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ACCOUNTING & FINANCE FOR

BANKERS

Topics

Partnership accounts

Final accounts of an!in" co#panies

Co#pan$ accounts

Balance sheet e%uation

Accountin" in a Co#puteri&e'
en(iron#ent

Partnership Accounts

Intro'uction

)efinition

Partnership 'ee'

In the asence of partnership 'ee'*if
'ee' is silent

Profit sharin" ratio +E%ual

No interest on capital

No interest on 'ra,in"s

interest-./ on loan "i(en $ partner

No salar$ *no co##ission* no re#uneration

Capital accounts un'er fluctuatin" capital


#etho'

0etho's of capital accounts

Fi1e'

Capital account2transactions relatin" to capital

Current account

Other transactions such as Interest3 profit3


"oo',ill3 past profits*losses & a'4ust#ents

Fluctuatin"

One account2 all transactions



GOO)5I66

It7s reputation3 super profit earnin" capacit$ of a


fir#

Necessit$

chan"e in profit sharin" ratio

A'#ission3 retire#ent3 'eath

Sale of usiness

0etho's8

A(era"e profit

Super profit

capitali&ation of profit

0etho's of "oo',ill
A(era"e profit
9AP:
Super profit
9SP:
Capitali&ation of
profit
AP 1 0ultiplier SP 1 #ultiplier
SP ; AP less NP
NP;nor#al profit
9Capitalise'
(alue: less
Actual Capital
0ultiplier is
"i(en
0ultiplier is
"i(en

GOO)5I66 I0PORTANT ENTRIES

A)0ISSION

5hen "oo',ill is raise' an' ,ritten off

)eit "oo',ill an' cre'it ol' partners capital a*c 9ol'


ratio:

)eit All partners capital a*c & cre'it "oo',ill 9ne,


ratio:

RETIRE0ENT*)EAT<

5hen "oo',ill is raise' an' ,ritten off

)eit "oo',ill an' cre'it ol' partners capital a*c 9ol'


ratio:

)eit Continuin" partners capital a*c & cre'it "oo',ill


9ne, ratio:

=

A)0ISSION

re(aluation of assets* liailities3 "oo',ill3


capital a'4ust#ents3 alance of reser(es3 past
losses

RETIRE0ENT

As per Act of >?@A3 retire#ent $ consent3


partnership 'ee' pro(ision3 at ,ill $ "i(in"
proper notice

re(aluation of assets* liailities3 "oo',ill3


capital a'4ust#ents3 alance of reser(es3 past
losses

Boint life polic$
Pre#iu# treate' as
e1penses
Pre#iu# treate' as
asset
Pre#iu# treate' as
reser(es
At the en' of each
$ear3 pre#iu# ,*o to P
& 6 A*c
Each $ear 'ifference
et,een surren'er
(alue an' Boo! (alue
is ,*o to P & 6 A*c
'ifference et,een SC
an' BC is ,*o to BtD
Polic$ Reser(e A*c
receipt of polic$ a#tD
A#ount recei(e' is cre'ite'
to partners
receipt of polic$ a#tD
If a#ount is E SC3 the
e1cess is cre'ite' to
partners
receipt of polic$ a#tD
Polic$ a#ount cre'ite'
to partners

T$pes of partners

Acti(e

Sleepin"

Fuasi

no#inal

FINA6 ACCOUNTS OF BANKING
CO0PANIES

)efinition

Re%uire#ents +Accounts & au'it

Thir' Sche'ule anne1e' to BRA

For# A2 Balance sheet

For# B2 Profit & 6oss Account

Au'it

Su#ission of accounts2 RBI2 ,ithin @ #onths

Pulication of accounts2 ,ithin . #onths

Au'itor2prior appro(al of RBI for appt*re#o(al



Balance sheet2For# A
Capital & 6iailities Assets
>DCapital .DCash & Ban! BalD RBI
AD Reser(es & surplus GDBalances ,ith Ban!s &
0one$ at call an' SN
@D)eposits HDIn(est#ents
IDBorro,in"s ?A'(ances
5 Other Liabilities & Provisions
>JDFi1e' Assets
>>DOther Assets

