBANDS
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PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (Limitations of Line of Sight Systems)


How far we can go: The range of LOS microwave systems is limited by: Curvature of earth-Actual Technical radio characteristics (K-factor)-Modified Earth Curvature Actual Obstructions en-route in each hop RF effect of fresnel zone Path loss Transmitter power Antenna gains Transmission line looses Frequency of operation Received power Receiver threshold Signal to noise ratio Fade margin required Desired reliability of link

13

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (Design of Line of Sight Microwave Links)
Link Design: The design of microwave links, involves three sets of calculations. 1. Working out antenna heights for the link. K-factor is major dominant variable. Earth bulge. Fresnel zone radius. Actual obstructions on the route Path Loss Operating frequency. Path profile: it indicates the distance from one of the transmitter site where obstructions to the line of sight radio link may occur. The object of this calculation is to arrange tower heights along the entire route of the link, so that an obstruction in the path does not enter into the fresnel zone by a specified amount for a specified K-factor used.
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PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (Design of Line of Sight Microwave Links)
2. To determine equipment and other parameters for each hop. Transmit power. Antenna type and gain. Transmission type. Other losses. (Absorption, Diffraction, Reflection or Scattering etc.) Maximum received power. Receiver threshold. This will decide the thermal fade margin, which we will be able to get for each hop. 3. To determine the reliability of each hop and overall reliability of the link. Climatic factor. Terrain roughness. Average annual temperature Annual rain. This will decide, what is total expected outage time per annum for each hop as well as for the entire link.

15

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (Free Space Loss)

PROPAGATION:
1. Free space loss: consider a signal is traveling between transmitter at A to a receiver at B. There is for a given frequency and distance, a characteristic loss. This loss increases with both distance and frequency. It is known as free space loss.
Free space loss LdB=92.44+20 log10 F+20 log ( 10 D Where F is in GHz and D is in km's. If D is 40 Km and F is 6 GHz, then free space in dB LdB=92.44+20 log 40+20 log 6 =92.44+20*1.6021+20*0.7782 =92.44+32.042+15.564=140.046 dB
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PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (Free Space Loss)


Free space loss: Example:- Free space loss if F=2.5 GHz and D=30 Km FSL (dB) = 92.44 + 20 log 2.5 + 20 log 30 =92.44 + 20*0.398 + 20*1.478 =92.44 + 7.96 + 29.56 = 129.96 dB Now, if F=7.5 GHz (changed) and D=30 Km (unchanged) FSL (dB) = 92.44 + 20 log 7.5 + 20 log 30 =92.44 + 20*0.875 + 20*1.478 =92.44 + 17.5 + 29.56 = 139.5 dB Now, if F=2.5 GHz (unchanged) and D=40 Km (changed) FSL (dB) = 92.44 + 20 log 2.5 + 20 log 40 =92.44 + 20*0.398 + 20*1.602 =92.44 + 7.96 + 32.04 = 132.44 dB It can be seen, that, free space loss increases both with distance and frequency

17

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (Fictitious Earth Curvature)


2. Earth bulge and K-factor: The propagation of radio beam is affected by atmospheric conditions and the obstructions on the way. It can be subjected to: Diffraction Reflection Refraction Most important is refraction, which is caused by changes in the density of atmospheric layers confronted by the radio beam front. The curvature of earth and slight bending of waves as it is refracted downwards by the earths atmosphere are two factors, that, must be considered while making path profiles. The earths curvature and microwave beam refraction are combined to form fictitious earth curvature or earth bulge. EARTH CURVATURE (M) = 0.078 x d1 x d2 / K WHERE K = EFFECTIVE EARTH RADIUS/TRUE EARTH RADIUS EARTH BULGE = d1 x d2 / 12.75 x K EARTH BULGE FOR K=4/3 = d1 x d2 / 17 EARTH BULGE FOR K=2/3 = d1 x d2 / 8.5

18

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


( TOWER HEIGHT FOR DIFFERENT VALUES OF K)
ACTIVITY d1 distance from higher station d2 distance from lower station D hop distance Ea higher HASL UNIT F=6.5 GHz Km Km Km M 15 15 30 400 F=6.5 GHz 16 16 32 400 F=2.4 GHz 21 21 42 400 F=2.4 GHz 22.5 22.5 45.0 400

Eb lower HASL
Ep height of obstruction Earth bulge for K=4/3 (d1 x d2 /17) Earth bulge for K=2\3 (d1 x d2/8.5)

M
M M M

300
330 13.23 26.46

300
330 15.06 30.12

300
330 25.94 51.88

300
330 29.78 59.56

F first fresnel zone radius


0.3 F Clearance CL-1=K 4/3 + F

M
M M

19.76
5.93 32.99

20.44
6.13 35.50.

40.60
12.18 66.54

42.18
12.66 71.96

Clearance CL-2=K2/3 + 0.3 F

32.39

36.25

64.06

72.22
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PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (EARTH BULGE FOR VARIOUS K- FACTORS)

DISTANCE FROM CENTER OF PATH d

h=2d2/3K h is in feet and d is in miles h d 15

10.58

112

225

DEPARTURE FROM A LEVEL TANGENT, h

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PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS

(Fresnel Zone)
3. Fresnel zone: The radio beam energy travels in an ellipsoidal wave front, the different components of which maintains different path lengths. The distance from microwave beams center is commonly measured in fresnel zones to take into account both frequency and distance. The first fresnel zone (FFZ) is the surface of the point along which the distance to the ends of the path is exactly wave length larger than the direct end to end path. FFZ radius in meters=17.32d1*d2/fD Where d1 & d2 are in kms, f is the frequency in GHz and D is the hop distance in Kms. In order to achieve a free space propagation condition for a radio beam at least 60 % of FFZ should be cleared under the standard atmospheric condition of K=4/3.

21

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS

(Fresnel Zone)
FFZ radius in meters=17.32d1*d2/fD, 1. If f=2.5 GHz and D=30 Km, then FFZ=32.99 M 2. If f=4.5 GHz and D=30 Km, then FFZ=24.03 M 3. If f=6.5 GHz and D=30 Km, then FFZ=19.75 M 4. If f=7.5 GHz and D=30 Km, then FFZ=17.32 M 5. If f=18.5 GHz and D=30 Km, then FFZ=11.43 M FFZ radius decreases with increase in frequency. 1. If f=2.5 GHz and D=30 Km, then FFZ=32.99 M 2. If f=2.5 GHz and D=34 Km, then FFZ=35.33 M 3. If f=2.5 GHz and D=36 Km, then FFZ=36.46 M 4. If f=2.5 GHz and D=40 Km, then FFZ=38.64 M 5. If f=2.5 GHz and D=50 Km, then FFZ=43.73 M FFZ radius increases with increase in distance.
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PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (KNIFE-EDGE LOSS CALCULATIONS)


FRESNEL ZONE NUMBERS +10 OBSTRUCTION ZONE INTERFERENCE ZONE R=1.0 1 2 3 4 5 6

0 R=0

-10 dB -20

R= REFLECTION COEFFICIENT -30

-40 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

CLEARANCE / FIRST FRESNEL ZONE

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2.5

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (FIRST FRESNEL ZONE AND EARTH BULGE)

f
BUILDING

EARTH BULGE NATURAL EARTH FEATURES

d1

d2

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PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (PROPAGATION CONDITIONS)


PERFECT IDEAL AVERAGE DIFFICULT BAD

STANDARD ATMOSPHERE

NO SURFACE LAYER OR FOG

SUBSTANDARD, LIGHT FOG

SURFACE LAYERS, GROUND FOG

FOG, MOISTURE OVER WATER

TEMPERATE ZONE, NO FOG, NO DUCTING, GOOD ATMOSPHERE, MIX DAY & NIGHT K=1.33

DRY, MOUNTAINOUS, NO FOG.

FLAT, TEMPERATE, SOME FOG

COASTAL

COASTAL, WATER, TROPICAL

K=1.00-1.33

K=0.66-1.00

K=0.66-0.50

K=0.50-0.40

25

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(REFLECTION POINT)
The reflection point area lies between a k-factor of grazing (k=1) and a k-factor of infinity. From the profiles, possible reflection points can be obtained. The object is to adjust tower heights, such that, the reflection point is adjusted to fall on land area, where the reflected energy is broken up and scattered (forest/wooded area). Water bodies and other smooth surfaces cause reflection, which is undesirable. Figure will assist in adjusting the reflection point. It uses a ratio of tower heights h1/h2, where shorter tower is always h1 and distance expressed is always from h1. By adjusting the ratio h1/h2 the reflection point can be moved. For a highly reflective path, we may go in for space diversity.

26

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(REFLECTION POINT)

Distance to Reflection Point/Total Distance

0.5 0.4

d1 / D

0.3 0.2 0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Ratio of Tower Heights h1 / h2

1 1.0 . 0

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PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (DIVERSITY OPERATION)


Diversity Operations is based on the fact, that, radio signals received over different paths will have different levels i.e. if one is faded, other may not. The separation may be in: Frequency Space (Including angle of arrival and polarization) Polarization Diversity (Fade may not be same on both polarizations) Angle Diversity ( Split energy at feed horn and signals arrive on separate paths) Most common are Frequency (separated by 2-3 %) and Space (separated by 100200 , so that the reflected wave travels wave length further than the normal path). The space diversity improvement can be calculated by Vagrant's formula applied to fading margins. The improvement factor on fading margin is: Le=10 log (1.2 x10-3 x S2 x V2 x fm/d), where: S= Separation between the antennas V= Power ratio between the two receivers f = Frequency in GHz m= Selective margin (Number) d= Hop distance in Kms Improvement is limited to 200. Greater improvement can be obtained by combining frequency and space diversity.

