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The Tool Story


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BY:
CYRELE C. QUINIO
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1. BORING
2. Individual Written/Oral Activities
3. Intermission Slides/Ice Breakers
4. Sharing of Personal Thoughts and Work
Experiences
5. Free hand-outs
6. Many More
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Pre-Test
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JOB
A job may be defined as a collection
or aggregation of tasks, duties and
responsibilities which as a whole, are
regarded as a regular assignment to
individual employees.
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In other words, when the total work to
be done is divided and grouped into
packages, we call it a Job.
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JOB ANALYSIS
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Why study Job Analysis?
1. To understand the importance of
studying jobs and knowing what each
worker does, how he does it, under
what conditions he performs his job, and
what special qualifications each worker
must possess to perform his job
satisfactorily.
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2. To learn the methods and mechanics
of analyzing the different jobs in the
organization and be able to write job
descriptions and ob specifications.
Why study Job Analysis?
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3. To understand the importance of
knowing the duties, responsibilities and
requirements of each job as a tool in
employee selection and hiring and in
appraising the employee selection and
hiring and in appraising the employee
performance in the job and many other
uses.
Why study Job Analysis?
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4. To learn how to install a job analysis
program in a company.
Why study Job Analysis?
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Secrets of Life
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JOB ANALYSIS
The process of studying positions,
describing the duties and responsibilities
that go with jobs, and of grouping
similar positions into job categories.
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Nature of Job Analysis
Job Analysis is a process to identify and
determine in detail the particular job
duties and requirements and the
relative importance of these duties for a
given job.
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The Job; not the person:

An important concept of Job Analysis is
that the analysis is conducted of the
Job, not the Person.
Nature of Job Analysis
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Definitions of Job Analysis
Edwin Flippo: Job analysis is the process
of studying and collecting information
relating to the operations and
responsibility of a specific job.
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Harry Wylie: Job analysis deals with the
anatomy of the job This is the complete
study of the job embodying every known and
determinable factor, including the duties and
responsibilities involved in its performance; the
conditions under which performance is
carried on; the nature of the task; the
qualifications required in the worker; and the
conditions of employment, such as pay hours,
opportunities and privileges.
Definitions of Job Analysis
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Purpose of Job Analysis
The purpose of Job Analysis is to
establish and document the 'job
relatedness' of employment procedures
such as training, selection,
compensation, and performance
appraisal.
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Funny Video
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Uses of Job Analysis
1. To know the duties of each job by
studying its requirements in terms of
skills, efforts, responsibilities and
working conditions.
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2. To serve as a guide in the recruitment,
selection, placement and counselling
of employees.
3. To serve as a basis for job evaluation
and wage and salary administration.
Uses of Job Analysis
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5. To help in the counselling and
handling of grievances.
6. To help determine working conditions
that are hazardous, unpleasant, or
unhealthy
Uses of Job Analysis
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4. To develop channels of promotion
and transfer along lines determined by
the duties, responsibilities, job
requirements and working conditions.
Uses of Job Analysis
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7. To serve as a guide in establishing
standards of performance, production
standards, simplifying work
procedures, and improving methods
through the analysis of methods and
time-and-motion studies.
8. To help in effective supervision.
Uses of Job Analysis
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9. To determine the training needs of an
employee who may not yet possess
the skills and abilities required by the
position he occupies.
10. To standardize job titles that reflect
the functions required of each job.
Uses of Job Analysis
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Uses of Job Analysis
1. Human resource planning
2. Recruitment
3. Selection of personnel
4. Training and development
5. Organization audit
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Uses of Job Analysis
6.Job evaluation
7.Job design
8.Performance appraisal
9.Career planning
10.Safety and health
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A Fathers Love
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Steps/Stages/Processes/
Procedures in Job Analysis
1. Collection of background information
2. Selection of representative job to be analyzed
3. Collection of job analysis data
4. Job Description
5. Developing job specification
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1. Personal observation
2. Sending out questionnaires
3. Maintenance of log records
4. Conducting personal interviews
Techniques of Job Analysis Data
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Job Analysis
Questionnaires Sample
Components
of
Job Analysis
Job
Description
Job
Specification
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Job Analysis Program
Usually undertaken when the
organization is starting operations, a
new job is created, and a job is
changed significantly by the nature of
operations, technology introduction,
restructuring or other similar events.
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Elements of Job Analysis Program
1. Company policy and administration program
2. Job information
3. Methods of Securing job information.
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Management
Stories
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The description of the functions and
duties performed and the responsibilities
involved, and the relation of the job to
other jobs in the company.
Content of Job Analysis
This is known as the Job Description.
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The specification of the minimum
personal qualifications in terms of a trait,
skill, knowledge, and ability required of
a worker to perform the job
satisfactorily.
This is known as Job Specification.
Content of Job Analysis
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The review of the job description draft
by the employee and the superior
concerned for verification and
confirmation.
Content of Job Analysis
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The identification of the job by its title
that reflects the jobs functions.
This is known as Job Title.
Content of Job Analysis
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Job Description
A job description describes the job in
terms of its level of duties and tasks,
sometimes to the extent of describing
the processes or procedures needed to
do the job.
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Job Description covers:
Job Function or Purpose
Major duties performed
Performance standards
Percentage of time devoted to each duty
Major responsibilities
Reporting relationships
Machines and equipment used
Working conditions including possible hazards
Number of persons working on the same job
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In greater detail, the information gathered on
the job would answer the following questions:
What the job requires:

What does the worker do?
What is the most important duty? Minor
duties?
Are these performed regularly or
occasionally?
How much time is spent in doing each
part of the job?
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How the worker performs the job:

What are the methods, procedures, and
processes of getting the job done?
What tools, materials, and equipment
are used?
What skills are required to do the work?
What are the challenges and problems
faced by the worker?
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Why the work is performed:

Why is the job done?
What is its overall purpose or key result
area?
What is the employee principally
accountable or answerable for as a result?
What is the purpose of each of the
major tasks?
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Supervision involved in the job?
What is the nature and extent of
supervision or guidance required?
What is the workers authority for doing
the job?
What is the relationship of this job to
other jobs?
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Work environment:

What is the physical environment of the job?
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Job Description
Sample
Job Profile
A job profile describes the job in terms
of key result areas and functions and
roles and competencies. The job profile
has less emphasis on specific duties and
processes.
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Job Profile
Sample
Job Specification
A job specification indicates the
qualifications in terms of skills,
experience, training, and other special
qualifications as well as the traits
required of the worker to satisfactorily
perform the job.
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Job Specification
Sample
Job Specification covers:
Educational and professional qualifications
Skills
Practical experience
Physical fitness
Special qualities required for performing
the job
Intelligence, judgment and initiative
required for performing the job
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Decision
Making
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Problems
with Job
Analysis
Biased Nature of
Job Analyst
Lack of
Support from
Employees
Lack of
Management
Support
Inability to
Identify the need
of Job Analysis
Using Single
Data Source
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The top management needs to
communicate it to the middle level
managers and employees to enhance
the output or productivity of the process
Lack of Management Support:
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If they are not ready to co-operate, it is
a sheer wastage of time, money and
human effort to conduct job analysis
process.
Lack of Cooperation from Employees:
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Managers must decide in advance why
this process is being carried out, what its
objectives are and what is to be done
with the collected and recorded data.
Inability to Identify the Need of Job Analysis:
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To get real and genuine data, a job
analyst must be impartial in his or her
approach.
Biasness of Job Analyst:
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A job analyst needs to consider more
than one sources of data in order to
collect true information. Collecting data
from a single source may result in
inaccuracy and it therefore, defeats the
whole purpose of conducting the job
analysis process.
Using Single Data Source
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Intentional or unintentional distortion from incumbent
Absence of a review
Lack of participation of all stakeholders
Job-based rather than person-based.
Lack of reward for providing quality information
Insufficient time allowed for the process
Time spent of job analysis too lengthy.
Other problems are:
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A
Wonderful
World
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Job Evaluation
Job Evaluation is the process of
determining the work of one job in
relation to that of the other jobs in a
company so that a fair and equitable
wage and salary system can be
established.
It answers the question: What is the
relative position or level of jobs in the
company?
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Since job evaluation is concerned with
the job itself, it is the job that is
evaluated and not the person
occupying it.
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Performance Evaluation
In Job evaluation, certain basic
principles related to wages apply
Equal pay for equal work
Differences in pay must be based on
differences in work
Pay levels must be related to existing
community pay sales
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Caution in Job evaluation
Exercise caution in job evaluation.


