Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 29

Presented at

All India Seminar On Energy Management Through Renewable Sources and Efficient technologies
Institution of Engineers, Madhya Pradesh State Centre, Bhopal, 08-09
th
Jan, 2011

MICRO ALGAE AS A SOURCE OF BIO DIESEL:
CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
K.Sudhakar
Assistant professor, Energy Department,
MANIT, Bhopal-462007, MP,India

Dr. S. Suresh
Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical Engg.,
MANIT, Bhopal-462007, MP, India

Dr. (Mrs) M. Premalatha
Associate Professor, CEESAT, NIT Trichi, TN, India
Climate change poses a great challenge to
our development prospects....we need
global response, a national response and
a local response
-------Hon. Dr. Manmohan Singh


Concerns for Global warming-
Current Assessment
IPCC Assessment
First Report - 1990
Second Report - 1995
Third Report - 2001
Fourth Report - 2007
Average global temperature
increase 1906-2005 0.74
o
C
Expected Temperature rise up to
the Year 2100 2.4 to 6.4
o
C
Expected Sea Level rise 18 to 59 cm

Major and Minor Greenhouse Gases
and Global Warming Potential
Major greenhouse gas
concentrations of CO2, NOx,
CFCs, Methane have
increased 20-30% since pre-
industrial era
o The Energy generating plants contributes mostly to increasing
atmospheric CO
2
concentrations.
o CO
2
concentration increased from 280 ppm to 390 ppm in the present
o Average global temperature increase by 1.5-5 degree.

S
C
I
E
N
T
I
F
I
C
P
R
E
D
I
C
T
I
V
E
Coping with Global Warming
Air interaction
Greenhouse Gases
Earth Interactions
Global
Warming
Climate Change Impacts -Adaptation Mitigation Strategy
Crop Productivity
Frequent Disasters
Water Scarcity
Vector borne diseases
Renewable sources
Energy Efficiency
Clean Coal Technology
CCS
EFFECT CAUSE
The Worlds Energy
Resources Are Limited!
High Growth rate
Minimal resource
requirement
High Photosynthetic
efficiency
Up to 70% of algae
biomass is usable oils
does not compete for land
and space with other
agricultural crops
can survive in water of high
salt content

Why Micro-algae?
Algae Growing Methods :
What is needed
Sunlight
CO2
Nutrients
Storage of Energy
Lipids and oils
Carbohydrates
Other Dependent parameters: Temperature , pH (Physical factors)
Pathogen ,predation, competition (Biotic factors)
Micro algae Oil content (% dry
weight)
Botryococcus braunii 25-75
Chlorella sp 28-32
Crpthecodinium cohnii 20
Cylindrotheca sp 16-37
Dunalielia primolecta 23
Isochryais sp 25-33
Monallanthus salina >20
Nannochloris sp 20-35
Nannochloropsis sp 31-68
Neochloris oleoabundans 35-54
Nitzschina sp 45-47
Schiochytrium sp 50-77
Tetraseknus sueica 15-23
Algae Species and Typical oil content

Algae Open Pond
Algae Photo bioreactor
Algae cultivation
Parameter Open pond Closed photo
bioreactor
Construction Simple More complicated-
varies by design
Cost Cheaper to construct,
operate
More expensive
construction, operation
Water losses High Low
Typical biomass
concentration
Low, 0.1-0.2 g/L High: 2-8 g/L
Temperature control Difficult Easily controlled
Species control Difficult Simple
Contamination High risk Low risk
Light utilization Poor Very high
C02 losses to atmosphere High Almost none
Typical Growth rate(g/m2-
day)
Low:10-25 Variable:1-500
Area requirement Large Small
Depth/diameter of water 0.3m 0.1m
Surface: volume ratio ~6 60-400
Open Pond & Photo Bioreactor