)e#an' 'eposits

Cre'it alances in O) an' CC

)eposits pa$ale at call

O(er'ue 'eposits

In2operati(e current accounts

0ature' ti#e 'eposits

0ature' cash certificates

0ature' certificate of 'eposits



Contin"ent liailities
Schedule-12

Clai#s a"ainst an! not ac!no,le'"e' as 'ets

6iailit$ for partl$ pai' shares

6iailit$ on account of outstan'in" for,ar'


e1chan"e contracts

Acceptances 3en'orse#ent & other oli"ations

Other ite#s for ,hich an! is contin"entl$ lialeD



PROFIT & 6OSS ACCOUNT2FOR0
B Inco#e
Interest Earne'
Other Inco#e
Sche'uleD>@
Sche'uleD>I
E1pen'iture
Interest E1pen'e'
Operatin" E1penses
Pro(ision for contin"encies
Sche'uleD>K
Sche'uleD>.
Profit *6oss
Appropriations
Transfer to Reser(es
Propose' 'i(i'en'
Balance carrie' to Balance
sheet

NOTES TO ACCOUNTS
Si"nificant
Accountin"
Policies
Sche'uleD>G
Notes for#in"
part of Accounts
Sche'uleD>H

Other Inco#e

Profit on e1chan"e transactions

Profit on sale of in(est#ents

Profit on re(aluation of in(est#ents

Profit on sale of fi1e' assets

6ettin" of loc!er 9inco#e fro# loc!er char"es


:

0iscD inco#e 2Go'o,n rent



Pon'er o(er these points

Go(tD securities sho,n at oo! (alue an' 'iffD


et,een 0C an' BC is "i(en in the notes

If so#e fi1e' assets are ,*o on re(aluation of


assets*re'uction of capital e(er$ B*S after
,ar's shoul'D sho, the re(ise' fi"ure for ne1t
K $rsD 5ith the 'ate & a#tD re(ise'

Other fi1e' assets inclu'es (ehicles3 furniture


an' fi1turesD 6oc!ers an' safe 'eposit (aults
are inclu'e' in furniture

Pon'er o(er these points

AJ/ to reser(e fun' efore 'eclarin"


'i(i'en'

Gol' is treate' as in(est#ent

Sil(er is treate' as other assets

Inco#e fro# perfor#in" assets is reco"ni&e'


on accrual asis ,hile in r*o non2perfor#in"
assets it is on cash asis

In r*o NPA3 if inco#e is alrea'$ reco"ni&e'3


then #a!e pro(ision

ASSET C6ASSIFICATION ETC

Asset Classification

Perfor#in" an'

non perfor#in" 9 re#ain out of or'er:

Inco#e Reco"nition

Perfor#in"2accrual asis

Non perfor#in"2cash asis

Asset Classification

St'2JDIJ/ 9re(ise' fro# JDAK/:

Su2St'DL>H #onths2>J/

)outfulE>H #onths2usl2>JJ/2secure'D@$rs2KJ/3E>&L@2@J/2
upto >$ear2AJ/

6oss assets2>JJ/

S6R & NON S6R )EPOSITS
<el' to #aturit$ A(ailale for
sale
<el' for tra'in"
In(est#ent shoul'
not e1cee' AK/ of
total in(est#ent
Free'o# a(ailale Free'o# a(ailale
2no #ar!e' to #ar!etD
Profit on sale treate' as
capD Reser(e
20ar!e' to #ar!et
2profit on sale of
in(est#entDta!en to
P&6 a*c
0ar!e' to #ar!et
To e sol' ,ithin
?J 'a$s

CO0PANM ACCOUNTS
Features of a Joint stock Company

Incorporate' association

Artificial person

Perpetual succession

Co##on seal

6i#ite' liailit$

Separation of #ana"e#ent fro# o,nership

Transferailit$ of shares

Separate le"al status

6ar"e #e#ership

T$pes of co#panies
On the asis of
incorporation
On the asis of
o,nership
On the asis of
liailit$
Chartere'
co#pan$
Pri(ate co#pan$ CoDli#ite' $
shares
Statutor$
co#pan$
Pulic co#pan$ CoD 6t'D $
"uarantee
Re"istere'
co#pan$
Go(ern#ent
co#pan$
CoD ,ith
unli#ite'
liailit$
Forei"n
co#pan$
<ol'in"
co#pan$

S<ARE CAPITA6

EFUITM

PREFERENCE

CU0U6ATICE

RE)EE0AB6E

PARTICIPATING

S<ARE CAPITA6

AUT<ORISE) CAPITA6

ISSUE) CAPITA6

SUBSCRIBE) CAPITA6

CA66E) CAPITA6

PAI) UP CAPITA6

ISSUE OF S<ARE AT PAR
2BANK
2 S<ARE APP6ICATION
)eite'
2
2
cre'ite'
-
S<ARE APP6ICATION
-S<ARE CAPITA6
)eite'
2
2
Cre'ite'
O(er suscription
2share application
2share capital
2an! 9refun':
2share allot#ent
)eite'
2
2
2
2
Cre'ite'
Cre'ite'
Cre'ite'

