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Voice Fundamentals

2
Agenda
> Introduction to PBXs & Key Systems
BCM
CS1000 / Meridian Family
> Understanding Lines & Trunks
Positioning IP vs. TDM
> Q & A
> Voicemail Overview
> Engineering Considerations
System Licensing
> Dialing Plans
E911
> Concluding Remarks / Q & A
3
> Three elements are necessary for
telecommunications:
a sending device
a transmission medium
a receiving device

Sender
Transmission
Medium
(telephone wires)
Receiver
The Elements of Telecommunication
PSTN
New York
Toronto
CO
CO
CO
CO
** Notes:
CO =Central Office ( Verizon, Sprint, etc..)
PSTN =Public Switched Telephony Network
(Telecom Industrys Backbone Network of COs)
> Key Telephone System (KTS) Norstar
provides basic local multi-line call handling
used for small businesses
> Hybrid Key Telephone System BCM Family
provides a mix of Key System and PBX capabilities
used by mid-sized businesses
> Private Branch Exchange (PBX) CS1000/ M1 Family
provides sophisticated call management
used by high call volume businesses

Telephone Systems
PSTN
New York
Toronto
CO
CO
CO
CO
> Smaller office environments
> Reduce the number of lines to carrier
> Incoming calls are visible to all phones
> Limited number of ports available
Key Systems
PSTN
New York
Toronto
CO
CO
CO
CO
PSTN
(Public Switched
Telephony Network)
> Used in big office environments
> Intelligent switching between trunks
PBX
PBX
PBX
Private Branch eXchange (PBX)
> TDM (Time Division Multiplexing)
Circuit Switched Networking
Dedicated communication path hard-wired between 2 devices
Guaranteed Connection, inefficient use of bandwidth
Types of TDM communication:
Digital (Trunks / Stations)
Analog (Trunks / Stations)

> VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)
Packet Switched Networking
Voice conversation broken up into packets, traverses IP network
Communication path between 2 devices neither fixed, nor guaranteed
Allows for more efficient use of network bandwidth
Requires appropriate engineering considerations:
What if theres a lot of data traffic on my network (email, web surfing?)
What if packets arrive out of order ?
What if certain packets are delayed ?
What if Packets are lost?
TDM? VoIP? LMNOP? Huh?
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192 digital stations or
up to 90 IP telephones
per system
3-20 users optimal,
growth to 40+ users
32 digital stations or
up to 90 IP telephones
per system
> Positioned as a small system IP / TDM PBX
Programming-wise, more of a Key System
Introduction to the BCM Family
Business Communications Manager (BCM)
9
BCM50
>4 analog trunks
>12 digital stations
>4 analog stations
>32 IP stations
>12 IP trunks
>1 Dedicated RJ-45 LAN
ports
>2 dual purpose RJ-45 LAN /
Expansion ports
>1 Dedicated OA&M port
BCM50e
>All features of BCM50
>Small business routing
>5 IPSec VPN tunnels
>Ethernet WAN
>3 additional LAN ports
>Based on Nortel VPN
Router 221 (Contivity)
BCM50a
>All features of BCM50e
>ADSL Modem WAN
>Based on Nortel VPN
Router 251 (Contivity)
BCM50 Expansion
>Up to 2 units can be attached
to any version of BCM50
>Expands capacity for trunks,
stations
>RJ-45 LAN port (dual purpose
port preservation)
>Supports existing BCM MBMs
4x16 Combo
ASM8
DTM
BRI
DSM16 / 32
GATM4 / 8
BCM 50: Product Overview
Note: The current BCM 50 software (1.0 code) has a slightly
different feature set than the BCM 200/400 today (4.0 Code)
10
Option 11C Cabinet
IPE
IPE
IPE
Inter-group
Option 81C
Option 11C Mini
IPE
Option 61C
20-120 Lines
Up to 700 Lines
Up to 2000 Lines
Up to 16,000 Lines
****Note - Earlier Models: 21, 21c, 51, 51c, 61, 71, 71 C, 81, XT, NT
Meridian 1: Fully-featured PBX (TDM)
Introduction to the Merdian1 / CS 1000
11
100-15,000 Users
IP-TDM Mix





