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PERCEPTION

WHAT IS PERCEPTION ?
Perception Is The Process By Which People
Select, Organize, Interpret and Respond to
Information From The World Around Them.
It may be described As a
Persons View Of Reality.

FEATURES OF PERCEPTION
Sensory Experience: Perception is our sensory experience of
the world around us and involves both the recognition of
environment stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli.

Subjective: Perception is a subjective process because
different people may look at the same event from different
angles and interpret the same in multifarious ways.







Filter: Perception serves like a filter through which
information passes before it has an effect on
people.

Unique Interpretation: Perception is a
unique interpretation of the situation, not
an exact recording of it.
Seeing Things Differently: is an inevitable
outcome of perception. Because of
individual differences, perception vary
among people and differ from objective
reality.
Basis of Human Behavior: There can be no
behavior without perception and perception
lies at the base of every individual
behavior.


PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
Selection
(ext/int. factors)
Organization
Interpretation

Observation

I. PERCEPTUAL SELECTION
It is a Tendency to Filter out information
that is discomforting, that seems irrelevant,
or that contradicts ones Values and Beliefs.

ATTENTION FACTORS IN SELECTION
1. EXTERNAL FACTORS
2. INTERNAL FACTORS
EXTERNAL FACTORS
1. SIZE
2. INTENSITY
3. CONTRAST
4. REPETITION
5. MOTION
6. NOVELTY AND
FAMIIARITY
Larger the Object Higher is the Probability of Getting
Noticed.

Ex: Full Page Advertisement in a Newspaper, A Very Tall
Person In Crowd etc.
SIZE
INTENSITY
The More Intense The External
Stimuli The More Likely It Is To Be
Perceived.

Ex: A Loud Noise, Bright
Light, Celebrity Endorsements etc
CONTRAST
The External Stimuli Which Stands Out Against
The Background Will Receive More Attention
REPETITION
A Repeated Stimuli Is More Attention Drawing
Than a Single One
Ex: Same Advertisement or Different
Advertisement But For The Same Product Shown
Again & Again.


MOTION
An Animated Sign Attracts More Attention
Than a Billboard

NOVELTY AND FAMILIARITY
A New And Unique Stimulus Will Often
Be Perceived More Readily Than Those
Observed On A Regular Basis.
Ex: An Elephant Walking Along A City Street Is
Noticed Instantly.

INTERNAL FACTORS
1. PERSONALITY
2. EXPERIENCE
3. VALUES AND BELIEFS
4. EXPECTATIONS
5. LEARNING

PERSONALITY
Personality Also Affects What Is To Be Perceived

Ex: A Person With Positive Self Concept Is Likely
To Notice Positive Attributes In Another Person.
The person who believes they can do something
is probably right....
And who believes they cant do they can't.
EXPERIENCE
Successful Experience Enhance And Boost The
Perceptive Abilities And Lead To Accuracy In
Perception Of a Person Where Failure Comes
In The Way Of Self Confidence.

It Creates An Expectancy Which Makes Him See
What He Wants To See
VALUES AND BELEIFS
Information is Remembered which is
consistent with our Values and Attitudes and
rest is ignored which is inconsistent with
them.

Ex: In spite of all their mistakes, our
employees are doing the best they can.

EXPECTATIONS
Expectations can influence perceptions in
what we will see what we expect to see.

Ex: If we imagine that our boss is unhappy
with our performance, we feel threatened
by termination notice.
LEARNING
Learning refers to any
relatively permanent
change in behavior
that occurs as a result
of experience.
Learning plays a big
role in developing
ones perception.
Turn Off The
The Engine
II.PERCEPTUAL ORGANISING
Perceptual Organization Is The Process By
Which People Categorize According To Their
Frame Of Reference, based On Their Past
Learning And Experiences.

Following Principles Are Kept in Mind While
Organising the Information into a Meaningful
One. These are:

Figure Ground
Perceptual Grouping




Field-Ground Differentiation

The tendency to distinguish
and focus on a stimulus that
is classified as figure as
opposed to background.



PERCEPTUAL GROUPING

It is the Tendency to group several individual
stimuli into a meaningful and recognizable
pattern.

Some factors Underlying Grouping are
-Continuity
-Closure
-Proximity
-Similarity

CLOSURE


Perceiving a whole where it does not
exist

Fill in the missing stimuli
SIMPLIFICATION
Making Information More Easy To Remember,
Meaningful And Subtracting Less Important
Information And Concentrating On
Important One.
CONTINUITY

A person tends to Perceive the Extension
of a Stimulus

Thinking Along Existing lines
PROXIMITY

A group of stimuli that are physically
close to each other are perceived as a
set of parts belonging together
SIMILARITY

The greater the similarity of the stimuli,
the more they are likely to be perceived
as a common group
Perceptual Constancy
The perception of elements like size,
shape, color, brightness and location of an
object remains constant & does not change
from people to people.

For instance, even though the picture of an
apple is printed in black and white, we still
perceive the color of the fruit as red.

Perceptual Context
Context provides meaning and value
to objects, events, situation and
other people.
Different contexts convey different
meanings to people.
PERCEPTUAL INTERPRETATION

After Selecting and Organising the Stimuli
has to be Interpreted in order to make a
sensible meaning.

Perceiver cant draw any meaning without
interpretation.

Perceiver uses his Assumption of People,
Things, Object and Situation


PERCEPTUAL DISTORTIONS
Errors in Perceptual Judgement are called
Perceptual Judgement.
Following are Barriers To Perceptual
Accuracy:

Barriers to Perceptual Accuracy
Stereotyping Halo effect
Projection Expectancy Effect
Primacy Effect:First impressions Recency Effect
Perceptual Defense Attribution
Stereotyping
Generalizing characteristics on Basis of
Category or Class to which Person
Belongs
Halo Effect
Drawing a General Impression About an
Individual on the Basis of a Single
Characteristic
Projection
Attribute Ones Own Characteristics to
Other People
Expectancy Effect
Expectancy Effects are the extent to which prior
expectations bias perceptions of events, objects and
people.
Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect): The lower or
higher performance of employees reflects preconceived
leader expectations about employee capabilities
Primacy Effects: First Impressions
The common adage that first impressions count
is technically known as the primacy effect.
Generally, the first impression lasts longer
unless greatly contradicted by information
received later.
Recency Effect
A generally Accepted fact that if there
is a time lag between the first piece
of information and the last, then the
last piece of information carries more
weight. This is called Recency Effect.
Perceptual Defense

Against those stimuli which clash with
their beliefs, values or culture.

People attempt to avoid registering
those stimulus that conflict, threaten or
are unacceptable to them

ATTRIBUTION THEORY
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Assigning to a cause or source
The way in which people explain the
cause for their own or others behavior
Behaviour
Internally
Caused
Externally
Caused
OR
Factors for Determining
Attribution
1. Distinctiveness: Shows different
behaviors in different situations
2. Consensus: Response is the same as
others to same situation
3. Consistency: Responds in the same
way across time
Role of Perception in
Decision Making Process

The perception of a situation is central to the
decision making process.

To make effective decisions a manager must not
only perceive but understand other people.

The individual decision makers perceptual
process will have a large bearing on the final
outcome.







Perception in Decision-making is
based on a persons internal
understanding of reality rather than
reality itself.
CONCLUSION
If
everyone perceived everything
the same way,things would be a
lot simpler
THANK YOU
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