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Bill Corbett KTA-Tator, Inc.

Bill Corbett

KTA-Tator, Inc.

Bill Corbett KTA-Tator, Inc.

Coating Adhesion Testing Methods and Equipment

  • Webinar Content:

    • Why Measure Adhesion Properties?

    • What is Being Measured?

    • Selecting an Adhesion Testing Method

    • Measuring Adhesion by the Tape Test

    • Measuring Adhesion by the Knife Test

    • Measuring Pull-off Adhesion

      • Fixed Alignment Mechanical

      • Self-Aligning Hydraulic (3 devices)

      • Self Aligning Pneumatic

  • Special Requirements for Testing Concrete Coating Adhesion

  • Common Pitfalls When Testing Coating Adhesion

  • Reporting

  • Learning Outcomes

    • Completion of this webinar will enable the participant to:

      • Explain the purpose of testing the adhesion properties of coatings

      • Describe the two types of adhesion testing mechanisms

      • List four standard test methods used to test the adhesion of coating systems

      • Describe the difference between shear adhesion and tensile adhesion

      • Measure the adhesion of coating systems using the tape method

      • Measure the adhesion of coating systems using the knife method

    Learning Outcomes, continued

    • Describe the difference between fixed alignment and self aligning adhesion testers

    • Explain the differences between testing the pull-off strength of coatings applied to steel and concrete surfaces

    • Measure the tensile (pull-off) strength of coating systems using mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatically-operated testing devices

    • List common pitfalls associated with adhesion testing of coatings

    • Evaluate potential locations of break, including adhesion, cohesion and glue

    • Describe the reporting requirements for adhesion testing

    Why Measure Adhesion Properties?

    • Determine specification compliance

      • Common in-process inspection of TSC

    • Determine maintenance strategy for existing coating systems

    • Adhesion data is not

    typically a predictor of coating performance

    Why Measure Adhesion Properties?  Determine specification compliance  Common in-process inspection of TSC  Determine

    What is Being Measured?

    • Measuring Coating Strength at Different Planes

      • Adhesion Strength

        • Bond strength between the substrate and the coating and/or the coating layers to one another

      • Cohesion Strength

        • Inner-strength of a coating layer

  • Adhesion strength is highly variable

  • No industry-wide adhesion acceptance value

  • Minimum adhesion values may be on a PDS or in a specification

  • Selecting a Test Method

    ASTM Standard

    Method

    • D 3359-09

    Adhesion By Tape Test

    • D 6677-07

    Knife Adhesion

    • D 4541-09

    Pull-off Strength of Coatings Using Portable Adhesion Testers

    • D 7234-05

    Pull-off Strength of Coatings on Concrete Using Portable Pull-off Adhesion Testers

    Selecting a Test Method

    • Tape and Knife Adhesion require minimal equipment and can be conducted quickly

      • Evaluate “shear” or “peel” strength (peel-back)

    • Pull-off adhesion requires specialized equipment and the testing takes comparatively longer to perform

      • Evaluates pull-off strength (resistance to perpendicular pull)

    • Cannot compare data, since testing mechanisms are different

    • Adhesion testing is destructive to the coating film

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test

    • Equipment

    • Steel ruler or guide

    • Utility knife

    • Brush

    • Adhesive tape

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test  Equipment  Steel ruler or guide  Utility knife 
    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test  Equipment  Steel ruler or guide  Utility knife 
    • Magnifier

    • ASTM Test Method

    • Cross-cut Tester (alternative to knife and guide)

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test  Equipment  Steel ruler or guide  Utility knife 

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test

    • Step 1: Select test area(s) and conduct triplicate tests per area

    • Step 2: Determine the thickness of the coating system

    • Step 3: Select the test method based on the coating thickness

      • Method A (X-cut): Coating thickness > 5 mils

      • Method B (Cross-cut): Coating thickness < 5 mils

        • Up to 2 mils: Use 1mm spacing between incisions (11 cuts)

        • From 2-5 mils: Use 2mm spacing between incisions (6 cuts)

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method A (X-cut)

    • Make a single 1.5” cut through the coating system. Avoid multiple passes.