28

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS


(RECEIVER SENSITIVITY, FADE MARGIN AND SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO)
Receiver Sensitivity: Sensitivity or Threshold Power of receiver is the level of signal which would produce a 30 dB signal to noise ratio out of the base band of an analogue receiver, or a bit error ratio (BER)=10-4 out of the base band of a digital receiver. Typically it is -70 to -90 dB. Fading: Received Signal vary with time due to multipath fading and rain etc. Refractive index of atmosphere varies with Temp. humidity and pressure which in turn cause the electromagnetic waves to change direction. Another cause for Multipath fading is ground reflection. So a fade margin is built in Link Designing. Fade Margin: The fade margin is the power level, that, the unfaded received signal can fall to until it reaches the receiver threshold. This margin will vary depending on geographic and climatic conditions of different geographic areas and desired reliability of the system. Typically it is 20-40 dB. Fade Margin dB=Prx-Pthresh Signal to Noise Ratio: Its the minimum power difference between the wanted received signal and received noise. Signal/Noise Ratio (dB)=10 log10 (Signal Power/Noise Power) Typically it is > 50 dB, logically it should be more than the Fade Margin, so that it is always below the threshold level.

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PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (System and Link Reliability)


Reliability of the link: Outage time for each hop and for the complete link is to be worked out, which in turn will give the over all reliability of the link in terms of percentage. Rayleigh fading chart is given below. Single hop reliability (%) Fade Margin 99.9 28 dB 99.99 38 dB 99.999 48 dB CCIR defines its availability objective for radio relay systems over a hypothetical reference circuit as 99.7 %. Resulting unavailability 0.3 % is of three components. Outage due to power failure Outage due to equipment failure Outage due to propagation It is reasonable to allot 50 % of the outage time to power and equipment failures and 50 % for propagation. Considering propagation alone, system should have an availability (reliability) of 99.85 % apportioned across the 2500 Km route. This provide guide to establish a per hop propagation reliability for a particular system. Planner rather first set the limit for the reliability and for wide band links it is better than 99.99 %.

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PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (LOS LINK GAINS AND LOSSES SIMPLIFIED)

ANTENNA GAIN EIRP= + 60.5 dBm

Misc. Loss=2dB LINE LOSS EACH=1.5 dB

27dBm LINE LOSSES

ANTENNA GAIN EACH END=35 dB

FREE SPACE LOSS=139.2 dB dB 11 GHz

LINE LOSSES RECEIVER ANTENNA GAIN INPUT -47.2 dBm -68dBm

20 Km

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PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (LOS LINK GAINS AND LOSSES SIMPLIFIED)
TRANSMIT Transmit Power Antenna Gain Feeder Loss EIRP PATH LOSS Path Length Frequency Free Space Loss RECEIVE Antenna Gain Feeder Loss Net Gain 35 1.5 33.5 20 11 139.2 27 35 1.5 60.5 dBm dBi dB dBm Km GHz dB dBi dB dB

MISC.
RECEIVE POWER

Combiner Loss

2
-47.2

dB
dBm
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PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (DETAILED PATH LOSS CALCULATION SHEET)
Site from: to: Link name: Equipment type: Frequency: Transmit power: Nominal received power: Receiver threshold: Desired fade margin: Desired reliability: Hot standby / frequency diversity and / or space diversity: Azimuth A B: Azimuth B A: Path length: Path length:
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PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (DETAILED PATH LOSS CALCULATION SHEET)
SL. NO. DESCRIPTION ADD OR SUBTRACT UNIT COMMENTS

1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

FREE SPACE LOSS


CONNECTOR LOSSES (SUM) CIRCULATOR LOSSES (SUM) POWER SPLIT LOSSES (IF ANY) DIRECTIONAL COUPLER LOSSES (SUM) TRANSMISSION LINE LOSSES (SUM) OTHER LOSSES (SUM) ANY OTHER LOSSES (RADOM) SUM OF LOSSES

MINUS
MINUS MINUS MINUS MINUS MINUS MINUS MINUS

dB
dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB SUM OF TRANS. AND RECEIVE SUM OF TRANS. AND RECEIVE RECT. TO CIRCULAR WAVE GUIDE SUM OF TRANS. AND RECEIVE SUM OF TRANS. AND RECEIVE

34

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (DETAILED PATH LOSS CALCULATION SHEET)
SL. NO. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 DESCRIPTION ADD OR SUBTRACT PLUS PLUS PLUS OR MINUS PLUS PLUS OR MINUS UNIT COMMENTS

TRANSMIT POWER TRANS ANTENNA GAIN TRANSMIT REFLECTOR GAIN OR LOSS RECEIVE ANTENNA GAIN RECEIVE REFLECTOR GAIN OR LOSS SUM OF GAINS INPUT LEVEL TO RECEIVER (9-15) RECEIVER THRESHOLD FADE MARGIN DIVERSITY IMPROVEMENT RELIABILITY OF THE HOP OUTAGE BOTH WAYS - SECONDS

dbm dB dB dB dB dB dbm dbm dB NO % SECONDS

35

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(PRELIMINARY SURVEY)

Topography of an area is to be extensively studied with the help of detailed survey maps. Initial study of the given link Aerial/quick survey of terrain/map study Selection of media of communication LOS/OFC/Satellite etc Formulation of best route & an alternate route Selection of tentative sites & repeaters Most techno economical media and route to be finalized
36

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(PRELIMINARY SURVEY)

1.

Points to ponder for site selection Near approach roads for accessibility Near power supply lines to avoid solar power Small hillocks gives height advantage & reduced tower heights Avoid lakes big water reservoirs Dense forests fine Study of other routes around the area
37

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(MAP STUDIES)
It will be found, that, a through map study will narrow down the problem considerably particularly in case of multi-repeater systems with a wide range of choices. By checking a number of possible routes from map data alone, it will be usually possible to reduce the choice down to a few alternatives 1. Survey maps are available for every country & now digitized in most of the countries 2. Survey of India Topographical maps in different scales of (1:250,000, 1:50,000 and 1:25,000) provides most excusive information 3. Indias co-ordinates are Longitude 68 to 96 degrees E Latitude 8 to 36 degrees N 4. For preliminary survey i:2,50,000 scale or larger scales to be studied where as for detailed survey 1:50,000 or 1:25,000 scales are required 5. Tentative sites to be marked on the maps 6. Each hop needs detailed study for working out exact tower heights

38

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(MAP STUDIES-INDEX OF MAPS)
36

43
32

52 53 54 55

61 62 63 64 71 72 73 77 82 78 83 79 84

39
28

44 45 46

40
24

41
Latitude N 20 16

47
48
12

56
57 58

65
66

74

85
86 87

49
8 68 72

76 80 Longitude E of Greenwich

84

88

92

96

39

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(MAP STUDIES)
Survey of India have divided India in to blocks and maps numbered. Each 1:250,000 sheet contains sixteen 1:50,000 sheets, which are numbered from 1-16 i.e. say number 84 is divided into 16 segments 84 A to 84 P as shown opposite. Each such map is in the scale of 1: 250,000.

A
1:2,50,000 Scale

B
C D

F
G H

J
K L

N
O P
40

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(MAP STUDIES)
Each segment is further divided in to 16 sections say 84 A/1 to 84 A/16, which are 1:50,000 scale. For 1:25,000 scale maps, each map is further divided into 4 viz 84 A/2 will have 84A/2/NW, 84A/2/NE, 84A/2/SW and 84A/2/SE. Most likely sites will be located on different maps, which may have to be joined to study individual hops

1
1:50,000 Scale
1:25,000 NW

13

NE SE

6
7 8

10
11 12

14
15 16
41

SW

3 4

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(MAP STUDIES)
PATH PROFILING 1. After tentative terminals or repeater sites are selected, draw a straight line on maps connecting two adjacent sites 2. Carefully trace from one site to another, marking all obstacles or obstructions and possible points of reflection 3. Mark the mid point, which is point of maximum earth bulge and to be marked as obstacle 4. Path profiles are plotted on rectangular graph paper or recorded for feeding in to computer 5. HASL of all obstacles between two sites marked on the map are to be taken in to account at 1-2 km interval 6. Carefully mark water bodies viz lakes, rivers, ponds etc for evaluation of reflection points. 7. Contour interval is at 5/10/20 M, bench mark heights can be located in the maps, heights of most of the hill tops is also given. 8. Study of maps will give an idea, which of the critical points have to be visited and how to approach them during actual survey.
42

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(MAP STUDIES-RELEVANT POINTS TO BE CHECKED FOR PATH PROFILING )

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Contour interval: It may be at intervals of 5,10, 20 M or more. Bench Marks and other heights: It is required to ascertain the HASL of site in question. Roads, cart tracks, foot paths: For approach to site and to look around for any obstruction on both sides in a hop. Dams, rivers, lakes and other reflecting bodies: For any reflection points in a hop. Hills, sand dunes, rocky slopes, cliffs: For any critical obstruction points (OB). Town, villages, towers, chimneys: For calculating OB points. Communication Towers, Broadcasting stations, TV stations, Airports: For checking interference from other media.

