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Douglas Kinard, III

Water Efficiency
Water Efficiency
Wastewater Technologies
Water Use Reduction
Wheres the Water
What is ground water?
Ground-water aquifers
Water Efficiency - Overview
The intent of the WE credits 1, 2 & 3
Water Efficient Landscaping
Innovative Wastewater Technologies
Water Use Reduction
LEED Baselines and Assumptions
Applicable technologies to earn these credits
Non-applicable technologies
Barriers to acceptance
Water Efficient Landscaping
The objective of Credits WE 1.1 and 1.2
Limit or eliminate the use of potable water for
landscaping irrigation.
WE 1.1
Reduce potable water consumption for
irrigation by 50% over conventional means
WE 1.2
Eliminate the use of all potable water for

Water Efficient Landscaping
WE 1.1 50% Reduction
Use high efficiency irrigation technology OR use
captured rainwater or recycled site water to reduce
potable water consumption for irrigation by 50% over
conventional means.
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the
architect, engineer or responsible party, declaring that
potable water consumption for irrigation has been
reduced by 50%. Requires a brief narrative of the
equipment and/or the use of drought-tolerant or native

Water Efficient Landscaping
WE 1.2 Eliminate Potable Water Use
Use only captured rainwater or recycled site water to
eliminate all potable water use for irrigation, OR do
not install permanent landscape irrigation.
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the
architect, engineer or responsible party, declaring that
potable water will not be used for irrigation. Requires
a brief narrative describing the rain capture system,
the recycled site water system and the holding
capacity. List all plant species and include the
calculations showing capacity meets need.

Water Efficient Landscaping
To quantify water efficient landscape measures it is
necessary to calculate irrigation volumes for the
designed landscape irrigation system for the month
of July and compare it to the volume required for a
baseline landscape irrigation system.
= k
x k
x k

= k
x k
x k
The Landscape Coefficient
The Species Factor
The Density Factor
The Microclimate Factor

Veg Type k
Trees 0.2 0.5 0.9 0.5 1.0 1.3 0.5 1.0 1.4
Shrubs 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.5 1.0 1.1 0.5 1.0 1.3
Groundcovers 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.5 1.0 1.1 0.5 1.0 1.2
Mixed 0.2 0.5 0.9 0.6 1.1 1.3 0.5 1.0 1.4
Turfgrass 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.6 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.0 1.2
Water Efficient Landscaping
High efficiency
Native plants
Water harvesting
Grey-water usage
High efficiency irrigation
Micro-irrigation systems
Moisture systems
Clock timers
Weather database
Water Harvesting
Irrigation Runoff
Cooling towers
HVAC systems
Water Efficient Landscaping
Xeriscape landscaping
Xeriscape landscaping is defined as quality
landscaping that conserves water and
protects the environment.
The word Xeriscape was coined and
copyrighted by Denver Water Department in
1981 to help make water conserving
landscaping an easily recognized concept.
The word is a combination of the Greek word
xeros, which means dry, and landscape.

Water Efficient Landscaping
The seven principles upon which
Xeriscape landscaping is based are:
Proper planning and design
Soil analysis and improvement
Appropriate plant selection
Practical turf areas
Efficient irrigation
Use of mulches
Appropriate maintenance

Water Efficient Landscaping
The eight fundamentals of water-wise
landscaping and Xeriscape landscaping
Group plants according to their water needs.
Use native and low-water-use plants.
Limit turf areas to those needed for practical uses.
Use efficient irrigation systems.
Schedule irrigation wisely.
Make sure soil is healthy.
Remember to mulch.
Provide regular maintenance.

Benefits of water-efficient
Lower water bills from reduced
water use.

Conservation of natural resources
and preservation of habitat for
plants and wildlife such as fish
and waterfowl.

Decreased energy use (and air
pollution associated with its
generation) because less pumping
and treatment of water is required.

Reduced home or office heating
and cooling costs through the
careful placement of trees and
Reduced runoff of stormwater and
irrigation water that carries top soils,
fertilizers, and pesticides into lakes,
rivers, and streams.

Fewer yard trimmings to be
managed or landfilled.

Reduced landscaping labor and
maintenance costs.

Extended life for water resources
infrastructure (e.g., reservoirs,
treatment plants, groundwater
aquifers), thus reduced taxpayer

Water Conservation
The objective of Credits WE 2.0 and 3.1/3.2:
Waste water reduction or treatment/Potable water use
WE 2.0
50% reduction of waste water or treat 100% of waste
water on site to tertiary standards (1 credit.)
WE 3.1
20% reduction of potable water use (1 credit)
WE 3.2
30% reduction (10% additional, 1 credit)

Water Efficiency 2.0

Of the 109 certified projects (version 2, as at
June 16
2004), 21 have achieved WE Credit
2.0, of those, only 8 have used the treatment of
wastewater on site to tertiary standards as the
method of meeting the credit criteria.
The intent of this credit is to encourage
innovative, proactive wastewater technologies.
Simply reducing water use is not adopting an
innovative wastewater technology, and would
not qualify for this credit.

