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BASIC PLC COURSE

Objectives:
To be able to define PLC and its functions.
To understand the advantages of PLC.
To be able to know PLC Hardware Components
To be able to develop PLC Ladder Diagram.
To learn proper wiring of inputs and outputs
to the PLC.


Programmable Logic Controllers
Defined by NEMA as a digital electronic
apparatus with a programmable memory for
storing instructions to implement specific
functions (logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and
arithmetic) to control machines and processes.
Considered as the first industrial-based computer
Advantages of Using PLC
Shorter Project
Implementation
Easier Modification
Without Cost Penalty
Design Easily Change
Using Software
Project Cost Can be
Accurately Calculated
Shorter Training Time
Required
A Wide Range of Control
Operations
Easy
Maintenance
Able to Withstand Harsh
Plant Environment
High
Reliability
Standardization of
Controller Hardware
Functions of PLC
Sequence Control
Conventional Relay Logic Replacer
Timer and Counter Functions
Auto / Semi / Manual Control of
Machines and Processes
Sophisticated
Control
Arithmetic Operations
Analog Control (Temperature,
Pressure, etc.)
PID (Proportional Integral
Derivation)
Stepper / Servo Motor Control
Functions of PLC
Supervisory Control
Process Monitoring and Alarm
Interfacing with Computers
Factory Automation network
Wide Area Network
Basic Control System
Open Loop System
INPUT LOGIC OUTPUT
-Pushbuttons
-Limit Switches
-Level Switches
-Flow Switches
-Relays
-Timers
-Counters
-Motors
-Solenoid
valves
-Lamps
PLC
Basic Control System
Closed Loop System
Controller
Final Control
Element
Process
Transmitter
Set value
Error
Process
Variable
Primary
Element / Transducer
Temperature
Flow
Level
Pressure
+
_
Hardware Components
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Micro PLC less than 100 I/Os
Small PLC 0 to 526 I/Os
Medium PLC 0 to 1028 I/Os
Large PLC 0 to 5120 I/Os
Power Supply
100 240 Volts AC
100 / 110 Volts AC
200 / 220 Volts AC
24 Volts DC
Inputs
DC 24 Volts
AC 110 / 220 Volts
DC 12 Volts
Outputs
Transistor type (24 Vdc )
Relay / Contact type (24Vdc / 220 Vac)
TRIAC type (110 / 220 Vac)
PNP-type Transistor
Input
Source
Generates power
NPN-type Transistor
Input
Sink
Transmits power
Peripheral Devices
Programming Console
CX-Programmer Software
Conversion Cables
Connecting Cables
Software Components
1. Ladder Diagram Language a symbolic instruction type
language
2. Boolean Language- Basic level language that composed
of three (3) Boolean logic operation: AND, OR, NOT
Mnemonic Instruction written in abbreviated
form using 3 or 4 letters that generally imply
the operation of the instruction
3. Functional Blocks Language high level instructions that
permit the user to program more complex functions
using the ladder diagram format
- Instruction set is composed of blocks that executes
or performs specific function
4. English Statement Language considered derivative of
computer language such as BASIC.
-also known as Control Statements
Note:
OMRON PLCs uses both Ladder Diagram
Language and Boolean Language.
Key Points to Know in Selecting or Using PLC
I. Know the process to be controlled
II. Determine the type of control
Distributed control
Centralized control
Individual machine control
III. Determine I/O interface requirements
Estimate digital and analog I./Os
Check for I/O specifications
Determine if remote I/O is required
Allow for future expansion
IV. Define peripheral devices
5 Steps in PLC Implementation
Draw the Schematic Diagram
Draw Control Diagram
Develop PLC Ladder Diagram
I/O Assignment
PLC Layout

STEP I. SCHEMATIC OR POWER DIAGRAM
Exercise 1
FORWARD/ REVERSE SCHEMATIC DIGRAM OF 3-PHASE MOTOR
M
L1 L2 L3
FWD REV
CB
O.L.
EXERCISE 2 ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER
DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER
4/2 WAY DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE.
DOUBLE SOLENOID VALVE
STEP I. SCHEMATIC OR POWER DIAGRAM
STEP II. CONTROL DIAGRAM (RELAY DIAGRAM) OF EXERCISE 1
PB FORWARD
PB STOP
REV
FWD
FWD
REV
FWD
REV
10
01
10
02
STEP IV. PLC DIGRAM
0.01 0.3 10.02
10.01
1001
10.02
0.3
0.02

