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Introduction to Information and

Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
This material (Comp4_Unit7d) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University, funded by the Department of Health
and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number
IU24OC000015.
Networks
Learning Objectives
List and describe the various types of network
communications and network addressing (Lecture a and
b)
List and define the different types of networks (Lecture c)
Describe different network topologies (Lecture c)
List and describe different network standards and
protocols (Lecture c and e)
Describe wireless communication (Lecture d)
List and describe network hardware (Lecture d)
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
Wireless Communications
Wireless devices communicate without cabling.
Signals sent via:
Infrared light laptop to laptop
Microwave requires clear line of sight
Radio frequency - most common method
Governed by IEEE 802.11 standard.
Seems to be available everywhere!
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
Wireless The Good, The Bad, &
The Ugly
Good:
No cables needed to connect devices to network.
Cleaner work environment without cables.
Devices can be easily moved about.
Easy for users to connect.
Bad:
Can be slower than wired networks.
Limited signal range.
Ugly:
Security issues.
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
How Does Wireless Function
Home wireless communication is done by radio
frequency.
Radio frequencies are mapped to channel numbers.
In North America, channels are 1-13 for 802.11 a/b/g
Need the following for typical home setup:
Computers need wireless NICs
Facilitates connection to a wireless router.
Network needs a wireless router
Also known as a wireless access point (WAP).
Wireless router needs to connect to a wired device
To get Internet access, wireless router needs wired connection to
the ISP device (cable modem router).
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
Wireless Network Setup
WAP:
SSID name for wireless network.
Change WAP default password since globally known.
IP address and subnet mask.
Configure WPA2 and record the code/phrase created.
Cable WAP so it somehow connects to ISP device.
Each wireless client:
SSID configured same as WAP.
IP address and subnet mask in same range as WAP.
Configure WPA2 using code/phrase from WAP.
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
Wireless Network Setup (contd)
Standards are backwards compatible
802.11g NICs work in 802.11 a/b device-controlled
WLANs.
Wireless RF channels
WAPs and clients must use same channel.
Different channels cannot communicate.
Channel numbers correspond to an RF range.
Channels 1, 6, and 11 RF do not overlap. Use one of
these!
Channel 5 uses the RF range of 2.4212.443 GHz.
Channel 6 uses the RF range of 2.4262.448 GHz.
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
Wireless Components Example
The notebook is connected to the wireless
access point using a PC card.
PC card
(wireless
NIC)
Wireless
Access
Point (WAP)
Network
cable
connection
to wired
network.
(Porao, 2005, CC BY-SA 3.0)
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
Network Hardware
Common components are:
Networked devices
NIC (wired and wireless)
Switch
Router
ISP device
Server
Surge protector
Uninterruptable Power System (UPS)
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
Network Hardware - Networked
devices
Computers / Laptops with:
Network-enabled operating system (OS).
NIC to connect to switch/router.
Cabling for wired network.
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
Network Hardware - NICs
Required for network communication
Hardware uses OS services to communicate on
network.
Wired requires cabling, jacks, switch/router.
Wireless requires WAP and some wired device
to communicate with wired devices.
Vintage 10 Mbps
Ethernet NIC for
wired network.
(Helix84, 2005, CC BY-SA 3.0)
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Networks
Lecture d
54 Mbps Wireless
LAN PCI Card
(802.11g).
(Wheeler, 2007, CC BY-SA 3.0)
Network Hardware Switch
Very important network component.
Devices plug into switch to communicate with
each other.
Switch plugs into ISP device to provide Internet
access.
Image shows a 5-port Atlantis Ethernet switch.

If this switch connects to an ISP device, with five
ports it could also accommodate a printer and
three other devices.

One of the devices could be a WAP, which would
allow wired and wireless clients to
communicate with each other.

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
(Sub, 2007, PD-US)
Network Hardware - Router
Network boundary defined by IP address and
subnet mask numbers.
Router connects different IP networks so they
can communicate with each other.
Routers can be wired or wireless.
ISP devices are routers.
Image shows a Cisco Linksys WRT54GL wireless
router typically found in a SOHO (small office,
home office) network.

The blue Ethernet cable extending out of its rear,
to the right, connects this device to the wired
network
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
(Jackzor, 2008, PD-US)
Routed Network Example
Small Office / Home Office
(Feval, 2006, CC BY-SA 3.0)
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
Network Hardware ISP Device
Connects SOHO and Office networks to Internet.
Can lease from ISP with Internet service.
Sometimes available for purchase too.
Usually has one Internet port to connect to a wall port.
Usually has one switch port to connect one device using
Ethernet cable.
Can use that port to connect to a switch, which can
connect to other devices or other switches to extend
network.
All devices then share the one Internet connection.
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
ISP Device Examples
The image on the left
shows a Motorola cable
modem. This router uses
the ISPs coaxial cable to
provide Internet
connectivity.
The image on the right
shows a wireless D-Link
router/modem used as a
residential DSL gateway.
This router uses the ISPs
Ethernet cable to provide
Internet connectivity.
(Larocomp, 2010, PD-US)
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
(Macic7, 2007, CC BY 3.0)
Network Hardware - Server
Computer with specialized OS installed.
Windows Server 2008
Ubuntu Server
Novell Open Enterprise Server
Creates gated community of devices and users.
Server maintains database of objects, restricts access to authorized
devices/users, and manages them.
Can provide various functions:
Domain controller
Print server
DHCP server
DNS server
File server
Certificate server
NAP server

