Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 75

# Temperature

Question
If a cup of coffee and a ice cream cone is left on the
table in this room what would happen to them? Why?
The cup of coffee will cool until it reaches room
temperature. The ice cream will melt and then the
liquid will warm to room temperature.
Temperature & the Zeroth Law
of Thermodynamics
We associate the concept of temperature
with how hot or cold an objects feels
Our senses provide us with a qualitative
indication of temperature
Our senses are unreliable for this purpose
We need a technical definition of
temperature
Thermal Contact
Two objects are in thermal contact with each
other if energy can be exchanged between
them
The exchanges we will focus on will be in the
form of heat or electromagnetic radiation
The energy is exchanged due to a temperature
difference
Thermal Equilibrium
Thermal equilibrium is a situation in which
two objects would not exchange energy by
heat or electromagnetic radiation if they
were placed in thermal contact
The thermal contact does not have to also be
physical contact
Zeroth Law of
Thermodynamics
If objects A and B are separately in thermal
equilibrium with a third object C, then A
and B are in thermal equilibrium with each
other
Let object C be the thermometer
Since they are in thermal equilibrium with
each other, there is no energy exchanged
among them
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics,
Example
Object C (thermometer) is in contact
with A until they achieve thermal
equilibrium
The reading on C is recorded
Object C is then in contact with
object B until they achieve thermal
equilibrium
The reading on C is recorded again
If the two readings are the same, A
and B are also in thermal
equilibrium
Zeroth law of Thermodynamics
Temperature (Technical)
Temperature can be thought of as the property that
determines whether an object is in thermal equilibrium
with other objects
Two objects in thermal equilibrium with each other are
at the same temperature
If two objects have different temperatures, they are not
in thermal equilibrium with each other
Thermometers & The Celsius
Temperature Scale
A thermometer is a device that is used to
measure the temperature of a system
Thermometers are based on the principle
that some physical property of a system
changes as the systems temperature
changes
Thermometers, cont
These properties include:
The volume of a liquid
The dimensions of a solid
The pressure of a gas at a constant volume
The volume of a gas at a constant pressure
The electric resistance of a conductor
The color of an object
A temperature scale can be established on the basis of any
of these physical properties
Thermometer, Liquid in Glass
A common type of
thermometer is a liquid-in-
glass
The material in the
capillary tube expands as it
is heated
The liquid is usually
mercury or alcohol
Calibrating a Thermometer
A thermometer can be calibrated by placing it
in contact with some natural systems that
remain at constant temperature
Common systems involve water
A mixture of ice and water at atmospheric pressure
Called the ice point of water
A mixture of water and steam in equilibrium
Called the steam point of water
Celsius Scale
The ice point of water is defined to be 0
o
C
The steam point of water is defined to be
100
o
C
The length of the column between these two
points is divided into 100 increments, called
Celsius degrees
The Constant-Volume Gas
Thermometer & The Absolute
Temperature Scale
The physical change exploited is
the variation of pressure of a fixed
volume gas as its temperature
changes
The volume of the gas is kept
constant by raising or lowering the
reservoir B to keep the mercury
level at A constant
Constant Volume Gas
Thermometer, cont
The thermometer is calibrated by using a
ice water bath and a steam water bath
The pressures of the mercury under each
situation are recorded
The volume is kept constant by adjusting A
The information is plotted
Constant Volume Gas
Thermometer, final
To find the temperature of a
substance, the gas flask is
placed in thermal contact
with the substance
The pressure is found on the
graph
The temperature is read from
the graph
Temperature Scale
There are three different temperature scales
1. Fahrenheit
2. Celsius
3. Kelvin
Absolute Zero
The thermometer readings are
virtually independent of the
gas used
If the lines for various gases are
extended, the pressure is
always zero when the
temperature is
273.15
o
C
This temperature is called
Absolute Zero
Absolute Temperature
Scale
Absolute zero is used as the basis of the absolute
temperature scale
The size of the degree on the absolute scale is the same as
the size of the degree on the Celsius scale
To convert: T
C
= T
A
273.15 (19.1)
The absolute temperature scale is now based on two new
fixed points
Adopted by in 1954 by the International Committee on Weights
and Measures
One point is absolute zero
The other point is the triple point of
water
Combination of temperature and pressure
where ice, water, and steam can all coexist
The triple point of water occurs at
0.01
o
C and 4.58 mm of mercury
Absolute Temperature
Scale, cont
Absolute Temperature
Scale, final
This temperature was set to be 273.16 on the absolute
temperature scale
This made the old absolute scale agree closely with
the new one
The units of the absolute scale are KELVI NS
The absolute scale is also called the Kelvin scale
Named for William Thomson, Lord Kelvin
The triple point temperature is 273.16 K
No degree symbol is used with KELVI NS
The Kelvin is defined as 1/273.16 of the difference
between absolute zero and the temperature of the triple
point of water
Some Examples of
Absolute Temperatures
The figure at right gives some
absolute temperatures at which
various physical processes occur
The scale is logarithmic
The temperature of absolute zero
cannot be achieved
Experiments have come close
Energy at Absolute Zero
According to classical physics, the kinetic energy of the
gas molecules would become zero at absolute zero
The molecular motion would cease
Therefore, the molecules would settle out on the
bottom of the container
Quantum theory modifies this and shows some residual
energy would remain
This energy is called the zero-point energy
Fahrenheit Scale
Fahrenheit Scale a common scale in everyday use in
the US
Named for Daniel Fahrenheit
Temperature of the ice point is 32
o
F
Temperature of the steam point is 212
o
F
There are 180 divisions (degrees) between the two reference
points
Celsius and Kelvin have the same size degrees, but
different starting points
T
C
= T
K
273.15 (19.1)
Comparison of Scales
Celsius and Fahrenheit have different sized degrees and different
starting points