Communication Server
1000M
100-1000 Users
IP Predominant





Communication Server
1000S
Up to 15,000 Users
IP Predominant





Communication Server
1000E
> Wide range of Call Servers provides the right solution for each site
> Newest Call Server - Communication Server 1000E
Industry-standard processing: Motorola cPCI chassis, Pentium CPU
VxWorks Real-Time Operating System
Rack-mounted and distributable
Deployed redundantly
Highly scalable

CS 1000: Fully-featured PBX (IP/TDM/or Hybrid)
Introduction to the Merdian1 / CS 1000
12
Agenda
> Introduction to PBXs & Key Systems
BCM
CS1000 / Meridian Family
> Understanding Lines & Trunks
Positioning IP vs. TDM
> Q & A
> Voicemail Overview
> Engineering Considerations
System Licensing
> Dialing Plans
E911
> Concluding Remarks / Q & A
13


PSTN
New York
Toronto
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
From the CO perspective:
Trunk = CO to CO
Line = CO to Customer Premise
From the Phone System perspective:
Trunk = Phone System to CO
Trunk = Phone System to Phone System
Line (Station)= Phone System to Phone
Trunks - Phone System to PSTN
Whose Line is it Anyway ?
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> Analog Trunks
One voice connection per trunk
Loop Start with or without Calling Line ID
Ground Start
DID - Direct Inward Dial
Routes call directly to station
E&M Tie Lines
Routes calls from one customer
owned phone system to another
Standard Voice Network Trunking Technologies
Local Central Office Trunks (COT)
Foreign Exchange Office (FXO)
Foreign Exchange Station (FXS)
Direct Inward Dialing (DID) Tie Trunks
2 Wire and 4 Wire - Ear and Mouth (E&M)
Type I V Tie Trunks
Trunk Types - Analog
PSTN
New York
Toronto
CO
CO
CO
CO
15
> Digital Trunks
Multiple connections per trunk
T1/DS1 (24 channels) deployed in N. America & Japan
E1 (30 channels) for rest of world
ISDN PRI is a digital service on either T1 or E1

Standard Voice Network Trunking Technologies
Digital Trunk Interface (DTI) DS1
Channel Associated Signaling (CAS)
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Common Channel Signaling (CCS)
Primary Rate Interface (ISDN - PRI)
Basic Rate Interface (ISDN - BRI)


Trunk Types - Digital
PSTN
New York
Toronto
CO
CO
CO
CO
16
> ISDN Basics: Available in 2 Versions:
Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
2 B-Channels 64Kbps for voice data
1 D-Channel 16Kbps for signalling
Primary Rate Interface (PRI)
1 D-Channel 64Kbps for signaling
23 B-Channels 64Kbps for voice data (US + Japan)
30 B-Channels 64Kbps for data (Rest of World)


Trunk Types Digital (cont.)
17
> IP Trunks
One voice connection per trunk
Available Signaling Protocols for IP trunking
H.323
SIP
Liken this to D-Channel signaling on a PRI


Trunk Types - IP
PSTN
New York
Toronto
CO
CO
CO
CO
18
> Analog Trunks (Hardware, No Licenses Necessary)

Global Analog Trunk Module (GATM4 or GATM8)
GATM4 or GATM8 Supports up to 4 or 8 Analog Trunks

> Digital Trunks (Hardware, No Licenses Necessary)

Digital Trunk Module (DTM)
Supports 1 T1, E1, or ISDN-PRI Trunk
BRI Module (BRI S/T)
Supports up to 4 ISDN-BRI Trunks

> IP Trunks (Software Licenses Only)

