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The Culture of Healthcare

Health Professionals The People in


Healthcare
Lecture b
This material (Comp2_Unit2b) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University, funded by the
Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information
Technology under Award Number IU24OC000015.

Health Professionals The People
in Healthcare
Learning Objectives
Define terms used in healthcare including clinician, patient, disease, and
syndrome and in health professionals education and training. (Lecture a)
Describe the education, training, certification, licensure and roles of
physicians including those in primary care and other specialties. (Lecture a)
Describe the education, training, certification, licensure and roles of nurses,
advanced practice nurses, LPNs, MAs and Medication Aids. (Lecture b)
Describe the education, training, certification, licensure and roles of
physician assistants, pharmacists, therapists, allied health professionals.
(Lecture c)
Describe the education, training, certification, licensure and roles of
paramedics, EMTs, dental professionals, mental health professionals, and
social workers. (Lecture c)
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Nurses
Education
Diploma
Associate Degree
Bachelors of Science
Bridge Programs RN to BSN
Clinical Training
Part of the education process
Many hospitals have additional training
programs at entry level
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Nurses
Certification
No required certification
Growing number of specialty certification
programs
Licensure
Requires successful completion of a
accredited nursing school program
NCLEX-RN
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Nursing Roles
Direct patient care
Continuous observation and monitoring
Diagnostic test
Administer Medication
Patient Education
Emotional Support

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Specific Nursing Roles
Hospital Medical-Surgical Nurse
Can obtain certification
Care for patients with medical and surgical
problems
Specialized Nursing Roles
Specific Disease or Specialty
Diabetic Nursing
Rehabilitation Unit
Neurosurgery Unit
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Advance Practice Nursing
Nurse Practitioner
Education: Usually requires a Masters in
Nursing with specific clinical and diagnostic
training
Training: Programs include training in clinical
setting physical diagnosis, managing acute
and chronic disease, well care, prescribing
medication
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Advance Practice Nursing
Nurse Practitioner
Certification: Most states require certification in their
area of specialty
Examples include Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP), Pediatric
Nurse Practitioner (PNP), Geriatric Nurse Practitioner (GNP)
Licensure
States vary on the roles allowed to Nurse Practitioners
including prescription privileges and ability to have
independent practices
Roles
Nurse Practitioners function most often as primary care
providers including preventive, acute and chronic care.
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Nurse Midwives
Education
Post graduate or graduate program
Must have a BSN to become a certified nurse
midwife.
Training
Most include courses in advance practice
nursing (physical diagnosis, pharmacology,
pathophysiology
Clinical course and pratica in ante-, intra- and
postpartum care and care of the newborn
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Nurse Midwives
Certification
Only a few of the Nurse Midwives programs
are post-baccalaureate programs
Licensure
Licensed in all 50 states and the District of
Columbia
Role
Provide routine gynecology services, prenatal,
delivery and postnatal care
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Nurse Anesthetist
Education
Must have a BSN
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist
(CRNA) programs are Masters degree
Training
Most include courses in advance practice
nursing (physical diagnosis, pharmacology,
pathophysiology)
Clinical course in anesthesia simulation labs
and practicums in clinical anesthesia
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Nurse Anesthetist
Certification
National certification exam
Must have 40 hours of continuing education every two
years to renew
Licensure
Most are licensed by the state board of nursing
Roles
Provide a significant amount of anesthesia care in the
U.S.A. and usually practice with physicians but are
relatively autonomous
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Other Nursing Roles
Long term care
Similar to general nursing roles but focus on patients
that require constant care and assistance with
activities of daily living
Home healthcare
A significant improvement that provides infusion
therapy, would management and other care in the
home
Community Health Nursing
Focus more on population health
More of role in health promotion/disease prevention


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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Non Clinical Roles of Nursing
Administration
Research
Education
Nursing School
Continuing Nursing Education
Case Management