(19.2)

To compare changes in temperature

(19.3)

I ce point temperatures
0
o
C = 273.15 K = 32
o
F
Steam point temperatures
100
o
C = 373.15 K = 212
o
F

( )
F C
9 5
32 32
5 9
C F
T T F or T T = + =
C F
5
9
K
T T T A = A = A
Example 19.1 Converting
Temperatures
(A). Convert 50
o
F to Celsius and Kelvins

(B). At which temperature T
F
= T
C

29
( ) ( )
5 5
32 50 32 10
9 9
C F
T T C = = =
T
C
= T
K
273.15 T
K
= T
C
+ 273.15
T
K
= 10
o
C + 273.15 = 283.15
o
C
9 9
32 32 5 9 5 32
5 5
4 160 40
40 40
F C F C
T T and T T T T T T T
T T
F C
= + = = = + = +
= =
=
Example: Heating a Pan of Water
A pan of water is heated from 20
o
C to 80
o
C . What is the change in
its temperature on the Kelvin scale and on the Fahrenheit scale.
31
C F
C
C F
5
9
80 20 60
60
5 9
60 (60) 108
9 5
K
o o o
C K
o o
F
T T T
T C C C
T T K
T C T T F
A = A = A
A = =
A = A =
A = = A A = =
Temperature Conversion Example
The highest temperature ever recorded in Earths
atmosphere was 57.8C at Al-Aziziyah, Libya, in
1922. Express this temperature in Fahrenheit and
kelvins.

T
f
= T
c
x 1.8 + 32
T
f
= 57.8C x 1.8 + 32
T
f
= 136F

T
k
= T
c
+ 273
T
k
= 57.8 + 273
T
K
= 330.8 K

33
Macroscopic Description of an Ideal
Gas
For gases, the interatomic forces within the gas are
very weak
We can imagine these forces to be nonexistent
For a gas, the volume is entirely determined by the
container holding the gas
Equations involving gases will contain the volume, V, as
a variable
This is instead of focusing on AV
Thermal Expansion
When an object is heated, it expands.
When object is cooled, it contracts.
This is known (to physics-types) as THERMAL
EXPANSION.
This occurs because
When the temperature of a substance changes, the
energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds
between atoms changes. When the stored energy
increases, so does the length of the molecular bonds.
OR (in English)as temperature increases molecules
move faster (have a greater average translational KE)
and move farther apart
Examples of Thermal Expansion
Metal framed windows need rubber
spacers
Metal hot water heating pipes
should not be used in long straight
lengths
Large structures such as railways
and bridges need expansion joints in
the structures to avoid sun kink.
Thermometers are another example
of an application of thermal
expansion
most contain a liquid which is constrained to
flow in only one direction (along the tube) due
to changes in volume brought about by
changes in temperature

38
Thermal Expansion
Linear Expansion
AL = oL
o
AT
where o is the coefficient of linear expansion.
Its units are (C
o
)
-1
.
This equation is empirical.
39
41
Example

Bridge expansion.
The steel bed of an expansion bridge is 200 m
long at 20
o
C. If the extremes of temperature to
which it might be exposed are 30
o
to + 40
o
C,
how much will it contract and expand?
42
Example
Ring on a rod.
An iron ring is fit snugly on a cylindrical iron rod. At
20
o
C, the diameter of the rod is 6.445 cm and the
inside diameter of the ring is 6.420 cm. To slip over
the rod, the ring must be slightly larger than the rod
diameter by about 0.008 cm. To what temperature
must the ring be brought if its hole is to be large
enough so it will slip over the rod?
43
Thermal Expansion
Volume Expansion
AV = |V
o
AT
where | is the coefficient of volume expansion.
Note: | 3o.
The units of | are (C
o
)
-1
.
~
44
Example
Gas tank in the sun.
The 70-L steel gas tank of a car is filled to the top
with gasoline at 20
o
. The car is then left to sit in the
sun, and the tank reaches a temperature of 40
o
C,.
How much gasoline do you expect to overflow from
the tank?
45
Anomalous Behavior of Water Below 4
o
C
Most substances expand more or less uniformly with
an increase in temperature (as long as no phase
change occurs).
Water, however, does not follow the usual pattern.
If water at 0
o
C is heated, it actually decreases in
volume until it reaches 4
o
C.
Above 4
o
C water behaves normally.
Strange Thermal Expansion
Water contradicts this idea when it is heated from
0C to 4C it actually CONTRACTS.
Water is the most dense at 4C!
This is why fish can live in a lake that has ice on
top the water at the bottom is 4C.