Power Plant /
Energy Source
Flue
Gases
NOx +CO2 from
combustion flue gas
emissions
Algal
Biotechnology
Cleaned
Gases
Photo bioreactor
Algal Biotechnology Converts Flue Gases & Sunlight into Biofuels
through Photosynthesis
Used Algae have
Multiple Potential Uses
Sunlight
Co-Firing

Fermentation
Esterification
Green Power
Biodiesel
Ethanol
Protein Meal
Overview of micro-algae technology for
carbon sequestration and bio-diesel production
Fuel Carbon
(60%)
Fuel Carbon
(100%)
Open Cycle Carbon
Closed Cycle Carbon
Management
Closed Cycle Biomass Carbon Management
Clean
Gases
Algae Biomass as Fuel Source (40% Fuel Carbon)
Algae growth and harvesting process
INITIAL PLAN OF WORK
Laboratory Phase: Techniques presently in use will
be tested & optimized in laboratory, and most feasible
techniques will be identified for the available conditions
Testing Phase: Techniques identified in the lab will be
scaled up to the semi-pilot scales, exposed to
environmental conditions present and Improvements will
be made as required
Utilisation Phase: The process identified will be used
to produce Bio-Diesel

Open pond for algae cultivation Spectrophotometer
Magnetic Stirrer pH Measurement device
Gas chromatography Algae Strains
Algae Strains
Laminar Flow chamber
Limits to productivity of
Microalgae
Physical factors such as light (quality and
quantity), temperature, nutrient, pH, O
2
and
CO
2


Biotic factors including pathogens, predation
and competition by other algae, and

Operational factors such as: shear produced
by mixing, dilution rate, depth and harvest
frequency


Physical factors
Climate
Cold weather reduces algae oil production
Optimum temperature: 25-29
0
C
Nutrients
Nitrogen & phosphorus: 0.8% and 0.6% of
volume of pond
Light
High pressure sodium & Metal halide lamp
CO
2
Optimum supply of CO
2
during day time



Algae harvesting
Microfiltration
Centrifugation
Flocculation
Sonochemical
Solvent Extraction and others.
Table. Theoretical estimation of biodiesel from algae
Yield/day (g dry weight/day) 60
40% oil content (g/day) 24
Oil content can go up if growth conditions
optimize
Volume of Oil (ml/day) 26.6
Density = 0.9g/mL
Volume of Biodiesel (ml/day) 26.6
Assumed 1:1 ratio between oil content and
diesel
Volume of Biodiesel (gal/day) 0.0075
Small scale production of biodiesel
Combine 4 g NaOH (Lye) with 250 ml CH
3
OH
(Methanol) to form CH
3
O
-
(Methoxide).
Mix until NaOH is completely dissolved in CH
3
OH
(approx.1 min).
Combine CH
3
O
-
with warm (60C) oil.
Thoroughly agitate (roughly 5-10 min)
Allow resulting mixture to settle into layers (roughly
8 hours until fully settled)


1L of diesel = 2.67 Kg of CO2
Ref: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/420f05001.htm

Biodiesel reduces net emissions of CO2 by 78.45%
Ref:NREL/SR-580-24089 UC Category 1503
1L of Biodiesel will save 2.09 Kg of CO2
100 Mega L of Biodiesel will save 209 Kt of CO2
1L of diesel = 2.67 Kg of CO2
Ref: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/420f05001.htm
1L of Biodiesel = 0.58 Kg of CO2
Ref: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/420f05001.htm
Algae Biodiesel Carbon Credits
Summary
Micro-algae biodiesel is a newly-emerging field
Algae is a very efficient means of producing biodiesel
and oil production from algae farms is feasible and
scalable
By coupling algae production with a CO
2
pollution
control process, the economic viability of micro algal
based biodiesel is significantly improved
Genetic Engineering and advancement in the design
of bioreactor can improve the productivity of micro-
algae
Further research necessary for economic production
of biodiesel from algae.
A N Y
Q U E S T I O N S ?