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Training and Development

Contents: (8 Hrs)
(2 hrs) Meaning and significance of training
and development, Process of training and
development, need analysis.
(2 hrs) Training design, Training
implementation and training evaluation.
(2 hrs) Methods of training On the job
methods and off the job training methods.
(2 hrs) Practical Exploring Training and
developmental practices.

Meaning of Training and Development
Human ResourceDevelopment
Human Resource refers to the talents and energies of people
who are available in an organization as potential contributors to
the creation and realization of organizations mission, vision,
values and goals.
Development refers to a process of active learning from
experience, leading to systematic and purposeful development
of the whole person: body, mind and spirit. Development
combines the concepts of change and growth and training
learning specific skills.
Thus, Human Resource Development is the integrated use of
training, organizational development, and career development
efforts to improve individual group and organizational
Definition of Training and Development
According to Swanson and Holton, Human Resource
Development is a process for developing and
unleashing human expertise through organization
development and personnel training and
development for the purpose of improving

According to Giley and Eggland, Human Resource
Development is organized learning experiences
provided by employers within a specified time to
bring about the possibility of performance or personal
Goals / Objectives of Human Resource
Goals /
of HRD
productivity and
people into
growth and
Significance / Importance of HRD:
Full utilization of Individuals potential
Improves problem-solving and decision making skills
Improves collaboration and Teamwork
Fosters Growth and develop competencies
Provides higher quality of work-life
Improves communication system
Facilitates communication between Management and
Fosters commitment

Process of Training:
Organizational Objectives and Strategies
Need Analysis / Assessment of Training
Establishment of Training Goals/Objectives
Designing Training Program
Implementation of Training Program
Evaluation of Results
Need Analysis:
Need assessment diagnoses present problems and future
challenges to be met through training and development.
Organizations spend vast sums of money on training and
Needs assessment occurs at two levels group and
individual. An individual obviously needs training when
his or her performance falls short of standards, that is,
when there is performance deficiency. Inadequacy in
performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or
any other problem.
The problem of performance deficiency caused by
absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by
Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level
too. Any change in the organizations strategy
necessitates training of groups of employees.

Assessment of Training Needs:
Training needs are identified on the basis of
organizational analysis, job analysis and manpower
Training program, training methods and course
content are to be panned on the basis of training
Methods used in training needs assessment are
classified into two groups namely
Group or Organisational Analysis
Individual Analysis

Few methods used in Training need Assessment
Group or Organisational
Individual Analysis
Organizational goals and objectives Performance Appraisal
Personnel/skills inventories Work Sampling
MBO Questionnaires
Quality Circles Observation of behavior
Customer survey/satisfaction data Interviews
Training Design:
Preparing yourself before you conduct training and
developmental activities is very vital. Every training
and development program must address certain vital
Who participates in the program?
Who are the trainers?
What methods and techniques are to be used for
What should be the level of training?
Where is the program conducted?

Training Implementation:
Once the training program has been designed, it
needs to be implemented. Implementation should be
set by considering certain problems;
Most managers are action oriented and frequently say
they are too busy to engage in training efforts.
Secondly, availability of trainers is a problem. In
addition to possessing communication skills, the
trainers must know the companys philosophy, its
objectives, its formal and informal organization, and
the goals of the training program.
Training and development requires a higher degree of
creativity than any other personnel speciality.
Training Implementation:
Training program implementation involves action
on the following lines:
Deciding the location and organizing training
and other facilities.
Scheduling the training program.
Conducting the program.
Monitoring progress of trainees.
Training Evaluation:
The specification of values forms a basis for
evaluation. The basis of evaluation and mode of
collection of information necessary for evaluation
should be determined at the planning stage.
The process of training evaluation has been defined as
any attempt to obtain information on the effects of
training performance and to assess the value of
training in the light of that information.
Evaluation leads to controlling and correcting the
training program.
Training Evaluation:
Hamblin suggested five levels at which evaluation of
training can take place;
Reactions after training program
Learning from training program
Change in Job Behavior after training program
Ultimate Value from the training program
Organizational success after training program

Purposes of Training Evaluation:

1) To determine success in accomplishing training programme objectives.
2) To identify the strengths and weaknesses in the training program.
3) Cost-benefit analysis.
4) To decide who should participate in future programmes.
5) Test the clarity, validity and exercises.
6) Identify the most successful participants in the program.
7) Reinforcement.
8) Determine the effectiveness and usefulness of the training program.

