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• Behavior modification

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH


HBHE 600 Midterm

2007 Mean: 36.1 2008 Mean: 36.5

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH


HBHE 600 Midterm

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH


HBHE 600 Midterm

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH


A: 95-100%
Your score
A-: 89-94%
40
B+: 85-88%
B: 81-84%
36
B-: 75-80% = 90% = A-
40
C+: 71-74%
C: 60-70%
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
Behavior modification
 Observing/monitoring

 Task analysis
 Reinforcement

 Shaping

 Modeling

 Contracting

 Action planning and goal setting

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Making observations: what is recorded?
 Frequency of behavior (within time frame)

 Duration of behavior

 Perceptions/feelings (rating scales)

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Making observations
 Observing antecedents and consequences
 Things that stimulate/trigger behavior?
 Stressors?
 Cues?

 Things that reward behavior?

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Making observations
 Things to keep in mind:
 Record immediately after behavior occurs
 Make note of both positive and negative
information
 Make recording easy to do

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Self-monitoring
 Goal of self-monitoring
 Gathering of baseline data
 Increases awareness of behavior
 Identification of intervention targets for stimulus control and
reinforcement/extinction

 Difficulties associated with self-monitoring


 Reactivity problem

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Self-monitoring: examples

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Task analysis
 Many behaviors are well-rehearsed behavioral chains
 Interventions may focus on breaking these chains

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Reinforcement
 All reinforcement results in increases in behavior
frequency or likelihood
 Positive reinforcement
 The occurrence of a behavior
 Is followed by the addition of a stimulus or an increase in the
intensity of a stimulus
 Which results in the strengthening of the behavior

Miltenberger R. Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures (3rd Edition).


Thomson, Belmont, CA. 2004.

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Reinforcement
 All reinforcement results in increases in behavior
frequency or likelihood
 Negative reinforcement – removing something
aversive following a behavior
• The occurrence of a behavior
• Is followed by the removal of a stimulus or an decrease in the
intensity of a stimulus
• Which results in the strengthening of the behavior

Miltenberger R. Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures (3rd Edition).


Thomson, Belmont, CA. 2004.

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH


Reinforcement: types
 Unconditioned reinforcer: function as reinforcers the
first time they are presented to most human beings
 Conditioned reinforcer: a stimulus that was once neutral
but became established as a reinforcer by being paired
with an unconditioned reinforcer or an already
established conditioned reinforcer

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Reinforcement: schedules
 Continuous vs. intermittent
 Continuous: Behavior is reinforced each time it occurs
 Intermittent: Behavior is reinforced on some occasions but not
others
 Variable vs. fixed schedule
 Immediate vs. delayed
 Large vs. small

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH


Shaping
 Involves reinforcement of successive approximations to
the desired behavior

 Example: Initially, a diabetic is profusely praised for


making relatively minor, inconsistent changes in
physical activity (walking rather than driving to the
mailbox). Later, only larger, more consistent physical
activity behavior is praised.

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Modeling
 Conditions that enhance effectiveness of modeling
 Similarity of model to subject
 Higher status model Skilled performance, high
efficacy, low task
 Multiple models difficulty.
 Coping vs. mastery models

Initial struggle, low efficacy, coping,


then achievement, high efficacy.

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Behavioral contracts
 Contingency

 Non-contingency (self-contracts)

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Action planning

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• Goal setting

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Goal Setting

Setting goals can serve as a major source of motivation:

–They provide direction

–They provide a reference point to compare progress

–They elicit effort, concentration, and persistency

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Goal Setting
Set goals that are:
Realistic
Specific
Challenging

Short-term vs. long-term goals


Evaluate and adjust (goals with no feedback don’t work!)

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Relationship between goal difficulty and goal commitment

High goal
commitment
Behavior change

Medium goal
commitment

Low goal
commitment

Low Medium High

Goal difficulty
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Performance
vs.
Mastery

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“You worked so hard!”
vs.
“You’re so smart!”

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• Attributions, and self-
regulation

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Self-regulation: A cycle of goals, performance, and interpretation

Goal- Subjective
related norms
attitudes

Behavioral
intention
Self-regulation: A cycle of goals, performance, and interpretation

Goal- Subjective
related norms
attitudes

Behavioral
intention

Behavioral
goal
X
Goal
commitment
Self-regulation: A cycle of goals, performance, and interpretation

Goal- Subjective
related norms
attitudes

Behavioral
intention

Behavioral
goal
X
Goal
commitment
Effort
Concentrat
ion
Persistency

Behavior
Self-regulation: A cycle of goals, performance, and interpretation

Goal- Subjective
related norms
attitudes

Behavioral
intention

Behavioral
goal
X
Goal
Perceived performance commitment
level
Effort
Causal attributions
Concentrat
ion
Persistency

Behavior
Self-regulation: A cycle of goals, performance, and interpretation

Goal- Subjective
related norms
attitudes

Behavioral
intention

Behavioral
goal
X
Goal
Perceived performance commitment
level
Effort
Causal attributions
Concentrat
ion
Persistency

Behavior
Self-regulation: A cycle of goals, performance, and interpretation

Goal- Subjective
related norms
attitudes

Self-efficacy Behavioral
intention

Behavioral
goal
X
Goal
Perceived performance commitment
level
Effort
Causal attributions
Concentrat
ion
Persistency
Affect

Behavior
Self-regulation: A cycle of goals, performance, and interpretation

Goal- Subjective
related norms
attitudes

Self-efficacy Behavioral
intention

Goal
orientation Behavioral
goal
X
Goal
Perceived performance General commitment
level strategy
Effort
Causal attributions
Concentrat
ion
Persistency
Affect

Behavior
Self-regulation: A cycle of goals, performance, and interpretation

Goal- Subjective
related norms
attitudes

Self-efficacy Behavioral
intention

Goal
orientation Behavioral
Behavioral goal
a ch
ro strategy X
p p
a Goal
Perceived performance General commitment
level strategy
Effort
Causal attributions avoid
Concentrat
ion
Persistency
Affect

Behavior
Self-regulation: A cycle of goals, performance, and interpretation

Goal- Subjective
related norms
attitudes

Self-efficacy Behavioral
intention

Goal
orientation sa m e Behavioral
Behavioral goal
a ch
o strategy X
p pr f f er ent
a di
Goal
Perceived performance General commitment
level strategy
Effort
Causal attributions avoid
Concentrat
ion
Persistency
Affect

Behavior