43

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


TRANSFER OF TERRAIN DATA
IN THE SOFTWARE MODULES TERRAIN PROFILE IS PREREQUISITE. THIS CONSISTS OF A TABLE OF DISTANCE AND ELEVATION BETWEEN TWO SITES OF ANY HOP. TERRAIN PROFILE IS CREATED IN THE SOFTWARE MODULE BY ANY METHOD. 1. AFTER DETAILED STUDY OF MAPS AND ROUTE SURVEY MANUAL ENTRY OF CO-ORDINATES, ALTITUDES AND DISTANCES FROM TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPS. SOFTWARE WILL CREATE A PROFILE. 2. MANUAL ENTRY OF CO-ORDINATES AFTER SITE VISITS, SOFTWARE HAVING A MAP SOURCE OF THE REGION WILL READ FROM TERRAIN DATA BASE AND CREATE A PROFILE. TERRAIN PROFILE MODIFICATIONS 1. TERRAIN PROFILES TAKEN FROM MAP SOURCES USUALLY SHOW LESS ALTITUDES AT STEEP HILL TOPS THERE BY INCREASING THE TOWER HEIGHTS. THIS TYPE OF ERROR CAN BE CORRECTED BY ACTUALLY VISITING THE HILL TOP AND CHECKING THE HEIGHT BY HIGH RESOLUTION ALTIMETER.
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SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY - LIST OF INSTRUMENTS) 1. 2. 3. Laptop with software tool and map source loaded Global positioning system (GPS map 76-s or GPS-V) Digital or analogue THEODOLITE/TELESCOPE with compass as an attachment 4. Digital altimeter 0.5 m resolution 5. High resolution binoculars (Stinger-German) 25 Km range 6. Digital Camera - Sony 7. WALKI-talkie 1.2 GHz range 8. WALKI-talkie VHF range 9. Digital or Analogue compass 10. Heliograph/Mirrors/Lamps for Line of Sight Tests
45

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY - LIST OF INSTRUMENTS) 11. Topographical Maps 1:50,000 (Best) For preliminary work out 1:2,50,000 or large scale maps are helpful. In hilly areas where contours are too close 1:25,000 maps are useful. 12. Measuring tape 5 and 50 m. 13. ROTRING scale 1:100, 125, 200, 250, 500, 750 14. Reporting Performa : To be completed before leaving 15. Magnifying glass 16. Stationary items 17. Topographical instruments 18. Ladders, Poles, flags, first aid kit, Helmets, safety belts, shoes, water, Identity cards, letter of authority. 19. Balloons with flags at 1 M interval
46

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN MIRROR TEST)
Mirrors required for mirror tests: A perfect way of cross checking LOS. 1. Two mirrors are scratched in the shape of a red cross as shown. 2. Scratched portions are joined back to back, faces are out side.
Size of the mirror should be such, that, it can be held In the hand. Mirror is held in hand and light of Sun is allowed to fall on the mirror. Sun light will be seen on the Palm and its reflection in the mirror. Now, the mirror is so adjusted, that, it is directed towards the direction of other station whose Azimuth is known and mirror is tilted such, that, parallax is Removed Between rays falling on the palm and its reflection in the Mirror. The person at other site Can see reflected signal, if LOS Is there. This test is very useful 1. For cross checking of LOS. 2. Useful in Metros having high rise buildings and map study has no relevance. 3. Between two hill tops, where detailed maps are not available and many critical obstructions are seen. 4. If LOS is there, one can see mirror up to hundreds of Kms. Reflection side of Mirror - 2 Scratched side of Mirror 1 & 2

Reflection side of Mirror - 1

47

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY GPS APPLICATIONS)
1. Measurements of exact latitude, longitude and altitude of site or for bench marking. Measurements of areas without triangulation. Oceanic and en route navigation. Precise airfield and landing aid locations. Direct routing of aircraft for fuel saving. Monitoring air craft locations in flight. Search and rescue. Tracking and recovering stolen vehicles. Offshore drilling research. Location of containers in marine terminals. Maintaining security of VIPs. Train control and collision avoidance. Hydrographic surveying. Placing and controlling satellites in orbit.
48

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS GPS MAP 76 S


GPSMAP 76 S IS A GPS AND MAPPING TOOL.. THE S STANDS FOR SENSORS BECAUSE IT INCORPORATES A GPS RECEIVER, BAROMETERIC ALTIMETER AND AN ELECTRONIC COMPASS THAT DELIVER PRECISE LOCATION, ELEVATION AND BEARING INFORMATION. THE UNIT CAN TAKE A BASE MAP WITH A PLENTY OF MEMORY (24 MB) FOR DOWNLOADING MAP SOURCE DATA, IT IS WAAS (WIDE AREAAUGUMENTATION SYSTEM) ENABLED PRODUCT. COLLECT DATA FROM THE REFERENCE STATIONS AND CREATE A GPS CORRECTION MESSAGE. THIS CORRECTION IS APPLIED TO THE WAAS- ENABLED GPS RECEIVERS.
49

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
Path design: the basic purpose in engineering a radio relay path in microwave range is to achieve a path which will meet the requirements for long term medium noise and also ensure, that, outages due to fading, below the predetermined value is minimized. Regardless of system size, for proper system operation, it is essential for each hop to have adequate clearances under all atmospheric conditions. To determine clearances, the actual topography of the path and also the height location of obstacles along the path, such as multistoried buildings, chimneys, trees, water bodies are taken into account. In a relatively flat country a practical rule of thumb is, that, repeater spacing are generally limited to 25-40 Km with tower heights up to 100 M. Actually, it depends on the topography of terrain. Can any one imagine, that, LOS communication to two terminals which are at a distance of 28 Km is possible with six hops having 3 active and 3 passive repeaters*.
50

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
Determining precise co-ordinates, ground elevation (HASL), pinpointing potential obstacles on the point-to-point microwave path is a critical part of the design process. Path survey consists of five basic steps. 1. Step one-site documentation: Site location maps to be studied thoroughly to obtain best access route to the site On the way to site make note of the distances and time taken from a well known reference point-mettle road- un-mettle roadcart road-foot path right up to the site. Description of accessibility to site is very important for the visit by future teams. Re-location of site if required If it is existing site detailed information may have to be collected from the concerned agency viz existing tower, equipment room, power plant lay outs and their details etc All collected data to be re-confirmed
51

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
2. Step two-site location verification: if site is new it is to verified from maps, THEODOLITE, electronic distance/height meter, known bench mark position. After proper verification of the site following data is to be collected. Site co-ordinates: six digit co-ordinates to be marked. Cross checked by GPS, maps. HASL: cross checked from near by bench mark, barometric altimeter of 0.5 m resolution, maps and GPS. Marking of tower center from minimum three reference points with bearing angle from north and distance- near by hill top, chimneys, buildings, transmission tower or any permanent structure. This is again important for the visit by future teams. Marking of preferably true north/otherwise magnetic north*. Marking of azimuth (Map) of each antenna and checking of near end obstructions: use THEODOLITE, prismatic compass and distance height meter. Tower height, antenna heights and AZIMUTHAL angles.

52

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
Types and sizes of antennas. Type and length of transmission lines. Transmitter output power. Receiver input level, receiver threshold level and requirement of fade margin. Check on space diversity requirements. Number of main and stand by transmitters and receivers. Laptop/small computer can be very handy at site. Operating frequencies for future equipments. Take photographs of site, which may be useful for identification in future. Take note of the type of soil and soil samples can be taken for laboratory testing. This will be useful for economical design of the tower.

53

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
If site is existing, complete lay-out of site is to be made. Existing tower: 1. Type and height of towers, guyed, mast. Take photos. 2. Type, heights, AZIMUTHAL angles of each antenna and availability of space for the type and at proposed height for new antennas. 3. Availability of space for proposed transmission lines on the run way and at wave guide entry point to equipment room. 4. If there is some problem for items at Para 2 & 3, proposal to be submitted in report. Existing equipment, power plant rooms: 1. Type of existing equipments, their operating frequencies & power etc. Lay out to be drawn. 2. Type of power plant, capacity, existing loads and spare capacity also in case solar power is used. 3. Take photos for various equipments.

54

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
3. Step three-identification of critical points along the path. On the maps two sites are joined by a thin straight line. Determine the height, width of all obstructions along the path and HASL at each point for all potential obstructions. Record the man made obstructions, trees, chimneys etc. all above HASL at 1-2 km Intervals, specially record center point obstruction. Allow for future growth of trees and other vegetations for minimum 10 years. Visit every likely critical point to ascertain its height and check other parameters. Determine the width of water bodies, other reflecting points falling along the route. Take mirror tests if after calculations, it is found, that, it is feasible*. Some clients insist on propagation tests, which is neither a practical nor viable approach*.
55

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
4. Step four-path profile: path profiles are drawn based on the detailed survey report. It can be manually or by computerized software. Hop wise data required is given below. Site names. Co-ordinates of each hop. HASL of each site Hop distance (If co-ordinates are fed to computer software, you get hop distance and azimuthal angles) HASL of each obstruction and its height including near-end obstructions. Clearance criteria being adopted. Say Cl=k 4/3 + 100% ffz AND OR Cl=k 2/3 + 30% FFZ Frequency band of operation. With the above parameters antenna heights in each direction of operation can be worked out and hence the tower height at each sight.

56

SURVEY OF LOS LINKS


(DETAILED SURVEY SYSTEM DESIGN)
5. Step five-detailed survey report: the report apart from antenna and tower heights already worked out will need reliability calculations for each hop and for the complete link. Determine following parameters. Transmitter power Size and gain of antennas for main and diversity operations (if applicable) Type and transmission line losses for main and diversity operations (if applicable) Other losses Receiver threshold Received power of receiver Signal to noise ratio We get Fade Margin and reliability/availability for each hop. The complete exercise can be worked out manually with the help of a calculator. But now a days different Software's are available for Path Loss Calculations, which has made the job simple for the Engineers.