BCM VoIP Gateway License
H.323 Trunk Licenses sold in groups of 1,2,4,8,16,or 32 (depending on system)
BCM SIP Gateway License- ***BCM 4.0, BCM50 2.0***
SIP Trunk Licenses sold in groups of 1,2,4,8,16,or 32 (depending on system)


BCM Orderable Trunks
19
CS1000 Orderable Trunks
> Analog Trunks (Hardware, No Licenses Necessary)

Card 8-Port Universal Trunk
8 Analog Trunks per card
Card 4-port Extended E and M Trunk XEM
4 Analog Tie Trunks

> Digital Trunks (Hardware, No Licenses Necessary)

Dual Port DTI/PRI Package (CS1000 SG/MG only)
E1 - Dual Port DTI2 / PRI2 Package (CS1000 SG/MG only)
TMDI DTI/PRI Package (CS1000 Cabinet/ Chassis/ S)
E1 - 2.0MB DTI Package (CS1000 Cabinet/ Chassis/ S)
E1 - 2.0MB PRI Package (CS1000 Cabinet/ Chassis/ S)

> IP Trunks (Software Licenses Only)

SIP Access Port License (sold individually)
H.323 Access Port License (sold individually)

20


Line Types / Station Types
> Types of Lines/Stations:
Analog
Basic Functionality (your home phone)
Digital
Enhanced Features & Functionality Differ by System
Proprietary signaling to phones Differ by System
IP
Similar to digital but uses IP Network
Gives phones greater application capability
> Required System Components
Phone system I/O hardware needed for TDM Lines
CS1000 Terminology Line Cards
BCM Terminology Station Modules
Software Licenses
May be required for TDM Phones Differ by System
Always required for IP Phones
PSTN
CO
CO
CO
CO
New York
21


Line Types / Station Types (contd.)
> *** Notes:
> A given Station Type (IP, Digital, Analog) is not required to use the same Trunk Type
For Example: An IP phone can call a phone on another system using a digital,
analog, or IP trunk
A phones access to a given trunk is granted through system programming

> A phone call between phones on the same system requires no trunk.

> Digital Phones: Proprietary signaling & feature-set specific to a given Phone System
T-Series Supported on BCM Only
3900 Series Supported on M1/CS1000 Only

> IP Phones: 2000 Series, 1100 Series, 2200 Series
Common Across Both Portfolios (BCM & CS1000)
Different firmware, Different feature-set for each system



A given station (IP, Digital, Analog) is not required to use the same Trunk Type
(i.e. An IP phone can call a phone on another system using a digital, analog, or IP trunk).
A phone call between phones on the same system require No Trunk.
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BCM Orderable Lines / Stations
> Analog
BCM Hardware: Analog Station Modules
GASM8 Global Analog Station Module (Supports up to 8 phones)
Available Telephones:
Any Analog Phone
> Digital
BCM Hardware: Digital Station Modules
DSM 16 or 32 Digital Station Module (Support 16 or 32 digital phones)
Available Telephones:
T-Series digital phones (Norstar M-Series phones supported)
> IP
Software Licenses on System (No additional Hardware)
IP Telephony Client Licenses (Sold in seats of 1,4,8,16,or 32)
Available Telephones:
2000 series IP Phones
2200 series VoWLAN (Voice over WLAN) Phones
1100 series IP Phones***BCM 4.0, BCM50 2.0***



