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VNS Institute of

Technology

Presentation on

ALOHA

By:-

Anurag mishra
Introduction

• Aloha means affection, love, peace,


compassion and mercy.

• state nickname of Hawaii, the "Aloha


State".

• In 1970s NORMAN ABRAMSON & his


colleagues
at Hawaii university .
Broadcast Channels

• Also referred to as Multi-access


channels/Random access channels.

• MAC (Medium Access Control) determines


the next arrival.

• Examples of random access MAC


protocols:
• ALOHA,LAN.
• CSMA, CSMA/CD.
• Wireless radio.
PURE (unslotted) ALOHA
• Pure Aloha: simpler, no synchronization

• Packet needs transmission:


• send without awaiting for beginning of slot

• collision probability increases:


• packet sent at t0 collide with other pkts sent
in [t0-1, t0+1].
Throughput of PURE ALOHA
• Probability is given by Pr[k] = Gk e–G / k!

• P(success) = e-G x e-G = e-2G

• Throughput (success rate) = Ge-2G

• Max throughput at G = 1/2, Throughput =


1/2e ~ 0.18

• Advantages of unslotted aloha are simplicity


and possibility of unequal length packets.
SLOTTED ALOHA
• 1972 Robert founded slotted aloha.

• Nodes are synchronized. All frames same size

• If collision, node retransmits frame in each


subsequent slot with prob. p until success.

Success (S), Collision (C), Empty (E) slots


 Success (S), Collision (C), Empty (E) slots
Success (S), Collision (C), Empty (E) slots
Throughput of SLOTTED
ALOHA
The throughput is the fraction of slots that contain a successful transmission = P(success) =
• Ge-G .

G < 1 => too many idle slots.


G > 1 => too many collisions.


P(success) = Ge−G = 1/ e ≈ 0.36 .


Aloha is inherently unstable and needs algorithm to keep it stable .



Throughput comparison
• Stabilized pure aloha T = 0.184 = (1/
(2e))
• Stabilized slotted aloha T = 0.368 =
(1/e) 0.4
(success rate)
S = throughput =

0.3

Slotted Aloha
“goodput”

0.2

0.1
Pure Aloha

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

G = offered load = Np
THANK YOU