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HEAT EXCHANGERS

Dr. Ali K. Abdel-Rahman


Mechanical Engineering Department
Faculty of Engineering
Assiut University
OUTLINE
Definition & classification of heat exchangers

Heat exchangers according to construction
Plate heat exchangers
Extended surface heat exchangers
Tubular heat exchangers

Heat exchangers according to phase change
Condensers
Evaporators
WHAT IS A HEAT EXCHANGER?
They are devices specially designed for the efficient
transfer of heat from one fluid to another fluid over
a solid surface.
WHAT ARE HEAT EXCHANGERS
USED FOR?
They have the function to transfer heat as
efficiently as possible. Heat exchangers
are widely used in :
I. refrigeration
II. air conditioning
III. space heating
IV. electricity generation
V. chemical processing

CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT
EXCHANGERS
Heat exchangers may be classified
according to the following main criteria:

Recuperators and regenerators
Transfer processes: direct contact and indirect
contact
Geometry of constructions: tubes, plates and
extended surfaces
Phase change mechanisms: condensers and
evaporators
Flow arrangements: parallel, counter and cross flow
RECUPERATORS
The conventional heat exchangers with heat
transfer between two fluids.
Hot stream A recovers some of the heat from
stream B.
REGENERATORS
Storage type heat exchangers.
The same flow passage (matrix) is alternately
occupied by one of the two fluids.
Thermal energy is not transfered through the wall.
TRANSFER PROCESSES
Heat transfer
between the cold
and hot fluids
through a direct
contact between
these fluids.

Examples: Spray and
tray condensers,
cooling towers.
1. Direct contact type heat exchangers:
2. I ndirect contact type heat exchangers :
Heat energy is
exchanged between
hot and cold fluids
through a heat
transfer surface.

The fluids are not
mixed.
FLOW ARRANGEMENTS
1. Paralel Flow Heat Exchangers:
Two fluid streams enter together at one end,
flow through in the same direction, and leave
through at the other end.
2. Counter Flow Heat Exchangers:
Two fluid streams flow in opposite directions.
3. Cross Flow Heat Exchangers:
The direction of fluids are perpendicular to each
other.
BASIC CRITERIAS FOR THE
SELECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
Process specifications
Service conditions of the plant environment,
resistance to corrosion by the process
Maintenance, permission to cleaning and
replacement of components
Cost- Effectiveness
Site requirements, lifting, servicing,
capabilities
PLATE HEAT
EXCHANCERS

GASKETED PLATE
SPIRAL PLATE
LAMELLA
Limited to below 25 bar
and 250C.
Plate heat exchangers
have three main types :
gasketed, spiral heat
exchangers and lamella.
The most common of the
plate-type heat
exchangers is the
gasketed plate heat
exchanger.
GASKETED PLATE HEAT
EXCHANGER
The most common of
the plate-type heat
exchangers is the
gasketed plate heat
exchanger.
SPIRAL PLATE HEAT
EXCHANGER
Ideal flow conditions and the smallest
possible heating surface.
LAMELLA
Consisting of cylindrical
shell surrounding a number
of heat transfering lamellas.
Similar to tubular heat
exchanger.
ADVANTAGES

Plate heat exchangers yield heat transfer rates
three to five times greater than other types of heat
exchangers.
The design of the plate heat exchanger allows to
add or remove plates to optimize performance, or
to allow for cleaning, service, or maintenance
with a minimum of downtime.
Plate exchangers offer the highest efficiency
mechanism for heat transfer available in industry.
DISADVANTAGES

Plate exchangers are limited when high
pressures, high temperatures, or aggressive
fluids are present.

Because of this problem these type of heat
exchangers have only been used in small, low
pressure applications such as on oil coolers for
engines.
2. EXTENDED SURFACE
HEAT EXCHANGERS
- PLATE FIN HEAT EXCHANGER
- TUBE FIN HEAT EXCHANGER
PLATE FIN HEAT
EXCHANGER
For gas to gas
applications.
Widely used in
cryogenic, energy
recovery, process
industry, refrigeration
and air coditioning
systems.
TUBE FIN HEAT
EXCAHNGER
For gas to liquid heat
exchangers.
Used as condersers in
electric power plant, as
oil coolers in propulsive
power plants, as ir
cooled exchangers in
process and power
industires.
TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGERS
They are so widely used because the
technology is well established for making
precision metal tubes capable of containing
high pressures in a variety of materials.

There is no limit to the range of pressures
and temperatures that can be accommodated.
TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGERS
SHELL AND TUBE
DOUBLE-PIPE
SHELL AND TUBE HEAT
EXCHANGERS


SHELL AND TUBE HEAT
EXCHANGERS
Are the most commonly
used heat exchangers in oil
refineries and other large
chemical processes.
Are used when a process
requires large amounts of
fluid to be heated or
cooled.

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT
EXCHANGERS
Provide transfer of heat
efficiently.
Use baffles on the shell-
side fluid to accomplished
mixing or turbulence.

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT
EXCHANGERS
APPLICATIONS:
Oil refining,
Vapor recovery
systems,
Permanent engines,
Industrial paint
systems.

Tube: strong, thermally
conductive, corrosion
resistant, high quality.
Outer shell: durable,
highly strong.
Inner tube: having
effective combination
of durability, corrosion
resistant and thermally
conductive.
SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
U - TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
FIXED TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS


FLOATING HEAD HEAT EXCHANGERS


U - TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
Heat exchanger systems consisting of straight
length tubes bent into a U-shape surrounded
by a shell.
U - TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Both initial and maintenance costs are reduced
by reducing the number of joints.