57

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


CASE STUDY: Feasibility study was carried out for one of the clients for a route length of 2294 Km and report submitted in 2 months. The detailed survey was carried out by three teams in a months time. Because of the limitations of the client, we had to visit at least two to three times the number of sites for microwave repeaters than we would have visited in normal case*. Client gave repeat order for another 2000 Km after going through this report and analyzing the recommendations.
58

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


CONTENTS
CHAPTER DESCRIPTION LINE DIAGRAM SURVEY AT A GLANCE INTRODUCTION ORGANIZATION OF THE SURVEY METHODOLOGY USED IN SURVEY ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS RESULTS AND PRESENTATION RECOMMENDATIONS SITE DETAILS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

59

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


CONTENTS
CHAPTER 8. 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 9. 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 10. DESCRIPTION HOP DETAILS PATH PROFILES REFLECTION POINT PROFILES TOWER HEIGHT CALCULATION SHEET RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET LINK DETAILS GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TOWERS AND AERIALS REFLECTION POINTS INTERFERENCE CALCULATIONS FREQUENCY PLAN OUTAGE TABLE SYNOPTIC OF THE LINK TECHNO ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION
60

FEASIBILITY STUDIES (Line Diagram)


LONG= LAT = LONG= LAT = LONG= LAT = LONG= LAT = GIVE HOP DISTANCES AS PER DATA RESULTS Km

Km

Km

C
79A/2

A
73M/6

73M/14

79A/6

D
GIVE BEARING ANGLES A-B & B-A AS PER ACTUAL DATA RESULTS

+
73M/7 73M/11 73M/15 79A/11

+
79A/15

NOT TO SCALE

TYPICAL EXAMPLE
61

FEASIBILITY STUDIES
(SURVEY AT A GLANCE)
FOLLOWING INFORMATION CAN BE GIVEN IN A TABULAR FORM: SL.NO. 1. STATION NAME BELMURI OWNER CLIENT NAME HASL (M) 11 LONGITUDE 88 08 53 E LATITUDE 22 56 12 N ANTENNA HEIGHT (M) TOWARDS 80.2 AND 70.2 HOWRAH 83.4 AND 73.4 BURDWAN AZIMUTH (DEGREES) 159.32 AND 323.24 HOP DISTANCE (Km) 43.75 AND 46.61 TOWER HEIGHT (M) 90 MAP NOS 79B/1 REMARKS IF ANY, SAY AIR STRIP NEAR BY

62

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


1. Introduction: Brief is given about the clients floating of an enquiry, submission of the bid by the consultant and subsequent letter of award to carry out feasibility study etc. Details of officers involved in technical discussions and feasibility survey works. From clients side a) Corporate Office b) Regional Office c) Field coordinators d) Survey coordinators From Consultants side Feasibility study was carried out for 2294 Km route length in the states of Orissa, West Bengal and Assam. Details of links are given say, A-B=169 Km B-C=176 Km and so on

63

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


Clients Requirements: Technical specifications and B.O.Q given by the client specified, that, wide band communication systems needs to be established between various control centers/substations of eastern region. Media of communication to be through Microwave System, wherever feasible. End terminals to be located at the stations given in the BOQ and Repeaters to be located in any of the manned 33/66/132/220 KV sub-stations on the route. In case the Microwave either becomes non-feasible or becomes much costlier due to large number of repeaters, fiber optics is to be considered. Optical Fiber Cable to run over 400/220 KV transmission lines between end terminals. Repeater if any has to be considered in any of the manned 33/66/132/220 KV sub-stations to the extent possible, failing which repeaters have to be located on the 400/220 KV transmission lines with Solar Power.

64

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


Constraints: Since repeater (R/R) sites became non-negotiable, it became necessary to carry out the field survey first by making a visit to terminal stations and proposed R/Rs on any 33/66/132/220 KV sub-stations. In the process no of R/R sites to be visited became much more (2-3 times), than, if R/Rs could be negotiable. 2. Organization of the Survey: The survey for this feasibility study was carried out for one month by three different teams simultaneously to meet time schedule of the client. Each site (terminals and proposed R/Rs) was visited and map study carried out on the Survey of India Maps of scale 1:50,000. Six digit coordinates were marked by Global Positioning System (GPS) and cross checked on maps. Survey related data was collected for the sites and capacity of system data collected from representatives of the client. After elimination of non-feasible/extra sites, the selected sites were marked on the site plans and brought forward in the feasibility report.

65

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


The survey of sites was carried out bearing in mind, that, existing towers shall be shared wherever available and feasible for the best usage of available national resources. However, if permission to share the tower is not agreed upon, nearest sites may be chosen for the erection of tower as per minimum height given in the report. An integrated communication system of 8 Mbps in the frequency band of 2.3 2.5 GHz was considered for Microwave Systems to cater for Voice and Data Communication for the entire network, whereas 34 Mbps OPGW/ADSS cable was considered, where Microwave was either non-feasible or it becomes costly due to more repeaters were coming in the section or tower height was more than 100 M.

66

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


3. METHODOLOGY USED IN SURVEY: Each team used following instruments. Global Positioning System (GPS) Theodolite Prismatic Compass Altimeters Binoculars Camera Topographical Instruments Rodometer Set of maps 1:2,50,000 and 1:50,000 scale ROTRING scale and necessary stationary items Apart from clients representative, It was necessary to take a local person to act as a guide to show us different sites.
67

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


Following information was collected and points kept in mind during survey. Determination of sites Six digit coordinates by GPS and cross checking on maps HASL i.e. Altitude was checked by Altimeter, GPS and cross checked on maps Exact location of plot, lay out of the station, orientation and collection of site data Accessibility to site, by taking references from known points Location, altitude and height of obstacles in each hop. Antenna heights and in turn Tower heights. Towers were kept as low as possible but up to a limit of 100 M. For this clearance criteria given by the client was kept in mind 0.3 FFZ for K=2/3 1.0 FFZ for K=4/3, whichever was more stringent (Up to 44 Km) Space Diversity was proposed on some of the hops either due to reflection point falling on surface of water or length of hop (not meeting desired reliability) Space diversity antenna's proposed at a spacing of 150 , which comes to 20 M.

68

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


4. ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Clients requirement of varied telecommunication facilities amongst various dedicated service stations located on existing sites operating in 2.3 to 2.5 GHz band. The scheme falls under the category of light capacity routes, still its engineering and design demands careful consideration to ensure high quality, stability and reliability of the entire route. Objective is to achieve a path, which will meet requirements for long term noise and ensure, that, outage due to fading is below predetermined values. Radio Engineer has to work with many different factors, some of which interact with each other, but he has to come up with solutions which are feasible both technically and economically. It is essential for each hop to have adequate clearance under all atmospheric conditions. For this, the actual topography of the path and also obstacles along the path such as multistoried buildings, chimneys, trees, water bodies and other tall structures will have to be taken into account. In relatively flat country R/R spacing is 25-30 Km and Tower height up to 100 M, economy plays a major role for this height limitation. (In HBJ gas pipe line project this limit was crossed with the result weight of 100 M tower was around 85 MT, where as that of 127 M tower was around 185 MT, increasing enormously cost of foundation and tower material)

69

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


Map engineering and site selection: Usually topography of an area is extensively studied before going to the field. In this case, since R/R sites were non-negotiable, there was no choice but to visit the sites first and mark them on the maps. All the sites visited were marked on the maps, traveling along each path, collecting information about the type, size, location and characteristics of obstacles, such as, buildings, trees, chimneys, water bodies, low lying areas, river beds, lakes, hills and anticipated critical points. Preliminary profiles were made. Map engineering was carried out on Survey of India maps 1:50,000 scale with contour intervals at 10-20 M. Work out all the alternatives in the night, eliminate non-feasible and extra sites, take decisions before proceeding further. Terminals were fixed by the client, repeaters were to be selected from a number sub-station choices. Engineer had to exercise a great deal in selection of repeater sites for the proposed study to meet the path design requirements with regard to:
70

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


Clearance criteria: Following criteria was adopted for this scheme. 1.0 F at K=4/3 ( more stringent up to 44 Km) 0.3 F at K=2/3 (more stringent beyond 44 Km) Free Space Loss=92.44 + 20 log10 F + 20 log10 D where F is in GHz and D is in Km. Space Diversity: Vertical antenna space diversity was proposed in few links, wherever it was found necessary for improving the link reliability. Clearance criteria adopted for space diversity antenna was K4/3+0.6F. Reflection point: Due care was taken to avoid reflection, but in one case link was across a dam, in which case space diversity was proposed. This was the only case where, space diversity was proposed due to reflection and not because hop was long.