It is no guaranteed to solve all problems
in compensating employees. It is just a
method of establishing the equitable
pay of jobs.
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Job Evaluation Methods Types
and Selection
Non-Quantitative Methods
The job as a whole is compared to other
jobs in terms of its elements or
component parts.
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Quantitative Methods
The job is broken down into its
characteristics and evaluated by the
use of factors in a standard rating scale
previously set up.
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Non-Quantitative Methods
The Ranking Method
The Position Classification or Grade
Description Method
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Quantitative Methods
The Point System
The Hay Method
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What does the
fox say?
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The Ranking Method
The Process of comparing and simply
ranking a job against others based on
overall judgement of the skill, effort,
responsibility, and working conditions of
the job.
Non-Quantitative Method
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The Position Classification/
Grade Description Method
is a way to ensure equal pay for substantially equal
work. The classification system and standards are
tools for assisting management in accomplishing the
agency's mission. It assists in management activities
such as designing organizations, recruiting for
necessary expertise to perform the work, and
establishing performance standards.
Non-Quantitative Method
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The method evaluates the compensable
factors of each job. It involves a more
detailed, quantitative and analytical
approach to the measurement of job work.
Under this method jobs are broke down
based on various identifiable factors such as
skill, effort, training, knowledge, hazards,
responsibilities and so on. Thereafter, points
are allocated to each of these factors.
The Point Rating Method/Point System
Quantitative Method
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The Hay Method
This method requires that the organization develop its
own key jobs, called benchmarks, selected from
among the positions within the company. The factors
and the quantitative weights are established , similar
to the point system.
Quantitative Method
The evaluator makes specific comparative
identification of the weights assigned for each factor
so that it tells which job is worth more and how much
more. The factor values are then converted to
monetary wages.
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Selecting a Job Evaluation Method
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The Story
of the Eagle
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Two Important Goals of Job Design
To meet the organizational
requirements such as higher
productivity, operational efficiency,
quality of product/service etc.
To satisfy the needs of the individual
employees like interests, challenges,
achievement or accomplishment,
etc.
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Ibid, Job Design is the process of
deciding on the contents of a job in
terms of its duties and responsibilities, on
the methods to be used in carrying out
the job, in term of techniques, systems
and procedures and on the
relationships that should exist between
the jobholder and his superiors,
subordinates and colleagues.
Job Design
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Poorly designed jobs often result in:
Boredom
Increased turnover
Reduced motivation
Low levels of job satisfaction
Less than optimal productivity
Increase in organizational costs
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Techniques
in
Job Design
Job
Enrichment
Job
Simplification
Job
Enlargement
Job
Rotation
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This requires that jobs be broken down
into their smallest units and then
analyzed. Each resulting sub-unit
typically consists of relatively few
operations. These sub-units are then
assigned to workers as their total job.
Job Simplification
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Requires less training
Less costly unskilled labor
Increase in speed
Advantages of Job Simplification
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Job Enlargement:
It involves the addition to or expansion
of tasks in the job and job becomes a
meaningful operation.
It is the strategy adopted by many
organizations to combat the ill-effects
of division of labor.
Its focus is on enlarging the contents of
jobs by adding tasks and
responsibilities.
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Job Enrichment
It is based on the assumption that in
order to motivate personnel, the job
itself must provide opportunities for
achievement, recognition, responsibility,
advancement and growth.
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Job Enrichment
Through job enrichment, autonomy,
responsibility and control becomes part
of a workers job.
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This refers to the movement of an
employee from one job to another over
a designated period of time.
Job Rotation
Jobs themselves are not actually
changed, only the employees are
rotated among various jobs.
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This would relieve the employee from
boredom and monotony, improves the
employees skills regarding various jobs
and prepares the employee to meet
the contingencies.
Job Rotation
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Life
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