23
CS1000 Orderable Lines / Stations
> Analog
CS1000 Hardware/Software: Analog Line Cards
Extended Analog Message Waiting Line Card (Supports up to 16 Analog Phones)
Available Telephones:
Any Analog Phone + CLASS or Analog User License (sold in groups of 8)
> Digital
CS1000 Hardware/Software: Digital Line Cards
XDLC: 16-Port Extended Digital Line Card (Supports up to 16 digital sets)
Available Telephones:
3900 series digital phones + Digital User License (sold in groups of 8)
> IP
Software Licenses:
Basic IP User Licenses (sold in groups of 8)
IP User Licenses (sold in groups of 8)
Available Telephones:
2000 series IP Phones
1100 series IP Phones***BCM 4.0, BCM50 2.0***
2200 series VoWLAN Phones
24
Snapshot of Nortels Phone Portfolio
Audio Conferencing Unit Audio Conferencing Unit
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Oversubscription of Lines to Trunks
DID #s : Trunks Trunks : Phones
Central Office
PSTN
> Not every phone will be utilizing an outside trunk at the same time
> Rule of Thumb Provision 4:1 Phones to Trunks
*** Call Center Environment is the exceptioncloser to 1:1
> DID #s purchased from your Provider are often oversubscribed to trunks in a
similar manner
*** Not every phone requires a DID #.
26
Agenda
> Introduction to PBXs & Key Systems
BCM
CS1000 / Meridian Family
> Understanding Lines & Trunks
Positioning IP vs. TDM
> Q & A
> Voicemail Overview
> Engineering Considerations
System Licensing
> Dialing Plans
E911
> Concluding Remarks / Q & A
27

New Applications
Application Gateway, MCS,
Mobility
Virtual Office, Softphones,
Service Continuity
Failover Scenarios
Increased Productivity
Combination of the above 3 !!!!
Reduced Costs
Site-to-Site Toll Bypass, Conferencing, Management

VoIP and Network Convergence
What Are The Key Benefits?
28

> IP Network Concerns
Packet Loss
Delay
Jitter

> Network Security

> PoE
Digital & Analog phones require no AC power supply.
Purely TDM systems, power redundancy provided in centralized location.

> Wiring Considerations
Single network drops available?
Cat3, Cat5, Cat6 ?

VoIP and Network Convergence
Network Considerations
29
VoIP and Network Convergence
Key Message
VoIP Technologies provide a wide variety of benefits to our
customers (New Apps, Mobility, Disaster Recovery).

However, the voice quality and the system reliability are only as
good as the Data Network it runs upon!!

Position VoIP where it makes sense (lineside, trunkside, ).
Remind your customers that Nortel provides them with the most
flexibility in their deployment options (New System or Upgrade).
30
Agenda
> Introduction to PBXs & Key Systems
BCM
CS1000 / Meridian Family
> Understanding Lines & Trunks
Positioning IP vs. TDM
> Q & A
> Voicemail Overview
> Engineering Considerations
System Licensing
> Dialing Plans
E911
> Concluding Remarks / Q & A
31
Agenda
> Introduction to PBXs & Key Systems
BCM
CS1000 / Meridian Family
> Understanding Lines & Trunks
Positioning IP vs. TDM
> Q & A
> Voicemail Overview
> Engineering Considerations
System Licensing
> Dialing Plans
E911
> Concluding Remarks / Q & A
32
Voicemail Ports : Voicemail Boxes
> Both Voicemail Boxes & Voicemail Ports must be provisioned on the System
A Voicemail Port is used whenever a user calls into the system to receive a message.
> Since fewer people access Voicemail than Trunks at any given time,
Oversubscription of Voicemail Boxes to Ports follow a different Rule of Thumb.
> Rule of Thumb Provision (25-40 Voicemail Boxes : 1 Voicemail Port)
Smaller Sites with < 100 users will often have fewer (Voicemail Boxes : Ports )
> When in doubt, refer to EC for Engineering suggestions regarding Voicemail
Voicemail Overview
33
What Is Unified Messaging?
> Voice, fax, and e-mail messaging within a single interface
> Access to messages from the desktop e-mail client, Web
interface, or telephone
> Single message access point - Users spend less time accessing
their messages
> Access to messages while traveling, working at home, or on the
move
34
Introduction To CallPilot
> Call Pilot - Nortels Unified Messaging Product for CS1000 & BCM
Voice Mail but so much more!
35
Introduction To CallPilot (contd.)
> In addition to Unified Messaging, Call Pilot provides:
Auto Attendant - Hello, Welcome to Nortel...
Custom Call Routing Press 1 for Sales, 2 for support
Integrated Fax Messaging