71

PARAMETERS FOR PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS (TOWER HEIGHT CALCULATIONS)


COMPARISON FOR CLEARANCE CRITERIA BETWEEN (K4/3+1.0F) AND (K2/3+0.3F) WHICHEVER IS CRITICAL ACTIVITY d1 distance from higher station d2 distance from lower station D hop distance Ea higher HASL Eb lower HASL Ep height of obstruction UNIT Km Km Km M M M F=6.5 GHz 15 15 30 400 300 330 F=6.5 GHz 16 16 32 400 300 330 F=2.4 GHz 21 21 42 400 300 330 F=2.4 GHz 22.5 22.5 45.0 400 300 330

Earth bulge for K=4/3 (d1 x d2 /17)


Earth bulge for K=2\3 (d1 x d2/8.5) F first fresnel zone radius 0.3 F Clearance CL-1=K 4/3 + F Clearance CL-2=K2/3 + 0.3 F Slope=(Ea-Eb) d1/D OH (over head clearance) Tc=(Ep-Ea)+ clearance Max + Slope + OH

M
M M M M M M M M

13.23
26.46 19.76 5.93 32.99 32.47 50.0 15 27.99

15.06
30.12 20.44 6.13 35.50. 36.25 50.0 15 31.25

25.94
51.88 40.60 12.18 66.54 64.06 50.0 15 61.54

29.78
59.56 42.18 12.66 71.96 72.22 50.0 15 67.22

72

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


5. RESULTS AND PRESENTATION: Results of survey were displayed in three parts. I) Site Details: a) A data sheet giving:Geographic coordinates and altitude Station to be served Reference of map on which station is located Access sketch with reference to surrounding cities and villages Details if site is existing Information about energy Information about vegetation and soil Information about towers, aerials, azimuth and more precisely type of tower and its height Diameter and height of antenna
73

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


b) Orient Sheet Giving: A part of the map with indication on site location and direction to last, next and other sites (if any) Orientation of the site with reference to some permanent marking i.e. hill tops, buildings, chimneys, transmission lines or any permanent structure, with approximate distances and azimuthal angle from north. Since all the sites were existing, orientation was not given in the report. c) Site lay out:Site lay-out at different scales, giving by drawing all the information about the site as found from either, site lay out or information collected from clients representatives. Proposed location of Tower with respect to control Room was given.

74

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


II) Hop Details: Path profiles:- Path profiles have been drawn on flat earth by computer for clearance criteria already specified. In case of space diversity links lower antenna height is mentioned. Clearance criteria adopted for space diversity antenna was 4/3+0.6 F. Reflection point profiles:- Due care was taken to ensure, that, the reflection points do not fall on water surface/reflecting surfaces by adjusting antenna heights by using PATH LOSS software program Version 3.0. Tower height calculation sheet:- The desired information already collected from the field during survey was fed to the computer software to arrive at the tower heights for each hop. Reliability calculation sheet:- Going through the clients specifications, equipment is selected which are fed to the computer along with antenna gains and transmission line losses figures. Reliability figures were checked and in case, desired results were not achieved, changes were made to meet the targets.
75

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


I) II) III) IV) V) VI) VII) III) Link Details: Geographical information Towers and aerials Reflection points Interference calculations Frequency plan Outage table Synoptic of the link The above information in the tabular forms was given for the entire route length. Wherever, microwave links were not feasible, Fiber Optics was suggested.

76

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


6. Recommendations: Selection Criteria:- Considering the present and future requirements of client for voice and data, feasibility study was carried out for 8 Mbps Microwave System in 2.3 to 2.5 GHz frequency band on all feasible links. Optical Fiber System was recommended where Microwave was not either feasible or it was becoming more costly due to more repeaters. Considering the overall requirements of the client, as specified in the tender and discussion with their representatives from time to time, following parameters were kept in mind for preparing this report. MICROWAVE: Overall reliability was kept better than CCIR limits. Network to provide 120 digital channels of 64 Kbps. Fade margin has been kept 30- 40 dB. Reliability has been worked out for 8 Mbps at 2.4 GHz. OPTICAL FIBER: Optical Fiber repeater spacing was limited to 100 Km. Optical Fiber Repeaters to be located at 33/66/132/220 KV sub-stations as for as possible, in the absence of which it was to be kept on tower near road crossings with provision of solar power.
77

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


MICROWAVE SYSTEMS: Merits: Optimum use of the capacity by the user. 2.3 to 2.5 GHz are low capacity systems. Project can be completed quickly on available sub-stations. Delay in acquiring land is avoidable. Microwave is slightly cheaper as long as repeater spacing is between 25-40 Km. Demerits: Site clearance from SACFA takes time. WPC is conserving frequencies and sparing minimum slots. There is tendency of Microwave becoming costlier than Fiber Optics. In spite of best design of Microwave System, there could be chances of interference from other users. Land acquisition, Tower foundation and erection are time consuming and could cause delay if sub-soil is rocky or have high water table. In close proximity of EHT lines, tower erection could hazard and need extra care. Since repeater stations shall be erected in the campus of other agencies, there could be coordination problems during execution. Operation and maintenance of the system.

78

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


OPTICAL FIBER SYSTEM: Merits: Can be installed on existing or future power lines easily. In case no dropping of channels is required it can be installed end to end between two terminals. Optical fiber is safe, since it is over the EHT lines. Number of repeaters are far and few, lesser the equipment lesser the maintenance problems. Optical fiber cable maintenance can be done along with the EHT lines. The system provides unlimited capacity and is easily expandable. Extra capacity can be leased out and generate extra revenue. Demerits: Optical fiber repeaters are to be located in any of the sub-stations failing which they were to be located on 220/440 KV transmission lines with solar power, which could be a vulnerable point in remote areas. Failure of transmission towers is likely to disrupt the communication for a longer period.
79

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION


RECOMMENDATIONS: Feasibility study was carried out for 2294 Km route length to see, if Microwave Systems were feasible on these routes. Though microwave links were feasible on 1334 km as indicated in the report. It was recommended, that, optical fiber cable could be the best communication media for the entire region for the following reasons. Single media of communication is the best from execution, operating and maintainability point of view. Microwave cannot be single media, since it is nonfeasible on many routes. Separate clearances for Frequency and SACFA not be taken. Co-ordination, operational and maintenance problems with other agencies, where microwave repeaters shall be falling could be avoided. Interface problems amongst different media can be avoided. Microwave system will be used only by nodal agency, whereas if optical fiber is used, spare fiber can be leased out to other agencies, thereby generating extra revenue. For microwave systems Royalty and License fee to be paid to DOT is a recurring expenditure. OFC system has unlimited channel bandwidth. Future expansion is easy and relatively less expensive, unlike Microwave Systems.

80

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (SITE DETAILS) (SITE PARTICULARS CALCUTTA)
Site Particulars: The information for each site to be noted in tabular form. 1. Site Name: Calcutta 2. Link Name: Calcutta-Durgapur 3. Longitude: 88 21 03 E 4. Latitude: 22 29 49 N 5. Altitude: 6 M 6. Operating Frequency: 2400 MHz 7. Map Number: 79/B-6 Scale: 1:50,000 8. Access to sit: Existing otherwise details to be given. 9. Room for Equipment: Available in existing building. 10. Type of soil: Normal soil with sand at top. 11. Vegetation: Grassy 12. Energy: AC and -48 V available 13. Tower: Type SS Height 100 M (Existing) 14. Antenna: Type Diameter Height Azimuth Towards DAX-6 1.8 M 50 M 325.33 Howrah 15. Remarks: Permission for using existing 100 M tower of DOT to be taken by client.

81

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (SITE DETAILS) (SITE MAP AND SITE ORIENTATION)

Map No: 79/ B


Azimuth Angle A= 55 B= 120 C= 300
North Hill

HOWRAH

Distance 750 M 1.2 Km 7.9 Km

325.33

CALCUTTA

1:50,000 SCALE MAP

A C B Proposed Tower center Road crossing Building

82

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (SITE DETAILS) (SITE PARTICULARS BELMURI)
Site Particulars: The information for each site to be noted in tabular form. 1. Site Name: BELMURI 2. Link Name: Calcutta-Durgapur 3. Longitude: 88 08 53 E 4. Latitude: 22 56 12 N 5. Altitude: 11 M 6. Operating Frequency: 2400 MHz 7. Map Number: 79/B-1 Scale: 1:50,000 8. Access to sit: Existing otherwise details to be given. 9. Room for Equipment: Available in existing building. 10. Type of soil: Normal. 11. Vegetation: Grassy 12. Energy: AC available, DC not available 13. Tower: Type SS Height 90 M 14. Antenna: Type Diameter Height Azimuth Towards DAX-10 3M 80.2 M 159.32 HOWRAH DAX-10 3M 70.2 M 159.32 HOWRAH DAX-12 4M 83.4 M 323.24 BURDWAN DAX-8 2.4 M 73.4 M 323.24 BURDWAN

83

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (SITE DETAILS) (SITE LAYOUT PLAN BELMURI)
BELMURI SITE: (NOT TO SCALE)

N
CONTROL ROOM

20 M 20 M SHED

PROPOSED LOCATION FOR 90 M TOWER

RAMP

RAILWAY TRACK

50 M

ROAD

SWITCH YARD

84

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (SITE DETAILS) (SITE PARTICULARS BURDWAN)
Site Particulars: The information for each site to be noted in tabular form. 1. Site Name: BURDWAN 2. Link Name: Calcutta-Durgapur 3. Longitude: 87 52 32 E 4. Latitude: 23 16 25 N 5. Altitude: 28 M 6. Operating Frequency: 2400 MHz 7. Map Number: 73/M-15 Scale: 1:50,000 8. Access to sit: Existing otherwise details to be given. 9. Room for Equipment: New. 10. Type of soil: Normal. 11. Vegetation: Grassy 12. Energy: AC available, DC not available 13. Tower: Type SS Height 100 M 14. Antenna: Type Diameter Height Azimuth Towards DAX-12 4M 96.5 M 143.13 BELMURI DAX-8 2.4 M 86.5 M 143.13 BELMURI DAX-12 4M 97.0 M 299.00 MANKAR DAX-10 3M 44.2 M 291.41 Galsi (alternative to MANKAR) 15. Remarks: 100 M cable required from new equipment room to control room.

