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Action research

Definition
Action research is simply a form of self
reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in
social situations in order to improve the
rationality and justice of their own practices,
their understanding of these practices and the
situations in which the practices are carried out

(Carr & Kemmis, cited in L.H. Goh, 2012)
Somekhs (2006, p 164) viewed action
research as the study of a social situation,
involving the participants themselves as
researchers, with a view to improving the
quality of action within it.
Characteristics of action research
Dynamic and systematic
process of self inquiry and
action carried out in the
line of work.
The researcher is involved
in an immediate and direct
way.
The project is undertaken
collaboratively.
The action proceeds
through a spiral of cycle.
(plan, act, observe, reflect
and evaluate)
It raises awareness and
understanding of your
practice thus leading to
improvement through
practical action.
Definition for educational action
research
It is a form of self reflective inquiry designed to
improve the understanding, practices and
situations in school and classroom.
For example, a language teacher may address
the issue of improving your teaching strategy to
improve students language proficiency.
The plan of action should be viewed as
achievable within the scope and ability of you
as a teacher in the classroom.

Purposes of action
research
To integrate
teaching with
research
To improve the
effectiveness of
practice
To bridge the
expectation and
performance gap
To develop the
personal and
professional self
Purposes of action
research
To realize
educational
values
To enable systematic and
scientific re-evaluation of
current theories
Traditional research versus Action
research
Traditional research Action research
Examines what others are doing Examines personal actions
Seeks explanation or truth Seeks continuous change
Objective Reflective
Strive for knowledge Focuses on the planned change
Removed from research site Personally involved
Reveals effects and causes
between variables
Reveals patterns and
relationships
Models of action research
Kurt Lewins action research model
Kemmis and McTaggarts action research
model
Susmans action research model (1983)
Kurt Lewins action research model
Observe
Reflect
Evaluate
Modify
Act
Kemmis and McTaggarts action
research model
Plan
Act
observe
Reflect
Susmans action research model
Diagnosing
(Identify
problem)
Action
Planning
(considering
alternative
action)
Taking action
(select and
implement)
Evaluating
(Consequences
of an action)
Specifying
Learning
(Identify
findings)
The basic steps of action research
1. Start with a review of current practice.
2. Reflect on the issues/problems.
3. Identify an aspect you want to improve.
4. Explore how you can make it happen. (Action
taken)
5. Plan the action and implement.
6. Monitor the development of the action
7. Reflect and evaluate on the effect of the action
8. Continue the cycles of the action until the
researcher is satisfied with the improvement.
Format of action research
Action research report need not follow rigid
format.
Things to put in the report:
- Title
- Introduction
- Review of relevant literature
- Methodology
- Discussion of findings
Conclusions, suggestions/recommendations
Reference and bibliography
Appendices

Reference
L.H.Goh (2012). A practical guide to writing
your action research. Selangor Darul
Ehsan: Penerbitan Multimedia Sdn Bhd.