* Web Interface to Messages (My CallPilot)
* Speech Activated Messaging
Access to Voicemail via Spoken Commands
* Email Messages by Phone
* MCS Instant Messaging Integration



*Note: Available on CS1000 Only

36
Agenda
> Introduction to PBXs & Key Systems
BCM
CS1000 / Meridian Family
> Understanding Lines & Trunks
Positioning IP vs. TDM
> Q & A
> Voicemail Overview
> Engineering Considerations
System Licensing
> Dialing Plans
E911
> Concluding Remarks / Q & A
37


> Internal Numbering Plan (to each PBX/CO)


> Public Network Numbering Plan (E.164)


> Private Network Numbering Plan (Electronic Switched Network - ESN)




Voice Number Plan Domains Logical!
The 3 Types of Number Plan Domains Include
38
Remote Tandem Hubs
IEC
LEC
(972) 685 Exchange
Private Voice Network
(Access Code 2)
Public Voice Network
(Access Code 1)
Line-side Applications
Processors (DNs)
Voicemail
Interactive Voice
Response (IVR)
Analog and Digital
Terminals (DNs)
Local Satellite
Systems
Analog or Digital Trunks COT, DID, E&M TIE, DTI, and ISDN-PRI
Terminal Lines (FXS)
Internal Domain
Public Network Domain
Private Network Domain
Application Network
Domains
Typical Voice Network with the 3 Numbering Plan Domains
39
Dialplan Design
> Remember the PBX was born from the PSTN topology
> The PSTN dialplan was a well thought out numbering plan
that was built to last with room for expansion
> The PSTN routes calls in a very similar manor to the way
an IP Network determines data traffic routing
47 . 186 . 177 . 190 1 - 973 285 - 5745
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Country
NPA
NXX
DN
40
Private ESN Dialplans - CDP
3001
Call Server
3002 3003 3004 4001
Call Server
4002 4003 4004
DN Range 3XXX DN Range 4XXX
> Several forms of dialplan exist, all offering different capabilities for
distributing numbers
> In any dialplan, each node needs a unique range of numbers, and they
cannot be repeated across a network
> CDP or Coordinated Dial Plans are typically 4 digits, although they can
be up to 7 digits in length
> Ranges of numbers a steered over specific trunk routes to other
nodes in the network via a Direct Steering Code or DSC
41
Private ESN Dialplans - UDP
3001
Call Server
3002 3003 3004 3001
Call Server
3002 3003 3004
DN Range 3XXX DN Range 3XXX
> When DN number uniqueness cannot be maintained due to the size of
the network, or DID number range constraints the dialplan must move
to a Universal Dial Plan or UDP format
> With UDP, each node is assigned a Location Code or LOC
> Calls are routed to the appropriate destination node via LOC Codes in
the originating PBX NARS/BARS programming
> When the all reaches the destination PBX, the LOC is recognized as
the Home LOC or HLOC, and is stripped off. The call can then
terminate at the desired station based on the remaining digits
HLOC 325 HLOC 459
42
Agenda
> Introduction to PBXs & Key Systems
BCM
CS1000 / Meridian Family
> Understanding Lines & Trunks
Positioning IP vs. TDM
> Q & A
> Voicemail Overview
> Engineering Considerations
System Licensing
> Dialing Plans
E911
> Concluding Remarks / Q & A
43
Additional Resources
> Partner SoSE Session: Upgrading a Meridian 1 or CS1000 System to Release 4.5
https://app12.nortelnetworks.com/cgi-bin/partnerPage.cgi?curOid=12460&filename=/events/2006a/sose_jan18.html

> CS1000 & BCM NTPs
https://app49.nortelnetworks.com/cgi-bin/HelmExpress/coll

> Meridian 1 / Communications Server 1000 Life Cycle Management Status

Bulletin Number: P-2006-0005-Global available at www.nortel.com/pic