85

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (SITE DETAILS) (SITE LAYOUT PLAN BURDWAN)
BURDWAN SITE: (NOT TO SCALE)

KATWA

ROAD

BURDWAN

OH CABLE

70 M

PROPOSED 100 M TOWER (OPTION-I)

CONTROL ROOM (SINGLE STORY)

SWITCH YARD
PROPOSED 100 M TOWER (OPTION-II)

86

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (SITE DETAILS) (SITE PARTICULARS MANKAR)
Site Particulars: The information for each site to be noted in tabular form. 1. Site Name: MANKAR 2. Link Name: Calcutta-Durgapur 3. Longitude: 87 32 07 E 4. Latitude: 23 25 49 N 5. Altitude: 60 M 6. Operating Frequency: 2400 MHz 7. Map Number: 73/M-11 Scale: 1:50,000 8. Access to sit: Kacha road (Motor able). 9. Room for Equipment: New. 10. Type of soil: Normal. 11. Vegetation: Grassy 12. Energy: Not available 13. Tower: Type SS Height 50 M 14. Antenna: Type Diameter Height Azimuth Towards DAX-12 4 M 48 M 116.42 BURDWAN DAX-10 3 M 42 M 313.76 PARULIA 15. Remarks: Since this is new site, suitable space be kept for Eqpt. room and Tower.
87

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (SITE DETAILS) (SITE LAYOUT PLAN MANKAR)
MANKAR SITE: (NOT TO SCALE)

PROPOSED LAND FOR 132 KV SUB STATION

PROPOSED 50 M TOWER

PROPOSED TELECOM BUILDING

DVC WATER SUPPLY FOR IRRIGATION

MANKAR RURAL HOSPITAL

MOTOR ABLE ROAD

88

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (PATH PROFILE BELMURI - BURDWAN)

160 140 120

96.5

83.4 100 80 60 40 20 11 M 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

28 M

BELMURI LATITUDE 22 56 12 N LONGITUDE 88 08 53 E AZIMUTH 323.24 DEG. ELEVATION 11 M AMSL ANTENNA CL 83.4, 73.4 M AGL

PATH LENGTH 46.61 Km FREQUENCY=2400 MHz K=0.66, 0.66 % F=30.00, 20.00

BURDWAN LATITUDE 23 16 25 N LONGITUDE 87 52 32 E AZIMUTH 143.13 DEG. ELEVATION 28 M AMSL ANTENNA CL 96.5, 86.5 M AGL

89

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (REFLECTION POINT PROFILE BELMURI - BURDWAN)
BELMURI BURDWAN HOP:

160 140 120 100 80 60

40
20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 REFLECTION PLANE DEFINED BETWEEN 0.00 AND 46.61 Km REFLECTION POINT LOCATION AT 22.3 Km 35 40 45 FREQUENCY 2400 MHz FRESNEL ZONE 30.0 %F1

90

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (TOWER HEIGHT CALCULATION SHEET BELMURI-BURDWAN)
BELMURI LATITUDE LONGITUDE AZIMUTH DISTANCE (Km) DATUM UTM ZONE EASTING (Km) NORTHING (Km) 617.716 2536.830 22 56 12 N 88 08 53 E 323.24 46.61 NAD27 CLARKE 1866 45 BURDWAN 23 16 25 N 87 52 32 E 143.13 46.61 NAD27 CLARKE 1866 45 589.538 2573.936

ELEVATION (M)
MAIN ANTENNA HEIGHT (M) DIVERSITY ANTENNA HEIGHT (M) FREQUENCY (MHz) POLARIZATION

11.0
83.4 73.4 2400 VERTICAL

28
96.5 86.5 2400 VERTICAL

91

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (TOWER HEIGHT CALCULATION SHEET BELMURI-BURDWAN)
DISTANCE (Km) ELEVATION (M) OBSTRUCTION HEIGHT (M) AG

0.00
5.00 10.00

11.2
10.0 12.0 15 T 15 T

15.00
20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 46.61

12.0
15.0 20.0 24.0 25.0 26.0 20.0 28.0

15 T
15 T 15 T 15 T 15 T 15 T 15 T

92

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BELMURI - BURDWAN)
bel-bur.p13 - 1 ELEVATION (M) LATITUDE LONGITUDE AZIMUTH BELMURI 11.00 22 56 12 N 88 08 53 E 323.24 BURDWAN 28.00 23 16 25 N 87 52 32 E 143.13

ANTENNA TYPE (MAIN)


ANTENNA HEIGHT (M) ANTENNA GAIN (dBi) RANDOM LOSS (dB) TX LINE TYPE (MAIN) TX LINE LENGTH (M) TX LINE UNIT LOSS (dB/100 M) TX LINE LOSS (dB) CONNECTOR LOSS (dB)

DAX-12
83.38 38 0.25 FOAM 1-1/4 105 5.2 5.46 1.00

DAX-12
96.46 38 0.25 FOAM 1-1/4 116 5.2 6.03 1.00

93

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BELMURI - BURDWAN)
bel-bur.p13 - 2 ANTENNA TYPE (DIVERSITY) ANTENNA HEIGHT (M) ANTENNA GAIN (dBi) RANDOM LOSS (dB) TX LINE TYPE (DIVERSITY) TX LINE LENGTH (M) BELMURI DAX-8 73.38 33.5 0.25 FOAM 1-1/4 94 BURDWAN DAX-8 86.48 33.5 0.25 FOAM 1-1/4 107

TX LINE UNIT LOSS (dB/100 M)


TX LINE LOSS (dB) CONNECTOR LOSS (dB) CIRCULATOR BRANCHING LOSS (dB) TX SWITCH LOSS (dB) TX FILTER LOSS (dB) RX HYBRID LOSS (dB) DIV. RX CIRCULATOR LOSS (dB) OTHER RX LOSS (dB)

5.2
4.89 1.0 0.5 1.20 2.0 2.5 2.5 3.0

5.2
5.56 1.0 0.5 1.20 2.0 2.5 2.5 3.0

94

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BELMURI - BURDWAN)
bel-bur.p13 - 3 BELMURI BURDWAN

FREQUENCY (MHz) POLARIZATION PATH LENGTH (Km) FREE SPACE LOSS (Db) ATMOS. ABSORPTION LOSS (dB) MAIN NET PATH LOSS (dB) DIVERSITY NET PATH LOSS (dB) TX FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENT (MHz) TX POWER (WATTS) TX POWER (dBm) 83.42 81.85 2400 0.89 29.49

2400 VERTICAL 46.61 133.44 0.29

2400 VERTICAL 46.61 133.44 0.29 83.42 81.96 2400 0.89 29.49

EFFECTIVE RADIATED POWER (dBm)


RX THRESHOLD CRITERIA RX THRESHOLD LEVEL (dBm) MAXIMUM RECEIVED SIGNAL (dBm)

57.08
10-3 -91.00 -30

56.5
10-3 -91.00 -30 95

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BELMURI - BURDWAN)
bel-bur.p13 - 4 BELMURI BURDWAN

MAIN RX SIGNAL (dBm) DIVERSITY RX SIGNAL (dBm) THERMAL FADE MARGIN (dB) CLIMATIC FACTOR TERRAIN ROUGHNESS (M) C FACTOR AVERAGE ANNUAL TEMP. (DEG. C) DIVERSITY TYPE SD IMPROVEMENT FACTOR WORST MONTH MULTIPATH 1 WAY (SEC)

-53.93 -52.36 38.64 0.5 6.10 1.65 28 SPACE DIVERSITY BB 31.79 2.72

-53.93 -52.47 38.53 0.5 6.10 1.65 28 SPACE DIVERSITY BB 31.66 2.80

WORST MONTH MULTIPATH 1 WAY (%)


ANNUAL MULTIPATH 1 WAY (SEC) ANNUAL MULTIPATH 1 WAY (%) ANNUAL MULTIPATH 2 WAY (%-SEC)

99.999896
12.24 99.999961 99.999921-24.83

99.999894
12.59 99.999960 99.999921-24.83 96

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (PATH PROFILE BURDWAN - MANKAR)

93.2 AGL 120 100 80 48 AGL

M
60 40 28 ASL 20 60 ASL

5 10 BURDWAN LATITUDE 23 16 25 N LONGITUDE 87 52 32 E AZIMUTH 296.56 DEG. ELEVATION 28 M HASL ANTENNA CL 93.2 M AGL

15 20 PATH LENGTH 38.87 Km FREQUENCY 2400 MHz K = 1.33 % F = 100.00

25

30 35 MANKAR LATITUDE 23 25 49 N LONGITUDE 87 32 07 E AZIMUTH 116.42 DEG. ELEVATION 60 M HASL ANTENNA CL 48 M AGL

97

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (REFLECTION POINT PROFILE BURDWAN - MANKAR)

120

100 80

60

40

20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 38.87

REFLECTION PLANE DEFINED BETWEEN 0.00 AND 38.87 Km REFLECTION POINT LOCATION AT 24.2 Km

FREQUENCY 2400 MHz FRESNEL ZONE 100 %F1

98

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (TOWER HEIGHT CALCULATION SHEET BURDWAN - MANKAR)
BURDWAN LATITUDE LONGITUDE AZIMUTH DISTANCE (Km) 23 16 25 N 87 52 32 E 296.56 38.87 38.87 MANKAR 23 25 49 N 87 32 07 E 116.42