They have drawbacks like inability to replace
individual tubes except in the outer row and
inability to clean around the bend.
U - TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
Examples: reboilers, evaporators and Kettle
type.
They have enlarged shell sections for vapor-
liquid separation.

FIXED TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Have straight tubes that are secured at both
ends to tube sheets welded to the shell.


FIXED TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

They are the most economical type design.
They have very popular version as the heads
can be removed to clean the inside of the
tubes.
Cleaning the outside surface of the tubes is
impossible as these are inside the fixed part.
Chemical cleaning can be used.

FLOATING HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER

One tube is free to float within the shell and the
other is fixed relative to the shell.
FLOATING HEAD HEAT EXCHANGERS

A floating head is excellent for applications
where the difference in temperature between the
hot and cold fluid causes unacceptable stresses in
the axial direction of the shell and tubes.
The floating head can move, so it provides the
possibility to expand in the axial direction.
Design allows for bundle to be removed for
inspection, cleaning or maintenance.
FLOATING HEAD HEAT EXCHANGERS

Examples : kettle boilers which have dirty
heating medium.
They have the most highest construction cost of
all exchanger types.

They consist of one pipe
concentrically located
inside a second, larger one.
Cold and hot liquid
respectively flows in the
gap of inner pipe and sleeve
pipe.
Structure is simple and heat
transmission is large.
DOUBLE-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGERS
DOUBLE-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGERS
Utilize true counter-current flow which
maximizes the temperature differences
between the shell side and tube side fluids.

When the process calls
for a temperature cross,
it is the most efficient
design and will result in
fewer sections and less
surface area.
DOUBLE-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGERS
DOUBLE-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGERS
ADVANTAGES

Operates in true counter current flow permitting
extreme temperature cross.
Economically adaptable to service differentials.
Ideal for wide temperature ranges and
differentials.
Provides shorter deliveries than shell and tube
due to standardization of design and
construction.
PHASE CHANGE HEAT
EXCHANGERS
1.Reboilers
(Evaporaters)
2.Condensers

1)REBOILER
to generate vapor to drive fractional distillation
separation

Most Common Reboilers Types
Kettle Reboilers
Forced Recirculation Reboilers
Thermosiphon Reboiler


Kettle Reboilers
Major factors influence reboiler type
selection:

Plot space available
Total duty required
Fraction of tower liquid traffic vaporized
Fouling tendency
Temperature approach available
Temperature approach required

Kettle Reboilers
Advantages
Insensitive to
hydrodynamics
High heat fluxes are
possible
Can handle high
vaporization
Simple piping
Unlimited area

Disadvantages
All the dirt collects and
non volatiles
accumulate
Shell side is difficult to
clean
Difficult to determine
the degree of mixing
Oversize shell is
expensive
Thermosiphon Reboiler
Thermosiphon Reboiler

operate using natural circulation with process
flow on the shell side
process flow on the tube or shell side in
vertical units.
not require a pump for recirculation
have sensible heat transfer followed by
nucleate boiling.
Forced Recirculation Reboilers
Forced Recirculation Reboilers
These reboiler types have two mechanisms
of heat transfer: sensible heat transfer
followed by nucleate boiling.

Process flow is typically on the tube side of
a standard exchanger in the vertical
position.
2)CONDENSERS
a) Water-Cooled
Condensensers
Horizontal shell and
tube
Vertical shell and
tube
Shell and coil
Double pipe
b) Air- Cooled
Condensers
Phases:
1) de-super-heating
2) Condensing
3) Subcooling
Single-Pass Condenser
SELECT AN WATER-COOLED
CONDENSER
IF:

1. Adequate water supplies are available from tower, city or well sources.
2. Water supply is of good quality.
3. Heat recovery is not practical or unimportant.
4. Plant ambient temperatures consistently exceed 95F.
5. Ambient air is polluted with large dust and dirt particles.

ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGES

1. Offer lower capital investment.
2. Operates more efficiently on hot summer days.
3. Easier to operate.
4. Does not offer summer ventilation.

SELECT AN AIR-COOLED
CONDENSER
...WHEN:

1. Adequate water supply not available from tower or well sources.
2. Water supply is not of good quality.
3. Heat recovery is practical and important.
4. Plant ambient temperature will not consistently exceed 95F.
5. Ambient air is not polluted with large dust and dirt particles.

ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGES

1. Somewhat more costly to purchase and operate.
2. Gives less cooling on hot summer days.
3. Consumes more electricity.
4. Offers summer ventilation and winter supplement heating.

OUTLINE
Definition & classification of heat exchangers

Heat exchangers according to construction
Plate heat exchangers
Extended surface heat exchangers
Tubular heat exchangers

Heat exchangers according to phase change
Condensers
Evaporators
REFERENCES
Andreone, C.F., Tubular heat exchanger inspection, maintenance, and repair,
McGraw-Hill, NY, 1998
Couper JR,Penry W.R., Fair J.R., Walas S.M., Chemical Process Equipment,
Elsevier Inc, 2005
Incropera,F.P.,Dewitt D.P., Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 5th ed.,John
Wiley & Sons Inc., NY,2000
Kaka, S. Heat exchangers, CRC Press, Fla, 1998
Shah, R.K.,Psekulis D., Fundamental of Heat Exchanger Design, John Wiley
&Sons Inc., NY,1999
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