    • Make a second cut to form an “X”

    • 30-45° angle at intersection of the “X”

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method A (X-cut)  Make a single 1.5” cut through the
    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method A (X-cut)  Make a single 1.5” cut through the

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method A (X-cut)

    • Remove cutting debris

    • Remove 2 laps of tape (discard)

    • Apply 3” piece of tape to X-cut

    • Cover all of X-cut

    • Assure good tape contact

    • Remove tape within 90 +/- 30 seconds

    • Remove tape 180° back across X-cut (do not pull upwards)

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method A (X-cut)  Remove cutting debris  Remove 2 laps
    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method A (X-cut)  Remove cutting debris  Remove 2 laps
    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method A (X-cut)  Remove cutting debris  Remove 2 laps
    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method A (X-cut)  Remove cutting debris  Remove 2 laps

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test

    Method A (X-cut)

    Rating

    Description

    5A

    No peeling or removal

    4A

    Trace peeling or removal along the incisions

    3A

    Jagged removal along the incisions up to 1/16” on either side

    2A

    Jagged removal along the incisions up to 1/8” on either side

    1A

    Removal of most of the coating from the area of the “X” under

    the tape

    0A

    Removal of coating beyond the area of the “X”

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method B (Cross-cut)

    • Make series of 6 or 11 parallel incisions through the coating system. Avoid multiple passes.

    • Make a second series of incisions perpendicular to first series

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method B (Cross-cut)  Make series of 6 or 11 parallel
    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method B (Cross-cut)  Make series of 6 or 11 parallel
    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method B (Cross-cut)  Make series of 6 or 11 parallel

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method B (Cross-cut)

    • Remove cutting debris

    • Remove 2 laps of tape (discard)

    • Apply 3” piece of tape to

    grid

    • Cover all of grid

    • Assure good tape contact

    • Remove tape within 90 +/- 30 seconds

    • Remove tape 180° back across cross-cut (do not pull upwards)

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method B (Cross-cut)  Remove cutting debris  Remove 2 laps
    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method B (Cross-cut)  Remove cutting debris  Remove 2 laps
    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method B (Cross-cut)  Remove cutting debris  Remove 2 laps
    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method B (Cross-cut)  Remove cutting debris  Remove 2 laps

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method B (Cross-cut)

    Rating

    %

    Description

    5B

    0%

    Edges of cuts completely smooth

    4B

    <5%

    Small flakes of coating detached at intersections

    3B

    6-15%

    Small flakes of coating detached along edges & at intersections

    2B

    16-35%

    Coating flaked along edges and parts of squares

    1B

    36-65%

    Coating flaked along edges in large ribbons and whole squares detached

    0B

    >65%

    Flaking & detaching worse than

    1B

    Measuring Adhesion By Tape Test Method B (Cross-cut) Rating % Description 5B 0% Edges of cuts

    Measuring Adhesion By Knife Test

    • Equipment

      • Steel ruler or guide

      • Utility knife

      • ASTM Test Method

    Measuring Adhesion By Knife Test  Equipment  Steel ruler or guide  Utility knife 

    Measuring Adhesion By Knife Test

    • Select test area

    • Make a single 1.5” cut through the coating system. Avoid multiple passes.

    • Make a second cut to form an “X”

    • 30-45° angle at intersection of the “X”

    • Attempt to lift coating with tip of knife blade

    Measuring Adhesion By Knife Test  Select test area  Make a single 1.5” cut through
    Measuring Adhesion By Knife Test  Select test area  Make a single 1.5” cut through
    Measuring Adhesion By Knife Test  Select test area  Make a single 1.5” cut through

    Measuring Adhesion By Knife Test

    Rating

    Description

    10

    Coating is extremely difficult to remove. Fragments no larger than 1/32” x 1/32” removed with great difficulty

    8

    Coating is difficult to remove. Coating chips from 1/16” x 1/16” to 1/8” x

    1/8” removed with difficulty

    6

    Coating is somewhat difficult to remove. Coating chips from 1/8” x 1/8” to 1/4” x 1/4” removed with slight difficulty

    4

    Coating is somewhat difficult to remove. Coating chips in excess of 1/4”

    x 1/4” removed using light pressure with knife blade

    2

    Coating is easy to remove. Once started with the knife blade, the

    coating can be grasped with fingers and easily peeled to a length of at

    least 1/4”

    0

    Coating is easy to remove. Once started with the knife blade, the

    coating can be grasped with fingers and easily peeled to a length greater

    than 1/4”

    Pitfalls to Avoid

    • ASTM D3359 is for coatings on metallic surfaces

    • Dull knife blades can produce erroneous results

    • Maintain proper spacing between incisions when employing the cross-cut tape adhesion method

    • When employing the X-cut methods (tape or knife adhesion procedures), maintain proper angle at intersection of “X.” The legs of the “X” should be ~ 1” apart (width of adhesive tape)

    • Report tape used. Store tape properly

    • Tape may not be effective in cold temperatures

    What Tape Should be Used?