DATUM
UTM ZONE EASTING (Km) NORTHING (Km) ELEVATION (M) ANTENNA HEIGHT (M) FREQUENCY (MHz) POLARIZATION

NAD27 CLARKE 1866


45 589.550 2573.930 28.0 93.2 2400 HORIZONTAL

NAD27 CLARKE 1866


45 554.688 2591.092 60.0 48.0 2400 HORIZONTAL

99

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (TOWER HEIGHT CALCULATION SHEET BURDWAN - MANKAR)
DISTANCE (Km) 0.00 11.00 13.50 20.00 21.75 37.50 ELEVATION (M) 28.0 35.0 37.0 40.0 42.3 60.0 15 T 15 T 15 T 15 T 15 T OBSTRUCTION HEIGHT (M) AG

38.87

60.0

100

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BURDWAN - MANKAR)
bur-man 1 .pl3-page 1 ELEVATION (M) LATITUDE LONGITUDE AZIMUTH ANTENNA TYPE (MAIN) ANTENNA HEIGHT (M) ANTENNA GAIN (dBi) RANDOM LOSS (dB) TX LINE TYPE (MAIN) TX LINE LENGTH (M) TX LINE UNIT LOSS (dB/100 M) BURDWAN 28.00 23 16 25 N 87 52 32 E 296.56 DAX-12 93.19 38.00 0.25 FOAM 1-1/4 116.00 5.20 MANKAR 60.00 23 25 49 N 87 32 07 E 116.42 DAX-12 48.02 38.00 0.25 FOAM 1-1/4 68.00 5.20

TX LINE LOSS (dB)


CONNECTOR LOSS (dB)

6.03
1.00

3.54
1.00

101

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BURDWAN - MANKAR)
bur-man 1 .pl3-page 2 CIRCULATOR BRANCHING LOSS (dB) TX SWITCH LOSS (dB) TX FILTER LOSS (dB) RX HYBRID LOSS (dB) RX FILTER LOSS (dB) OTHER RX LOSS (dB) BURDWAN 0.50 1.20 2.00 2.50 2.00 3.00 MANKAR 0.50 1.20 2.00 2.50 2.00 3.00

FREQUENCY (MHz)
POLARIZATION PATH LENGTH (Km) FREE SPACE LOSS (Db) ATMOS. ABSORPTION LOSS (dB) NET PATH LOSS (dB) TX FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENT (MHz) TX POWER (WATTS)
79.88 2400 0.89

2400
HORIZONTAL 38.87 131.86 0.24

2400
HORIZONTAL 38.87 131.86 0.24 79.88 2400 0.89

102

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BURDWAN - MANKAR)
bur-man 1 .pl3-page 3 BURDWAN 29.49 56.51 10 E -3 -91 -30 -50.39 40.61 0.50 6.10 1.65 0.50 6.10 1.65 MANKAR 29.49 59.00 10 E -3 -91 -30 -50.39 40.61

TX POWER (dBm) EFFECTIVE RADIATED POWER (dBm) RX THRESHOLD CRITERIA RX THRESHOLD LEVEL (dBm) MAXIMUM RECEIVED SIGNAL (dBm) RX SIGNAL (dBm) THERMAL FADE MARGIN (dB) CLIMATIC FACTOR TERRAIN ROUGHNESS (M) C FACTOR

AVERAGE ANNUAL TEMP. (DEG. C)


DIVERSITY TYPE

28.00
NON DIVERSITY

28.00
NON DIVERSITY

103

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (HOP DETAILS) (RELIABILITY CALCULATION SHEET BURDWAN - MANKAR)
bur-man 1 .pl3-page 4 BURDWAN 31.83 99.998789 143.22 99.999546 99.999092 286.44 MANKAR 31.83 99.998789 143.22 99.999546 99.999092 286.44

WORST MONTH MULTIPATH 1 WAY (SEC) WORST MONTH MULTIPATH 1 WAY (%) ANNUAL MULTIPATH 1 WAY (SEC) ANNUAL MULTIPATH 1 WAY (%) ANNUAL MULTIPATH 2 WAY (%-SEC)

104

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (LINK DETAILS) (GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION) FOLLOWING INFORMATION CAN BE GIVEN IN A TABULAR FORM: SL.NO. 1. STATION NAME BELMURI OWNER CLIENT NAME HASL (M) 11 LONGITUDE 88 08 53 E LATITUDE 22 56 12 N AZIMUTH (DEGREES) 159.32 TOWARDS HOWRAH 323.24 TOWARDS BURDWAN TOWER HEIGHT (M) 90 HOP DISTANCE (Km) 43.75 TOWARDS HOWRAH 46.61 TOWARDS BURDWAN REMARKS IF ANY SAY AIR STRIP NEAR BY
105

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (LINK DETAILS) (TOWERS AND AERIALS)
FOLLOWING INFORMATION IS GIVEN IN A TABULAR FORM:
S.N. STATION FROM
CALCUTTA

STATION TO
HOWRAH

ANT. DIA.(M)
1.8

ANT. HT. (M)


50

AZIMUTH DEGREE
325.33

TX LINE (M)
70

HOWRAH

CALCUTTA BELMURI HOWRAH BURDWAN BELMURI MANKAR BURDWAN PARULIA MANKAR

1.8 3.3 3.3 4.0,2.4 4.0, 2.4 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0

52.6 84.2,74.2 80.2,74.2 83.4,73.4 96.5, 86.5 93.2 48.0 41.9 55.0

145.31 339.38 159.32 323.24 143.13 296.56 116.42 313.76 133.69

73 105, 95 101, 91 104, 94 117, 107 116 68 62 75

BELMURI

BURDWAN

MANKAR

PARULIA

106

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (LINK DETAILS) (REFLECTION POINTS)


S. NO. HOP FREQUENC Y (MHz) 2400 HOP DISTANCE (Km) 9.75 REFLECTION POINT LOCATION (Km) 4.6 REMARKS

CALCUTTA-HOWRAH

NO REF. ANTICIPATED NO REF. ANTICIPATED NO REF. ANTICIPATED NO REF. ANTICIPATED

HOWRAH-BELMURI

2400

43.75

22.3

BELMURI-BURDWAN

2400

46.61

22.3

BURDWAN-MANKAR

2400

35.33

24.2

MANKAR-PARULIA

2400

29.96

12.0

NO REF. ANTICIPATED

107

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (LINK DETAILS) (FREQUENCY PLAN)

F E V f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 26.96 Km f1 f1 46.61 Km BURDWAN 100 BELMURI 85 V B H C D

H
f1 V f1 f1

PARULIA 55

35.33 Km MANKUR 50

43.75 Km

9.75 Km HOWRAH 85 CALCUTTA 50

108

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (LINK DETAILS) (INTERFERENCE CALCULATIONS)


RE C. ST. W. S. F. W. S. F. B XP D FB D DD AD OL TO TA L XP D FB D DD AD OL TO TA L XP D FB D DD AD OL TO TA L

20

25

20

65

25

45

70

25

45

70

8.8 2

40

20

69

25

45

70

25

45

70

7.4 5

30

20

57

25

45

70

6.5 3

28

20

54

25

45

70

25

45

70

10. 86

20

20

50. 86

25

45

70

11. 3

20

20

51

109

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (LINK DETAILS) (OUTAGE TABLE)


S.NO. HOP ANNUAL-2 WAY (%) RELIABILITY OUTAGE-2 WAY (SEC) REMARKS

CALCUTTA-HOWRAH

99.999987

4.20

NON DIVERSITY

2 3

HOWRAH-BELMURI BELMURI-BURDWAN

99.999878 99.999921

38.52 24.83

DIVERSITY DIVERSITY

BURDWAN-MANKAR

99.999092

286.44

NON DIVERSITY

MANKAR-PARULIA

99.999745

80.40

NON DIVERSITY

110

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (LINK DETAILS) (SYNOPTIC OF THE LINK)

96.5M 83.4M 93.2M 86.5M 55M 48M 55 M 50 M 41.9M 100 M 85 M 84.2M

80.2M 8

73.4M 0 . 70.2M 2
52.6M 85 M

74.2M

50.0M 50 M

29.96 Km PARULIA MANKAR

35.33 Km BURDWAN

46.61 Km BELMURI

43.75 Km 9.75 Km HOWRAH CALCUTTA

111

FEASIBILITY STUDIES AND REPORT GENERATION (TECHNO - ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION) {(CALCUTTA PARULIA (DURGAPUR)}
FIBER OPTICS
SL. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 DESCRIPTION QTY. UNIT PRICE (US$) 2500 1250 7500 15000 1035 2500 26500 2500 8750 176128 TOTAL (US$) 500000 250000 30000 15000 4140 10000 26500 10000 35000 176128 1056768 SL. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

MICROWAVE
DESCRIPTION QTY. UNIT PRICE (US$) 24539 49078 2500 1035 2528 26500 6669 70000 8000 124836 TOTAL (US$) 98156 294468 10000 10350 25280 26500 93366 210000 80000 124836 972956

OFC (12 F) LAYING OF OFC LINE TML. (FO) EQ. FIBER OPTIC R/R SERVICE CH. UNIT ALARM CON. UNIT NMS MULTIPLEXERS POWER PLANT INST. & COMM.