LEED Baseline
US EPA Standard

Water Closet 6 L/F (1.6)
Urinals 3.8 L/F (1.0)
Lavatory Faucet 9.5 L/min (2.5)
Kitchen Faucet 9.5 L/min (2.5)
Shower Head 9.5 L/min (2.5)
BC Plumbing Regulations*
(Standard Practice)

Water Closet 13.25 L/F (3.5)
Urinals 5.7 L/F (1.5)
Lavatory Faucet 8.3 L/min (2.2)
Kitchen Faucet 8.3 L/min (2.2)
Shower Head 9.5 L/min (2.5)
USGBC LEED uses the more stringent US Energy
Policy Act as a water usage baseline:
*Exception, new residential construction in Vancouver requires
6 L/F Water Closets and 3.8 L/F urinals
LEED Assumptions
Calculations do not include process water.

Process water includes, but is not limited to, water
use from cooling towers, dishwashers and clothes
washers. Optimization of process water use is
eligible for LEED credit under the Innovation in
Design category.

Water used in industrial processes is also

LEED Assumptions
Fixture Usage:

There are no set criteria for determining daily use or
duration of use. However, the LEED reference
guide offers some guidelines:

Male occupants are assumed to use water closets
once and urinals twice in a typical work day.

Female occupants are assumed to use water
closets three times... Lavatory use for 15 seconds
for each restroom use & kitchen faucets once for 15

LEED Assumptions

These assumptions are based on full time
occupants, so you will need to make assumptions
for visitors.

Visitors use restrooms, so they should be included
in water use calculations... short term visitors are
not required to be included in the number of
occupants that use showers.

LEED Assumptions
Visitor Usage:
Average # of daily visitors X Average length of visit
8 hours = equivalent full time employees
(assume 1:1 ratio men to women or as appropriate)
48 daily visitors X 30 minutes per average visit (0.5 hours)
8 hours = 3 full time employees

(LEED Calculator allows you to enter partial people, 1.5 men and 1.5
women from the example above)

Water Saving Technology
Composting Toilets (0 L/F)
Waterless Urinal (0 L/F)
Ultra Low flow Toilets (Varies ~3 L/F, .8 G/F)
Dual Flush Toilets (6 & 3 L/F, 1.6 & .8 G/F)
Low flow Toilets (4.1 L/F, 1.1 G/F)
Applicable to credit 3.1/3.2 Only:
Low Flow Shower Heads (6.8 L/min, 1.8 G/min)
Low Flow Faucets (6.8 L/min, 1.8 G/min)
Ultra Low Shower (5.7 L/min, 1.5 G/min)
Ultra Low Flow Faucets (1.9 L/min, 0.5 G/min)

Water Savings
Composting Toilets: 42% to 44%
Waterless Urinal: 13% to 16%
Ultra low-flow Toilets: 21% to 24%
Dual Flush Toilets: 10% to 14%
Low flow Toilets: 13% to 16%

Applicable to credits 3.1 & 3.2 Only:

Low flow Faucets: 5% to 9%
Low flow Shower head: 4%
Ultra low flow Faucets 22% to 25%
Ultra low Shower head: 6%

Baseline Case
Design Case
Composting Toilets
Only a handful of public or
commercial buildings in
Canada use composting
Requires electricity to operate
(commercial type).
Relatively expensive if
plumbing is already in place,
cost effective if off grid.

Waterless Urinal
Gradually gaining more
Can be ~$200 per fixture up-
charge compared to
convention urinals, however,
no supply plumbing required.
Must be properly maintained.

Dual Flush Toilets
Relatively well accepted in the
marketplace, with some
Approximately the same cost
as a commercial toilet.
Wide range of performance,
depending on manufacturer.
Non-Applicable Technology
The on-site adjustment or water savings strategy
must be permanent.

Water closet dams and non-tamperproof flow
restriction devices (faucet and shower aerators)
are considered non-permanent and easily
tampered with/vandalized even if performance
problems do not arise.

Code Issues
Fixture Availability/Performance
Client Resistance

Elongated Bowl Requirements
Figure 7 illustrates typical bowl-rim profiles, but dimensions of the rim are not
requirements of this Standard.
CSA Approvals/Accessibility
The waterless urinal has gone
back and forth as an approved
fixture it is currently fully
CSA approved (as of March)
Toilet installations may need
to take accessibility into
Fixture Performance
Many low flow toilets, faucets and
showers fail to perform
adequately, ultra low flow are
even less reliable.
The fact that maintenance is
different on some water saving
fixtures is an issue.
Vandal proof fixtures are often a
requirement (tankless dual flush
toilets have only just become

Client Acceptance
Technology Adoption Curve
Exemplary Performance
Innovation and Design Credits:
For WE Credit 2, exemplary performance
requires 100%(?) reduction in potable water use
for wastewater (~ 2 projects achieved this)
For WE Credit 3, the exemplary performance
threshold is 40% less water use (~ 14 projects
have achieved this credit).
Other ID credits have been awarded for treated
wastewater re-use, process water efficiency and
fire system water reclamation (4 projects).