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Licensed Practical Nurses
Education
12-18 months of training post high school
Training
Includes training in Medical Terminology,
Introduction to anatomy/physiology,
Introduction to Pharmacology, and Practical
Nursing Clinical Course
Certification
Usually results in a certificate of attendance

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Licensed Practical Nurse
Licensing
All states and the District of Columbia require a
licensing exam
Licensed by the state board of nursing
Role
Provide more direct care
Under the supervision of Registered Nurse or
Physician
State laws vary but most allow LPNs to start and
administer IV therapy, many allow LPNs to
administer IV medications except IV push


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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Medical Assistants
Medical Assistant
Variable education: one year (Certificate) to
two years (Associate Degree)
Most receive training in Medical Terminology,
Office Administration, Coding and
Reimbursement, Lab Procedures, Office
Patient Care, Medications,
Not Licensed
Role includes routine administrative and
clinical duties usually in an ambulatory setting

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Medication Assistants
Extremely variable education/training ranging from 15 to
70 contact hours
Most states require an exam and supervised
administration for some period of time
Some states require training as a Certified Nursing
Assistant as a prerequisite
Most states license Medication Assistants
Roles are variable, but usually include the administration
oral, topical, nebulized or metered inhaled medication.
Many states restrict medication assistants to Long Term
Care or Assisted Living Facilities

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Health Professionals The People
in Healthcare
Summary Lecture b
Describe education, training, certification, licensure, and
roles of:
Nurses
Advance practice nurse
Licensed Practical Nurse
Medical Assistants
Medication Assistants
Discussed some specific type of nurses and nursing
setting
Described non-clinical roles of nurses

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Health Professionals The People
in Healthcare
References Lecture b
References
American Medical Association. (2010). Health professions. Retrieved from http://www.ama-
assn.org/ama/pub/education-careers/careers-health-care.shtml
American Medical Association. (2010).Careers in healthcare Retrieved from http://www.ama-
assn.org/ama/pub/education-careers/careers-health-care/directory.shtml
American Medical Association. (2010). Health professions associations. Retrieved from http://www.ama-
assn.org/ama/pub/education-careers/careers-health-care/health-professions-associations.shtml
American Medical Association. (2010). Health professions education accrediting agencies. Retrieved
from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/education-careers/careers-health-care/health-professions-
education.shtml
American Medical Association. (2010). Health care income ranges. Retrieved from http://www.ama-
assn.org/ama/pub/education-careers/careers-health-care/health-care-income.shtml
Explore Healthcareers. (2010). Career explorer. Retrieved from http://www.explorehealthcareers.org/en/index.aspx
Healthcareers in Michgan. (2010). Health careers videos. Retrieved from
http://www.michigan.gov/healthcareers/0,1607,7-221-39742_39457---,00.html
HRSA: Bureau of Health Professions. (2010). National center for health workforce analysis: health workforce personnel
factbook. Retrieved from http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/factbook.htm
Medline Plus. (2010). Health occupations. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthoccupations.html
National Institutes of Health. (2010). Office of science education lifeworks: explore health and medical science
careers. Retrieved from http://science.education.nih.gov/LifeWorks.nsf/feature/index.htm
National Institutes of Health. (2010). Office of science education lifeworks: explore health and medical science
careers.. Alphabetical list. Retrieved from http://science.education.nih.gov/LifeWorks.nsf/alpha.htm
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b
Health Professionals The People
in Healthcare
References Lecture b
References (continued)
National Institutes of Health. (2010). Office of science education lifeworks: explore health and medical science
careers. Education requirements. Retrieved from http://science.education.nih.gov/LifeWorks.nsf/education.htm
National Institutes of Health. (2010). Office of science education lifeworks: explore health and medical science
careers. Interest area. Retrieved from http://science.education.nih.gov/LifeWorks.nsf/interestarea.htm
National Institutes of Health. (2010). Office of science education lifeworks: explore health and medical science
careers. Median salary. Retrieved from http://science.education.nih.gov/LifeWorks.nsf/salary.htm


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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
The Culture of Healthcare
Health Professionals The People in Healthcare
Lecture b