200 200 4 1 4 4 1 4 4 LS

RADIO EQPT. S/D RADIO R/R EQPT. MULTIPLEXERS SERVICE CH. UNIT ALARM CON. UNIT NMS ANT.& TX. LINE SYS. TOWERS (80m) POWER PLANT INST. & COMM.

4 6 4 10 10 1 14 3 10 LS

112

GUILDLINES
(SURVEY FOR LINE OF SIGHT LINKS)
1. 2. Formation of team for survey Collection of: Relevant survey instruments/tools etc. Topographical maps 1:25,000/50,000 scale with contour at 10 M. Site Profiles/Drawings Data on existing towers and availability of space Antennas/Equipment. Customers specifications and requirements. Information about location of Radar Sites and Airports. Information about existing Terrestrial systems in the area.

113

GUILDLINES
(SURVEY FOR LINE OF SIGHT LINKS)
3. Map Study as per tender requirements for Co-ordinates, altitude, terrain conditions and LOS conditions. Site survey:- Is carried out for each site to determine: Access road and approach to site Longitude, latitude, altitude and availability & stability of power supply. Soil bearing capacity, weather conditions, availability of Infrastructure etc. Hop Survey: Map study and terrain between two site of each hop is thoroughly trekked to determine: Altitude and heights of Near end obstructions, 1-2 Km points along the LOS route for each hop. Water logging and other reflecting areas. Likely interference from nearby Radar and Airport sites.

4.
6.

114

GUIDELINES
(SURVEY FOR LINE OF SIGHT LINKS) 7. Preparation of Drawings: Site lay out plan Path profiles: Clearance criteria (as per clients requirements) , heights of critical points (as per survey) to be taken into account. 8. Finalization of: Tower Heights:-are calculated for each hop. K-factor, first fresnel zone clearance, critical points, reflection points and diversity option are main factors. Received level and reliability calculations as specified. 9. Finalization of System Design: Transmitter Power, location of Terminals, Repeaters, Antenna Size/Type/Gain, TX line-Type/Loss.
115

TRANSMISSION PLANNING GUIDELINES


BHARTI CELLULAR LIMITED-EASTERN REGION
1.TRANSMISSION DESIGN CRITERIA (ACCESS PLANNING): POWER TRANSMIT: 18 dBm FOR FLEXIHOPPER 18 GHz RADIOS. POWER TRANSMIT: 20 dBm FOR FLEXIHOPPER 15 GHz RADIOS. TRAFFIC CAPACITY: CAN BE 4E1, 8E1 OR 16E1. RADIO OPERATING MODES: SINGLE (1+0) FOR SITES IN LOOP/RING. HSB (1+1) FOR REMOTE LOOP SITES. FOR SPUR LINKS WILL BE (1+0) BUT WILL BE (1+1) IF TWO MORE SITES DEPENDENT ON IT. 1E1 TO BE COSIDERED FOR CITY SITES. RECEIVER THRESHOLD POWER AT BER: -81 dBm FOR 15GHz 16X2. RECEIVER THRESHOLD POWER AT BER: -83 dBm FOR 15GHz 8X2. RECEIVER THRESHOLD POWER AT BER: -86 dBm FOR 15GHz 4X2. INTERFERENCE MARGIN: 3 TO 4 Db. RELIABILITY OF LINKS: 99.995 FOR ACCESS LINKS AND 99.999 FOR BACKBONE.
116

TRANSMISSION PLANNING GUIDELINES


BHARTI CELLULAR LIMITED-EASTERN REGION
FADE MARGIN: 35-40 dB. RAIN REGION: N (120 mm/h) ANTENNA SIZES: 0.6 M AND IF REQUIRED 1.2 M. ANTENNA HEIGHT: MAX. 40 M. ANTENNA SIZES FOR BB LINKS: 1.8 M/ 2.0 M. ANTENNA HEIGHT FOR BB LINKS: 80 M. PREFERENCE IS TO ESTABLISH AS MANY AS LOOPS AS POSSIBLE, SINCE IT PRODUCES 10-100 FOLDS IMPROVEMENT IN THE LINK AVAILABILITY COMPARED TO SINGLE NON-PROTECTED LINK. Microwave Radio Type Maximum Hop Distance (Km) Antenna Sizes for both Sites FlexiHopper 15G, H Pol. 120 mm/hr. V Pol. 120 mm/hr. 16E1 (1+0) 0.6 m 1.2 m 0.6 m 1.2 m 5.0 Km 7.5 Km 6.5 Km 10.5 Km FOR LOS STUDY 100 % F.F.Z. CLEARANCE AT K=4/3, WILL BE CONSIDERED FOR ACCESS NETWORK PLANNING.

117

TRANSMISSION PLANNING GUIDELINES


BHARTI CELLULAR LIMITED-EASTERN REGION
2. BACKBONE TRANSMISSION DESIGN CRITERIA: POWER TRANSMIT: 24 dBm FOR CERAGON STM-1 RADIOS. POWER TRANSMIT: 23 dBm FOR FLEXIHOPPER 7 GHz RADIOS. RADIO OPERATING MODES: HSB (1+1) FOR ALL LINKS. SPACE DIVERSITY WILL BE USED FOR ALL BACKBONE SDH LINKS. FOR SPUR LINKS NOKIA WILL PERFORM LINK AVAILABILITY CALCULATIONS. TRAFFIC CAPACITY: STM-1 FOR Ceragon 7GHz (28 MHz BW) and 16E1 for Nokia FlexiHopper 7 GHz (28MHz BW). RECEIVER THRESHOLD POWER AT BER10 raised to power minus 6: 68 dBm for Ceragon radios. RECEIVER THRESHOLD POWER AT BER TEN RAISED TO POWER MINUS 6: -81dBmFOR FLEXIHOPPER 7 GHz 16X2 RADIOS. LINK RELIABILITY: 99.999 AND FOR SECTION 99.995.
118

TRANSMISSION PLANNING GUIDELINES


RAIN ZONE: 120 MM/HR. RAIN INTENSITY (0.01 %). FADE MARGIN: 35-40 Db MAXIMUM HOP LENGTH IN 7 GHz FOR STM-1 CAPACITY IS GIVEN. SL.NO. FREQ. LINK CONFIG. ANTENNA SIZES 1.2 M 1.8 M 2.4 M

7 GHz (1+0) 13.5Km 17.4Km 19.4Km (1+1)HSB 12.0Km 15.7Km 17.9Km (1+1)HSB WITH S/D 17Km 28Km 35Km FOR LOS STUDY, 100 % FIRST FREZNEL ZONE CLEARANCE AT K=4/3 AND 60 % F.F.Z. CLEARANCE ATK=2/3 WILL BE CONSIDERED FOR BACK BONE PLANNING.

119

SURVEY, SYSTEM DESIGN, ENGINEERING AND BID SUBMISSION FOR LOS AND OFC LINKS
CONCLUSION: The course has been developed with the objective, that, Engineers come out of colleges with more theoretical knowledge and are not aware of actual field problems. International Exposure experienced during last 20 years on similar assignments have been shared.

120

SURVEY, SYSTEM DESIGN, ENGINEERING AND BID SUBMISSION FOR LOS AND OFC LINKS
Tick () on ones 1. (a) Free space loss increases if frequency is increased and decreases if distance is increased. (b) Free space loss decreases with the increase of both distance and frequency. (c) Free space loss increases with the increase of both distance and frequency. 2. (a) First Fresnel Zone Radius increases with increase in distance and decreases with increase in frequency. (b) First Fresnel Zone Radius decreases with increase in distance and increases with increase in frequency. (c) First Fresnel Zone Radius decreases both with the with increase in distance and in frequency. 3. For standard atmosphere value of K is: (a) K=1 (b) K=4/3 (c) K=2/3 4. In a hop Earth Bulge is maximum at (a) the ends (b) the center (c) the critical obstructed point. 5. Reflection point area lies between a K factor of: (a) K=1 and K=Infinity. (b) K=4/3 and K=2/3 (c) K=7/6 and K=5/12.
121

SURVEY, SYSTEM DESIGN, ENGINEERING AND BID SUBMISSION FOR LOS AND OFC LINKS
6. For a hop if all other parameters are kept same, for K=4/3 tower height will be (a) less (b) more (c) equal in comparison with K=2/3. If frequency diversity is used, the separation between two frequencies is generally kept (a) 12-20 % (b) 2-3% (c) 5-10%. Separation between Space Diversity antennas is to the tune of: (a) 100-200 (b) 5-10 (c) 20-40 . CCIR defines availability of radio relay links over hypothetical reference circuit of 2500 Km route as (a) 97.9 % (b) 79.7 % (c) 99.7 %. India is located between following co-ordinates: (a) Latitude 8 - 36 N, Longitude 68 - 96 E (b) Latitude 8 - 36 S, Longitude 68 - 96 W (c) Latitude 8 - 36 N, Longitude 68 - 96 W Azimuthal angles or bearing is measured from: (a) True South (b) True North (c) True East Maximum height of line of sight towers is normally limited to: (a) 200 M (b) 300 M (c) 100 M

7.
8. 9. 10.

11. 12.

122

SURVEY, SYSTEM DESIGN, ENGINEERING AND BID SUBMISSION FOR LOS AND OFC LINKS
13. 14. Reliability of a LOS hop can be improved by: (a) Space Diversity (b) Increasing the hop distance (c) Decreasing tower height. On a straight link when single frequency is used in tandem, normally change of polarization is recommended every: (a) 3rd hop (b) hop (c) 5th hop (d) depends on the configuration of the route.

123