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Time and Stress Management

What Is Stress?
Stress
Psychological, Emotional, Physiological
Response
Stressors
Threatening Environmental Conditions
Why Is Stress
Management Important?
Organizational Costs
Individual Costs
Health Impairment
Job Burnout
Performance Decline
Exhibit 6.1: Relationship Between
Stress and Job Performance
Stress in Canada
Region % as stressed as they
could handle on the way
to overwhelmed
Alberta 38
Atlantic Canada 41
British Columbia 37
Ontario 39
The Prairies 32
Quebec 64
The most stressful jobs
1. US President 176.6
2. Firefighter 110.9
3. Senior executive 108.6
12. Public relations 78.5
16. Advertising account executive 74.6
20. Stockbroker 71.7
42. Advertising sales 59.9
50. College Professor 54.2
103. Market research analyst 42.1
104. Personnel 41.8
173. Accountant 31.1
245. Actuary 20.2

Some facts
25% of white collar workers and 40% of blue
collar workers had a stress-related absence in
1998 at a cost of $12 billion
One in three Canadians bet 25-44 claims to be
a workaholic
The rate of physical and psychological
assaults on women in the workplace is 19%
higher in Canada than in the US. For men the
rate is 400% higher.
Experiencing stress
STRESSORS
Anticipatory,
Encounter,Time,
Situational
REACTIONS
Physiological,
Psychological
RESILIENCY
Physical
Psychological
Social
Exhibit 6.2: Model of the Stress Management Process
Potential Stressors

Personal Factors
Family problems
Financial problems
Health problems

Organizational Factors
High stress occupation
Job role
Overload
Under-utilization
Role ambiguity
Role conflict
Responsibility for others

Job Environment
Poor working conditions
Organizational politics
Poor work relationships

Environmental Factors
Economic Uncertainty
Technological Change
Politics
Consequences

Psychological
Heart Disease
Ulcers
Headaches

Emotional
Anxiety
Depression
Burnout

Behavioral
Aggression
Productivity
Avoidance

Successful Coping
High self esteem
Goal accomplishment
Feeling of well being
Stress Management

Individual
Seek help
Time management
Change jobs
Build resiliency
Personality
Companionship
Experience
Health (Exercise, diet)
Relaxation
Recreation

Organizational
Job Design
Selection & Placement
Training & Mentoring
Team Building
Employee Assistance
Communicating
Wellness Promotion

Experienced Stress
(SYMPTOM AWARENESS)
Managing Stress: Objectives
Becoming Aware of Negative Stress
Symptoms
Determining the Sources
Determining the Cause
And then
Cope temporarily with the stress
Eliminate stressors
Develop resiliency
How Can Awareness of Stress
Symptoms Be Enhanced?
Physical Symptoms
Psychological Substitutes
Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
Constant fatigue [] [] [] [] []
Low energy level [] [] [] [] []
Recurring headaches [] [] [] [] []
Gastrointestinal disorders [] [] [] [] []
Bad breath [] [] [] [] []
Sweaty hands or feet [] [] [] [] []
Dizziness [] [] [] [] []
High blood pressure [] [] [] [] []
Pounding heart [] [] [] [] []
Sources of Stress
Major Organizational Stressors
High-stress Occupations
Job Role
Interpersonal Relationships
Major Personal Stressors
Family Problems
Financial Problems
Health Problems
Personality
Major Environmental Stressors
Economic Uncertainty
Political Uncertainties
Technological Change

Types of Stressors: Causes
Time
Encounter
Situational
Anticipatory

Managing Stress
Eliminate
Stressors
Develop
Resiliency
Temporary
coping
mechanisms
Permanent
effects
Long term Short term
Enactive
approach
Proactive
approach
Reactive
approach
Long time
required
Moderate time
required
Immediate
Resiliency:
Physiological
Cardiovascular
conditioning
Proper diet
Social
Supportive relations
Mentors
teamwork

Psychological
Balanced lifestyle
Hardy personality
Small wins strategy
Relaxation techniques


Short term strategies
Reframing
Imagery

Types of stressors and what we
can do about them
Time Stressors
Work overload
Lack of control
Elimination Strategies
Principles of time management
Delegation


Eliminating time stressors:
Time management
Effective time management can enable
managers to gain control over their time and
organize their fragmented, chaotic
environment.
Effective time management
means
Spending time on important, not just urgent
matters
Distinguishing clearly between importance and
urgency
Focusing on results not methods
Not feeling guilty when saying no
Effective time management
URGENCY
High Low
I
M
P
O
R
T
A
N
C
E


Low

High

80/20 Rule
Activities Time Spent Results

Trivial 80% 20%

Vital 20% 80%
Efficient time management
Too little time; too much to do
How do I get more done?

Schedule
Schedule Activities
Horizontal Scheduling
Vertical Scheduling
Directing and Controlling

Rules
Read selectively
Make lists
Everything in its place
Prioritize
Multitask the routine
Discretionary task jar
Divide up the big jobs
Critical 20%
Best time for important jobs
Arrange non-interrupted
time
Dont procrastinate
Keep track of time
Set deadlines
Use waiting time
Designate time for busy
work
Closure on one thing a day
Schedule personal time
Limit worry time
Long term objectives
Continuous improvement
Tips for managers
Hold routine meetings at end of day
Set time limit
Hold meetings only if needed
Agendas, minutes
Start on time
Paper work decisions
Organize
Limit interruptions
Delegate
Empowerment: allow for initiative
Give credit to those who deserve it
Types of stressors and what we
can do about them
Encounter Stressors:
Role Conflicts
Issue
Interaction
Elimination Strategies:
Delegation
Interpersonal skills
Conflict resolution
Resilience
Social support; Collaboration
Self awareness
EQ


Types of stressors and what we
can do about them
Situational Stressors:
Unfavourable working conditions
Rapid change
Elimination Strategies:
Work redesign
Changing jobs
Short term Strategies
resiliency

Work redesign
Level of task demand
Level of autonomy (individual control &
discretion)
Level of interest
Feedback
Types of stressors and what we
can do about them
Anticipatory Stressors:
Unpleasant expectations
Fear
Elimination Strategies:
Time management
Priorities; planning
Short term strategies
Resiliency


Stress and Self awareness
Values
Attitude towards change
Cognitive style
Interpersonal orientation

There is more to life than
increasing its speed.
Mahatma Gandhi