S<ARE A66OT0ENT*S<ARE CA66
Share allotment a/c
Share capital a*c
)eite'
2
2
Cre'ite'
Bank a/c
Share allot#ent a*c
)eite'
2
2
Cre'ite'
Share call a/c
Share capital a*c
)eite'
2
2
Cre'ite'
Bank a/c
Share call a*c
)eite'
2
2
Cre'ite'
Calls in arrears a/c
Share allot#ent a*c
Share call a*c
)eite'
2
2
2
Cre'ite'
Cre'ite'

Issue of shares at pre#iu#
Share application*
allot#ent a*c
Share capital A*c
Share pre#iu# A*c
)eite'
2
2
2
Cre'ite'
Cre'ite'

Issue of shares at 'iscount
Share allot#ent A*c
)iscount on issue of
shares A*c
Share capital A*c
)eite'
)eite'
2
2
2
Cre'ite'

Forfeiture of shares
Share capital A*c
Call in arrears A*c
Forfeite' shares A*c
)eite'
2
2
2
Cre'ite'
Cre'ite'

Re2issue of shares
Ban! A*c
Forfeite' shares A*c
Share capital A*c
Capital reser(e A*c
)eite'
)eite'
2
2
2
2
Cre'ite'
Cre'ite'

Issue of Bonus shares
CapD Re'D Reser(e A*c
Share pre#iu# A*c
Capital reser(e A*c
Gen Reser(e A*c
Profit & 6oss A*c
Bonus to sharehol'ers A*c
)eite'
)eite'
)eite'
)eite'
)eite'
2
2
2
2
2
2
cre'ite'
Bonus to sharehol'ers A*c
E%uit$ share capital A*c
)eite' 2
cre'ite'

Balance sheet e%uation
6IABI6ITIES ASSETS
Capital @JJDJJ Fi1e' assets GJJDJJ
Reser(es AJJDJJ Current
assets
@JJDJJ
Ter# 6oans @JJDJJ
Current
6iailities
@JJDJJ
Total >JJJDJJ Total >JJJDJJ

Balance Sheet E%uation
Assets ; 6iailities
Assets ; 6iailities 9N: Capital
6iailities ; Assets 92: Capital
Capital ; Assets 92: 6iailities

BA6ANCE S<EET EFUATION
Assets ; 6iailities
Assets ; Capital N 6iailities
Assets ;Net ,orth N 6iailities
Net ,orth ; Capital N Reser(es& Surplus
Net ,orth ; Assets 6ess 6iailities


>D The Assets of a usiness are RsDKJJJJJ an' its
capital is RsD>>KJJJD Its liailities on that 'ate
,oul' e222222
a: RsD.>KJJJ
: RsD@HKJJJ
c: RsDKJJJJJ
': RsD >>KJJJ
AD A ha' a capital of RsDGKJJJJD <e has also purchase'
"oo's of RsD>KJJJJ on cre'it fro# 0rD SahaD The
(alue of total assets of the entit$ is22222
a: RsDGKJJJJ
: RsD?JJJJJ
c: RsD.JJJJJ
': RsD>JKJJJJ

B*s E%uation
E1a#ples
9>: If the net ,orth of the usiness is RsD>>JJ3fi1e' assets are RsD .JJ3 current
assets RsDIJJ3 in(est#ents RsD@JJ3 current liailities RsD Nil3 ,hat is the
a#ount of clai# to outsi'ersO

RsD >@JJl

RsD KJJ

RsDAJJP

RsD Nil
9A: I'entif$ the ,ron" pair

Outstan'in" e1penses 2 Personal Account accountP

Profit an' 6oss Account 9)rD alance: + Application of fun's

Net ,orth less reser(es & surplus 2 Balance in P & 6 AccountP

Balance sheet 2 Financial position



Co#puteri&e' accountin"

Co#puter lan"ua"e8 cool3 fo1pro3uni1 =etc

Analo" co#puters 8 scientific an' #echD Fiel'

)i"ital co#puters8 co#puteri&e' accountin"

)ata 8 fact

Recor' 8 "roup of 'ata

)ata file8 'ata recor's



Co#puteri&e' accountin"

Co#puter lan"ua"e2 Cool3 Fo1Pro3 Uni1 =DD

Analo" co#puters2 scientific* #echanical fiel'

)i"ital co#puters2 co#puteri&e' accountin"

)ata2 fact

Recor'2 "roup of 'ata

File2 'ata recor'