    • Note 5 in the current standard lists Permacel 99 as suitable

    • Permacel 99 discontinued in 2009

    • No immediate replacement

    • Intertape Polymer Group LA26 will be investigated (backing, adhesive, thickness & adhesion to steel similar)

    • Section 5.3 indicates 1” (25 mm)

    width and adhesion strength as

    agreed is acceptable

    • Exercise caution when comparing data using different tapes/batches of tape

    What Tape Should be Used?  Note 5 in the current standard lists Permacel 99 as

    Reporting

    • Substrate type and coating system; method of cure

    • Environmental conditions (temperature and RH)

    • No. of tests performed

    • Manufacturer and type of tape employed (when used)

    • Mean and range of ratings

    • Location of Break (between coats, within a coat, between substrate surface and primer, etc.)

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion

    • ASTM D4541, “Pull-off Strength of Coatings Using Portable Adhesion Testers”

      • Annex A1: Fixed Alignment Type II (mechanical)

      • Annex A2: Self Aligning Type III (hydraulic)

      • Annex A3: Self Aligning Type IV (pneumatic)

      • Annex A4: Self Aligning Type V( hydraulic)

      • Annex A5: Self Aligning Type VI (hydraulic)

    Note: Different testers may yield different pull-off values

    Preparing the Test Surfaces

    • Remove dirt, chalking, oil or other interfering materials

    • Lightly roughen smooth or glossy surfaces using fine grit paper or abrasive pad

    • Remove any residual dust using a compatible solvent

    Preparing the Test Surfaces  Remove dirt, chalking, oil or other interfering materials  Lightly roughen
    Preparing the Test Surfaces  Remove dirt, chalking, oil or other interfering materials  Lightly roughen

    Loading Fixture Design

    Loading Fixture Design Fixed Alignment Type II Self-Aligning Type VI Self-Aligning Type III Self-Aligning Type IV

    Fixed Alignment

    Type II

    Loading Fixture Design Fixed Alignment Type II Self-Aligning Type VI Self-Aligning Type III Self-Aligning Type IV

    Self-Aligning Type VI

    Loading Fixture Design Fixed Alignment Type II Self-Aligning Type VI Self-Aligning Type III Self-Aligning Type IV

    Self-Aligning Type III

    Loading Fixture Design Fixed Alignment Type II Self-Aligning Type VI Self-Aligning Type III Self-Aligning Type IV

    Self-Aligning Type IV

    Loading Fixture Design Fixed Alignment Type II Self-Aligning Type VI Self-Aligning Type III Self-Aligning Type IV

    Self-Aligning Type V

    Preparing the Loading Fixtures

    • Loading fixtures for Type II and Type IV testers are available pre-abraded

    • Loading fixtures for other testers may need to be abraded to enhance bond to surface (recommended)

    • Clean fixtures before use

    Preparing the Loading Fixtures  Loading fixtures for Type II and Type IV testers are available
    Preparing the Loading Fixtures  Loading fixtures for Type II and Type IV testers are available
    Preparing the Loading Fixtures  Loading fixtures for Type II and Type IV testers are available
    Preparing the Loading Fixtures  Loading fixtures for Type II and Type IV testers are available
    Preparing the Loading Fixtures  Loading fixtures for Type II and Type IV testers are available
    Preparing the Loading Fixtures  Loading fixtures for Type II and Type IV testers are available

    Selecting an Adhesive

    • High solids epoxy adhesives

    • Cyanoacrylate adhesive

    • Ensure compatibility

    with coating

    • UV curable adhesive available with Type IV tester (requires special loading fixtures with transparent base)

    Selecting an Adhesive  High solids epoxy adhesives  Cyanoacrylate adhesive  Ensure compatibility with coating
    Selecting an Adhesive  High solids epoxy adhesives  Cyanoacrylate adhesive  Ensure compatibility with coating
    Selecting an Adhesive  High solids epoxy adhesives  Cyanoacrylate adhesive  Ensure compatibility with coating

