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INTRODUCTION

Today, I will tell you a story. Once there was a family of Natural
Numbers where all counting numbers used to live. One day a
guest named zero visited the house and requested for a
permission to stay there. All were happy; they requested the
eldest member of the family Mr. infinite () to grant the
permission for 0. The permission was granted and the name of the
house was changed to house of Whole numbers. Now, after some
time negative numbers also visited the house and requested for
the permission to be the part of the family. They were permitted
and now the family became the family of Integers i.e. - . ..-
3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,..
On seeing the family living together, some numbers which were in
form of p/q, where p and q are natural numbers also asked for a
permission to stay there. They were called Fractions . Some
fractions are 4/7, 2/5 etc. The family of fractions also told that if
you all see the denominator with you, which is not usually visible,
then you will also become the part of fractions family. All the
numbers started trying it and realized that they all are the part of
fractions. But this was not true for negative integers . The meeting
was held, in which it was decided that a name Rational number will
be given to the family. A family of Rational Numbers consists of all
the numbers which can be expressed in form of p/q, where p and
q are integers, but q 0



MS.RITU CHHABRA
TGT MATHS
K.V. SAINIK VIHAR

PREPARED
BY-







Consider the fractions
1
1
,
1
2
,
1
3
,
2
3
,
3
3
. Let us create new numbers by
replacing the numerator or denominator in each fraction by its
negative. For example, corresponding to the fraction
2
3
, we get -
2
3
or
2
3
, corresponding to the fraction
50
3
, we get
50
3
or
50
3
and so
on. All numbers created in this manner together with the original
fractions are called rational numbers. A rational number is a
number of the form p/q where p and q are the integers and qo.
For example-
6
5
,
13
2
,
0
3
,
10
13
etc are rational numbers.









If p and q are positive integers then the rational
numbers

and

are both positive rational


numbers. For example-
1
2
,
5
7
,
3
8
,
15
13
,
30
58
etc are
positive rational numbers. If p and q are positive
integers then the rational numbers

and


are both negative rational numbers.
EQUIVALENT
RATIONAL NUMBERS
Any two rational numbers are said to be
equivalent if their standard forms are
equal.





= =
1
2





2
4


4
8

To obtain equivalent rational numbers , we
multiply (or divide) the numerator and
denominator of the given rational number by
the same integer (other than 0)
For example-
1
3

1
3
x
2
2
=
2
6

1
3
x
3
3
=
3
9

1
3
x
5
5
=
5
15

All are equivalent fractions.


Exercise

Identify whether the given rational numbers is
positive , negative or neither.

3
2
POSITIVE

4
5
POSITIVE

3
8
NEGATIVE

0
1
NEITHER
Write a rational number equivalent to
9
8

with 48 as denominator.

Write a rational number equivalent to
7
3

with 21 as numerator.

ANS 1;
54
48


ANS 2;
21
9