STEP III. INPUT/OUTPUT ASSIGNMENT OF
EXERCISE 1
PB FWD 0.01 FWD-10.01
PB REV - 0.02 REV-10.02
PB STOP- 0.03
STEP V. PLC LAY-OUT
CENTRAL
PROCESSING UNIT
1
2
3
FWD
REV
L1 L2
INPUT MODULE OUTPUT MODULE
COM
+ 24V -
PB_F
PB_R
Stop PB
CH0
CH10
0
1
COM
220VAC
PLC I/O WIRING
(INPUT WIRING)
PLC I/O WIRING
(OUTPUT WIRING)
CX PROGRAMMER
CX PROGRAMMER
CX PROGRAMMER
TIMER
PLC ADDRESS T0- T127

COIL : TIM TIM# #SET VALUE TIM 1 #50
CONTACT: T# T1

coil
a contact point
b contact point
delay period
TIM

001

#50
CONTACT
Timer No.
Set Value
COUNTER
In the control circuits, besides detection of objects and response operation or
timing control, there is a function which is called counter. For example counters
are often used in counting material numbers being carried by conveyor, or making
operation stop after a certain period is counted.
PLC ADDRESS C0- C127

Coil : CNT_CNT#_SET VALUE CNT 1 #3
Contact : C# C1

CNT

001

#3
PULSER
RESET
Counter No.
Set Value
Lamp
Pulser
Reset
pulse
ONLINE EDIT
On-Line editing is used to make changes in the PLC Program without
stopping the operation of the system

Note: PLC must be in monitor mode
To change operating mode:
PLC => Operating Mode => Monitor Mode

To begin on-line editing
Program => Online Edit => Begin

After editing the ladder, changes must be downloaded to PLC
Program => Online Edit => Send Changes


FORCING OF STATUS
Forcing is used for testing. To temporarily Turn ON the status of a certain
input, output or internal relay.

Note: PLC must be in monitor mode
To change operating mode:
PLC => Operating Mode => Monitor Mode

To begin forcing
PLC => Force => ON

To STOP forcing
PLC => Force => OFF

Problem I.
Packages arriving on a roller-conveyor are lifted by a pneumatic cylinder and pushed onto
another conveyor by a second cylinder. Cylinder B may then perform a return stroke only after
cylinder A has reached the car position. The start signal should be provided by means of a manual
button, each signal initiating one cycle.
Positional sketch and determination of working elements:
Problems and Exercises
Displacement Step Diagram

Problem II.
Two clips are to be riveted together on a semi-automatic press.
Components and rivet are positioned by hand and then removed by hand on completion of the
riveting operation. The automated part of the working cycle consist of the holding and clamping of the components
(cylinder A) and also the riveting (cylinder B), and the cycle should be performed ending at the starting position
after operating a start button.


Positional sketch and determination of working elements:


Displacement Step Diagram


Problem III.
Provide switches to operate this valve. Provide interlock so that only one can open at a time (It is undesirable to mix
the chemicals of several tanks.)

Note: Switches which drive active high valves must be driven with active low.
Problem IV.
REMOTE MONITORING OF 3 MOTORS
Design a control circuit that will start the three motors one at a time. Motor 1 should start first. After 10s Motor 2
will start and after another 10s, motor 3 will start. Provide a stop button to stop the operation at any time.
Problem V.
Flints are contained in a hopper and they are to be distributed to two only assembly
stations in a certain rhythm. Cylinder 1.0 (A) opens and closes the hopper seal. When the start
switch is operated, cylinder 1.0 (A) opens the seal. The flints slide into receptacle 1. When the
hopper has been closed, cylinder 2.0 (B) moves receptacle 2 under the hopper. In the meantime,
receptacle 1 has arrived on the conveyor at the first assembly station. Another empty receptacle is
located on the sliding table when cylinder 1.0 (A) has closed the hopper. Cylinder 2.0 (B) moves
into its initial position and receptacle 2 is transported to the second assemble station on a
conveyor. If the start switch is operated again, the control performs a new cycle.
Displacement Step Diagram


LADDER DIAGRAM DESIGNING
Condition: Level Monitoring
Three float switch will be used to detect the level of the tank.
Float switch 1 for Low Level, Float Switch 2 for Medium Level,
and Float Switch 3 for High Level. Output lamps will give signal
to the Operator upon actuation of the float switch. One lamp
will indicate when there is no signal given by the float switch
yet.

Design the circuit.