    Attaching the Loading Fixtures

    • Apply adhesive to the

    loading fixture, surface, or

    both

    • Addition of No. 5 glass

    beads (1%) assists with

    fixture alignment

    • Attach the loading fixture to the coated surfaces

    • Push downward; do not twist

    • Remove excess adhesive

    Attaching the Loading Fixtures  Apply adhesive to the loading fixture, surface, or both  Addition
    Attaching the Loading Fixtures  Apply adhesive to the loading fixture, surface, or both  Addition
    Attaching the Loading Fixtures  Apply adhesive to the loading fixture, surface, or both  Addition
    Attaching the Loading Fixtures  Apply adhesive to the loading fixture, surface, or both  Addition

    Attaching the Loading Fixtures (Type III Tester)

    • Insert Teflon® plug

    • Apply adhesive to the loading fixture, surface, or

    both

    • Attach the loading fixture to the coated surfaces

    Attaching the Loading Fixtures (Type III Tester)  Insert Teflon® plug  Apply adhesive to the
    • Push downward; do not twist

    • Remove Teflon® plug

    • Remove excess adhesive

    Attaching the Loading Fixtures (Type III Tester)  Insert Teflon® plug  Apply adhesive to the
    Attaching the Loading Fixtures (Type III Tester)  Insert Teflon® plug  Apply adhesive to the
    Attaching the Loading Fixtures (Type III Tester)  Insert Teflon® plug  Apply adhesive to the

    Attaching the Loading Fixtures

    • Secure loading fixture until adhesive cures

    • Use magnetic or mechanical fixture holder or tape

    • If using tape, ensure it doesn’t “relax” during adhesive cure

    Attaching the Loading Fixtures  Secure loading fixture until adhesive cures  Use magnetic or mechanical

    Scoring Around Loading Fixture

    • Light scoring can be performed to remove excess adhesive

    • Scoring of the coating is not recommended

    • If scoring is performed, must be done carefully

    • Scoring (if done) must be reported with test results

    Scoring Around Loading Fixture  Light scoring can be performed to remove excess adhesive  Scoring

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion Using the Type II Tester

    Model No.

    Range

    106/1

    0-500 psi

    106/2 (shown)

    0-1000 psi

    106/3

    0-2000 psi (uses wrench)

    106/4

    0-3200 psi (uses wrench)

    106/4A

    Use w/ 2” diameter pull stubs

    (uses wrench)

    106/5

    0-30 psi

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion Using the Type II Tester Model No. Range 106/1 0-500 psi 106/2 (shown)

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion Using the Type II (fixed alignment) Tester

    • 1. Lower the jaw by turning the hand wheel (nut) counterclockwise

    • 2. Slide the jaw opening over the head of the loading fixture

    • 3. Verify levelness

    • 4. Set the drag pin to zero (push downward)

    1
    1

    2

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion Using the Type II (fixed alignment) Tester 1. Lower the jaw by turning

    3

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion Using the Type II (fixed alignment) Tester 1. Lower the jaw by turning

    4

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion Using the Type II (fixed alignment) Tester

    • 5. Rotate hand wheel (nut) clockwise to increase load (<150 psi/second)

    • 6. Break (or maximum force) should occur in 100 seconds or less

    • 7. Record the value corresponding to the bottom of the drag pin, E.g.

    6 is 600 psi

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion Using the Type II (fixed alignment) Tester 5. Rotate hand wheel (nut) clockwise
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion Using the Type II (fixed alignment) Tester 5. Rotate hand wheel (nut) clockwise

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type III (hydraulic) Tester

    • Insert pin through center hole of stainless steel loading fixture (may need to loosen black threaded hand lever)

    • Pull upwards on the quick connect and allow the locking ring to engage the outside flange of the loading fixture.

    • Pull upwards to verify locking ring is engaged

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type III (hydraulic) Tester  Insert pin through center hole of
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type III (hydraulic) Tester  Insert pin through center hole of
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type III (hydraulic) Tester  Insert pin through center hole of

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type III (hydraulic) Tester

    • Return red “sweep needle” to zero (or zero set the digital display)

    • Rotate the black threaded handle clockwise until break occurs or maximum pressure is achieved

    • Read pressure from analog or digital display

    • Loading fixtures (stainless steel) can be cleaned with heat clamp

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type III (hydraulic) Tester  Return red “sweep needle” to zero
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type III (hydraulic) Tester  Return red “sweep needle” to zero
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type III (hydraulic) Tester  Return red “sweep needle” to zero
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type III (hydraulic) Tester  Return red “sweep needle” to zero

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester

    • Device uses air pressure inside a piston to provide a constant, perpendicular pull on a threaded loading fixture

    • Piston pressure is converted to psi (or Kpa) using conversion charts based on piston size