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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
Network Hardware Surge
Protector
Protects devices from spikes in power usually
originating with the power company.
Some power strips are also surge protectors need
to carefully read product information to differentiate.
Devices need to be plugged in to gain protection.
Power surge can destroy a devices circuitry.
Protection measured in Joules.
Joules define how much electricity the surge
protector can absorb without failure.
Should consult electrician to protect hardware.
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
Network Hardware - UPS
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) provides
emergency power to attached devices when
power fails.
Short battery power time (5-30 min.) depending
on attached devices.
Computer and monitor portable unit okay.
Whole building need large (site) solution.
Never plug laser printer into UPS.
Due to power requirements, will instantly drain
available UPS battery power.
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
Surge Protector & UPS Examples
(Amakuru, 2006, CC BY-SA 3.0)
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
(Cgxke, 2008, PD-US)
(Amakuru, 2006, CC BY-SA 3.0)
Networks
Summary Lecture d
Describe wireless communication
List and describe network hardware
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Networks
Lecture d
Networks
References Lecture d
References
Wikipedia. Medical Implant Communication Service. [Internet]. 2011 Jun [cited 2011 Nov 07]. Available from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_Implant_Communication_Service.
Wikipedia. Wireless LAN. [Internet]. 2011 Jun [cited 2011 Nov 07]. Available from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_LAN.
Wikipedia. Network switch. [Internet]. 2011 Jun [cited 2011 Nov 07]. Available from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_switch.
Wikipedia. Surge protector. [Internet]. 2011 Jun [cited 2011 Nov 07]. Available from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surge_protector.
Wikipedia. Uninterruptible power supply. [Internet]. 2011 Jun [cited 2011 Nov 07]. Available from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uninterruptible_power_supply.
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d
Networks
References Lecture d
Images
Slide 8: Wireless Network Components [image on the Internet]. (Porao, 2005, CC BY-SA 3.0) [cited 2011 Nov 07].
Retrieved Jan 2012 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wireless_network.jpg.
Slide 11: Network Interface Card [image on the Internet]. (Helix84, 2005, CC BY-SA 3.0) [cited 2011 Nov 07].
Retrieved Jan 2012 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_interface_card.
Slide 11: Wireless Interface Card [image on the Internet]. (Wheeler, 2007, CC BY-SA 3.0) [cited 2011 Nov 07].
Retrieved Jan 2012 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:WLAN_PCI_Card_cleaned.png.
Slide 12: Network Switch [image on the Internet]. (Sub, 2007, PD-US) [cited 2011 Nov 07]. Retrieved Jan 2012
from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ethernet_switch_Atlantis_A02-F5P_5_ports_backend.jpg.
Slide 13: Cisco Linksys Wireless Router [image on the Internet]. c2008 [cited 2011 Nov 07]. Retrieved Jan 2012
from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Linksys_WRT54GL.jpg.
Slide 14: SOHO Wireless Network [image on the Internet]. (Feval, 2006, CC BY-SA 3.0) [cited 2011 Nov 07].
Retrieved Jan 2012 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SPOF.png.
Slide 16: Motorola Cable Modem Router [image on the Internet]. (Larocomp, 2010, PD-US) [cited 2011 Nov 07].
Retrieved Jan 2012 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cable_modem.
Slide 16: D-Link Wireless Router [image on the Internet]. (Macic7, 2007, CC BY 3.0) [cited 2011 Nov 07].
Retrieved Jan 2012 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wirelessadsl2%2Brouter.dlink.dslg684t.JPG.
Slide 20: Large UPS Device [image on the Internet]. (Cgxke, 20087, PD-US) [cited 2011 Nov 07]. Retrieved Jan
2012 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:500kVA-UPS.jpg.
Slide 20: Small UPS Device [image on the Internet]. (Amakuru, 2006, CC BY-SA 3.0) [cited 2011 Nov 07].
Retrieved Jan 2012 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:UPSRearView.jpg.
Slide 20: Multi-outlet Surge Protector [image on the Internet]. (Amakuru, 2006, CC BY-SA 3.0) [cited 2011 Nov 07].
Retrieved Jan 2012 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Surge_protector.jpg.
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Introduction to Information and Computer Science
Networks
Lecture d