Process of Training Evaluation:
Tools for Training Evaluation:

Measurement tools capture information on whether or not an indicator of an outcome
has been achieved and to what degree. Some common measurement tools are :

1) Questionnaires.
2) Attitude Surveys.
3) Tests.
4) Interviews.
5) Focus Groups.
6) Observations.
Training Evaluation Approaches
Kirkpatrick Model
CIRO Model
Cost-benefit Analysis
ROI of Training
Approaches of Training Evaluation:
1) Kirkpatrick Model:

2) CIRO Model:

Developed by Warr, Bird and Racham.

- Context Evaluation. (Ultimate Objectives, Intermediate Objectives & Immediate
- Input Evaluation.
- Reaction Evaluation.
- Outcome Evaluation. (Learner level, workplace level, departmental level, organizational

Level 4 : Results
Level 3 : Behaviour
Level 2 : Learning
Level 1 - Reaction
How did the participants react to the
To what extent was the training beneficial?
To what extent did positive change of behaviour
take place?
What organizational benefits resulted from the
3) Cost-Benefit Analysis:

- Determine training costs.
- Identify potential savings results.
- Compute potential savings.
- Conduct cost and savings benefits comparison.

4) ROI of Training: Return on investment (ROI) is a measure of the monetary benefits obtained by
an organisation over a specified time period in return for a given investment in a training programme.
Looking at it another way, ROI is the extent to which the benefits (outputs) of training exceed the costs

Barriers in Training Evaluation:

1) Fear of collecting data.
2) Cost of conducting training evaluation.
3) Time-consuming.
Difference between On-the-job and Off-the-job Training Methods:
Basis of Difference On-the-job Training Off-the-job Training
1) Cost Cheaper to carry out Require expenses like separate
training rooms, specialist,
resources like projectors etc
2) Nature Relevant and practical way of
dealing with day-to-day
It can more easily deal with
groups of workers at the same
3)Relevance Workers will be more
productive since time is not
Employees respond better
when taken away from job
4) Productivity New employees become
productive faster
Workers may be able to
obtain qualifications or
5) Supervision Supervisors can directly
observe the working skills
More in-depth study since
training is given by specialists
6) Problem of
More chances of distraction Less chances of distraction
7) Methods Coaching, Job rotation,
Role-plays, Seminars,
Lectures, Case-studies
Management Development:

Is a systematic process of growth and development by which the managers
develop their abilities to manage.

It is concerned with improving the performance of the managers by giving
them opportunities for growth and development.

The important steps of a management development programme are:

1) Analysis of Organizational Present and Development Needs.
2) Appraisal of Present Management Talent.
3) Inventory of Management Manpower.
4) Planning of Individual Development Programme.
5) Establishment of Development Programme.
6) Evaluation of the Programme.
Process of Management Development:
Once the organisation decides to make changes in the
job of an employee, it begins the preparation for the
planning and execution of some management
development programmes. A need based and target
oriented management development programme
becomes essential.
Step 1: Assessing the Companys Strategic Needs
Step 2: Evaluating the skills and competencies of
Step 3: Evolving Strategies for development of managers.
Methods of Management Development
- Job Rotation.
- Coaching.
- Understudy.
- Mentoring.
- Multiple Management.
- Temporary Promotions.
- Incident Method.
- Role playing.
- Lecture Method.
- Conference or Discussion.
- Case Study.
- Business Games.
- Sensitivity Training.
- Simulation.
- In-basket Method.
On-the-job Methods Off-the-job Methods