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester  Device uses air pressure inside a

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester

    Piston

    Range

    F-1

    0-500 psi

    F-2

    0-1,000 psi

    F-4

    0-2,000 psi

    F-8

    0-4,000 psi

    F-16

    0-8,000 psi

    F-8/12

    0-4,000/0-10,000 psi

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester Piston Range F-1 0-500 psi F-2 0-1,000

    Round base with pigtail hose Silicone rubber gasket (lifted upward) Round threaded top plate

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester

    • Connect piston hose to the main air hose (brass coupling)

    • Push air hose connection into the base unit

    • Insert CO2 cartridge into sleeve

    • Thread the CO2 sleeve onto the base unit

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester  Connect piston hose to the main
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester  Connect piston hose to the main
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester  Connect piston hose to the main
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester  Connect piston hose to the main

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester

    Rate Valve

    • Place piston over the loading fixture

    • Thread top plate onto the fixture until contact is made with the piston, then reverse the top plate ¼-1/2 turn to allow silicone gasket to raise

    • Close the Rate Valve (don’t over-tighten)

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester Rate Valve  Place piston over the
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester Rate Valve  Place piston over the
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester Rate Valve  Place piston over the

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester  Turn the Power switch to the
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester  Turn the Power switch to the
    • Turn the Power switch to the “on” position

    Rate

    valve

    • Push the peak reset button

    • Push in and hold the “Run” button, while slowly opening the Rate Valve until pressure increases at ~2 psi/second

    • Do not exceed 6 psi/ second

    Run

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester  Turn the Power switch to the

    On/off

    Peak

    Reset

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester

    • Read the Piston Pressure from the digital display

    • Convert the Piston Pressure to psi (or Kpa) using the conversion chart corresponding to the piston used and diameter of the loading fixture

    • Example: 46 psi piston pressure = 937.3 psi adhesion strength (F4 piston and 0.5” diameter loading fixture)

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type IV (pneumatic) Tester  Read the Piston Pressure from the

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type V (hydraulic) Tester

    • Type V uses hydraulic pressure to apply perpendicular force to the loading fixture

    • Pull-off strength is read directly from digital display

    • Manual version is shown

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type V (hydraulic) Tester  Type V uses hydraulic pressure to
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type V (hydraulic) Tester  Type V uses hydraulic pressure to

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type V (hydraulic) Tester

    • Open the pressure relief valve and push actuator handle into assembly

    • Power-up tester (green)

    • Verify LCD reads zero

    • Select pull-stub size (*)

    • Select units (**)

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type V (hydraulic) Tester  Open the pressure relief valve and
    * **
    *
    **

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type V (hydraulic) Tester

    • Position actuator over loading fixture. Attach quick connect coupling to head of fixture

    • Close the pressure relief valve

    • Pump lever until digital display indicates pressure is applied

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type V (hydraulic) Tester  Position actuator over loading fixture. Attach
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type V (hydraulic) Tester  Position actuator over loading fixture. Attach

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type V (hydraulic) Tester

    • Continue pumping uniformly (<150 psi/ second)

    • Monitor pull rate using LCD display (psi/s)

    • Display holds maximum pressure of pull-off

    • Record value, or press memory pad (*) to store

    value

    • Depress green button to zero display

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type V (hydraulic) Tester  Continue pumping uniformly (<150 psi/ second)
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type V (hydraulic) Tester  Continue pumping uniformly (<150 psi/ second)

    *

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type V (hydraulic) Tester

    • Automatic version applies hydraulic pressure to actuator without pumping of a

    lever

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type V (hydraulic) Tester  Automatic version applies hydraulic pressure to

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type VI (hydraulic) Tester

    • Type VI tester uses hydraulic pressure to apply perpendicular force to the loading fixture

    • Pull-off strength is read directly from the gage dial (up to ~ 2,470 psi)

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type VI (hydraulic) Tester  Type VI tester uses hydraulic pressure

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type VI (hydraulic) Tester

    • Type VI tester consists of a turning crank/pressure gage & testing head

    • Verify crank and tightening wheel are in start position

    • Press 4 pistons against even surface to return oil to the pump

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type VI (hydraulic) Tester  Type VI tester consists of a
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type VI (hydraulic) Tester  Type VI tester consists of a

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type VI (hydraulic) Tester

    • Lift outer ring of the quick release coupling; mount the testing head to the loading fixture

    • Release the quick connect and listen for “click,” indicating it is locked into the groove

    • Return the red “sweep needle” to zero

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type VI (hydraulic) Tester  Lift outer ring of the quick
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type VI (hydraulic) Tester  Lift outer ring of the quick

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type VI (hydraulic) Tester

    • Turn the tightening wheel at base of pump until piston legs contact surface and gage dial initiates movement

    • Turn hand crank smoothly & evenly until a break occurs or the maximum pressure is reached

    • Read pressure from gage dial (psi x 100 on red dial)

    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type VI (hydraulic) Tester  Turn the tightening wheel at base
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type VI (hydraulic) Tester  Turn the tightening wheel at base
    Measuring Pull-off Adhesion using the Type VI (hydraulic) Tester  Turn the tightening wheel at base

    Special Requirements for Pull-off Adhesion of Coatings on Concrete

    • Standard Test Method ASTM D7234-05

    • SSPC SP13/NACE No. 6, Appendix A1.6 describes procedures for testing concrete coating adhesion

    • Testing procedures are similar; minor differences in equipment and test procedures

    • This section is not comprehensive

    • SSPC CCI (Concrete Coating Inspector) Training Program contains more detail

    • Four considerations described

    Special Requirements for Pull-off Adhesion of Coatings on Concrete

    • 1. Scoring the coating

      • Thick film coatings (>20 mils) have lateral bond strength

      • May produce misleading pull-off values (false, high)

      • Scoring through coating (down to the concrete surface) is typically performed

      • Scoring is done prior to attachment of loading fixture (except if loading fixture is square)

      • Scoring coatings <20 mils may also be required

      • When attaching loading fixture, verify adhesive does not flow into groove

    Special Requirements for Pull-off Adhesion of Coatings on Concrete

    • 2. Loading Fixture Size

      • Unlike steel, concrete is non-uniform and contains cement and aggregate

      • Round loading fixture diameter should be 2” (50 mm) to ensure test is performed over a representative area

      • Square loading fixtures are used with some testers

  • 3. Loading Rate

    • The pressure loading rate should be 30 psi/second; the test should be completed in 5-30 seconds

  • Special Requirements for Pull-off Adhesion of Coatings on Concrete

    • 4. Compressive Vs. Tensile Strength

      • Concrete has high compressive strength (i.e., 4000 psi), but low tensile strength (i.e., 400 psi)

      • Low pull-off values common

      • Plane of fracture commonly within the concrete

      • When fracture occurs in the concrete, report the minimum coating tensile adhesion properties; actual coating tensile strength remains unknown

    Recording the Type and Location of Break

    • Adhesion Break: A break between coating layers or between the substrate and first coating layer

    • Cohesion Break: A break within a single coating layer

    • Glue Break: Coating adhesion and/or cohesion strength exceeds bonding strength of the adhesive

    • If multiple locations of break occur, estimate the percentage of each (e.g., 75% cohesion within primer; 25% adhesion between primer and intermediate coats)

    Illustration of Various Locations of Break
    Illustration of Various Locations of
    Break
    Illustration of Various Locations of Break
    Illustration of Various Locations of Break

    Recording the Type and Location of Break

    • Disregard any test where glue break represents more than 50%

    • If glue break occurs and the pull-off value is greater than the acceptance value, re-attachment is not necessary (report “pass with pull-off strength > X psi”)

    Pitfalls to Avoid

    • Determine which tester to use. Different testers generate different pull-off values on the same coating

    • Verify testing equipment has current calibration

    • Perform testing in triplicate

    • The rigidity of the substrate can affect the testing

    • Clean the surface and the loading fixtures to reduce the possibility of glue failures. Use care when abrading the surface to prevent introduction of surface flaws

    • Verify adhesive is compatible with the coating

    • Allow the adhesive to cure. Conducting pull tests before adhesive is cured often results in glue breaks

    • Verify perpendicular pull

    • Support pull-off device on vertical surfaces

    Reporting

    • General Nature of Test

      • Substrate type and coating system (thickness, type, surface orientation)

      • Field or laboratory testing

  • Air temperature and relative humidity

  • Testing apparatus employed; loading fixture type/dimensions

  • Adhesive type employed

  • No. of tests performed

  • Load applied (pull-off values, in psi, KPa or MPa)

  • Mean and range of pull-off values

  • Location of break (between coats, within a coat, between substrate surface and primer, etc.)

  • Note scoring, if employed (and any other deviations from procedure)

  • THE END
    THE END
    THE END

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