Thermal Expansion Formulas
Linear: L = Lo T
Volume: V = Vo T

How much taller is the Eiffel Tower on the hottest
day of the summer (25 C) than the coldest day of
the winter (2 C)? The tower is 324 m tall
measured (on the coldest day) from the top of the
flagpole. Assume the tower is built of structural
steel = 12 x 10
-6
C
-1
.

What is heat?
What is heat? Heat is energy transferred from one object to
another due to a temperature difference. This thermal
energy is internal energy consisting of kinetic and potential
energy of the atoms and molecules that make up the object.
The symbol for heat is Q. It is positive when it is
transferred to the system of interest. Heat is energy that is
transferred between systems
A system or object does not contain heat. You can not say
an object has 100 Joules of heat or 100 Joules of work.
Heat is not a property of the system like temperature,
pressure or volume.
Heat Capacity
The heat capacity of a
substance is a measure of
how well the substance
stores heat.

Whenever we supply heat
to a material, it will
necessarily cause an
increase in the materials
temperature
The heat capacity is defined
as the amount of heat
required per unit increase in
temperature
(i.e. it depends on the
substance and the mass)
Thus,
materials with large heat capacities, like
water, hold heat well

-they are heat hogs and want to
keep the heat
-they do not give up heat easily
-they absorb heat slower (they resist
a change in temperature)

materials with small heat capacities,
like copper, don't hold heat well
- they are weak and will give up
heat easily

- their temperature will rise quickly
when exposed to heat

So, what does it mean?
air over surfaces with high heat capacity will warm
slower than air over surfaces with low heat capacity.
high heat capacity= heat hog, wants to keep
what it has, resists change

low heat capacity = weaker in holding heat,
will give it up easily to something with a
greater heat capacity (stronger)

Heat Capacity of Substances
SUBSTANCE HEAT CAPACITY
(cal/gram
o
C)
Air, dry at sea level 0.24
Sand, quartz 0.19
Water 1.00
Soil 0.60
Asphalt 0.22
Bone 0.11
Ice 0.50
Granite 0.19
Wood 0.14
Clay soil type 0.33
The property that measures a
substance ability to transfer heat is
called specific heat c.
The specific heat determined for a solid or liquid depends slightly on
the temperature, and usually assumes it is measured at constant
pressure (usually atmospheric), and constant volume. It turns out the
specific heat for solids and liquids does not very much. Only a few per
cent. For gases, however, it can vary a lot with pressure and volume as
you will see.

The units of specific heat are Joules per kg per K

c =
Q
mAT
Specific Heat = c

Heat up paper cup of
water.

Specific Heats c at Room
Temperature
Substance Joules/kg/K
lead 128
copper 386
aluminum 900
glass 840
water 4190
Example: What is the amount of heat Q absorbed to raise the temperature of
100 grams of water from 20 C to 100 C (and not evaporate it)?
Q = 4190 J/kg/K x (80 K)x 0.1 kg = 33520 J = 33.520 KJ

When a solid or liquid absorbs energy as heat, a
phase change may occur such as a solid to liquid
(melting)or liquid to vapor (boiling)or vice versa.
The required heat is called Heat of Fusion and Heat
of Vaporization, respectively.
Heat of Fusion
Ice to water at the same T and vice versa.
System absorbs/releases energy.

Heat of Vaporization
Liquid water to water vapor at same T and vice versa.
System absorbs/releases energy.

L
F
= 333kJ / kg
L
V
= 2256kJ / kg
To evaporate 100 grams of water at 100 C would require
Q = mL
v
=0.100 kg x 2256 kJ/kg = 225.6 kJ
Changes in Thermal Systems
Change where system is always in thermal equilibrium:
reversible process
Change where system is not always in thermal
equilibrium: irreversible process
Examples of irreversible processes:
Free expansion
melting of ice in warmer liquid
frictional heating
Changes in Thermal Systems
Example of a Reversible Process:
Cylinder must be pulled or pushed slowly enough that the system
remains in thermal equilibrium
Changes in Thermal Systems
Example of an Irreversible Process:
The gas expands freely when the valve is opened.
Work and Heat
Consider a system
consisting of a gas and a
piston in the figure.
Lead shot rest on the
piston and is part of the
environment.
The bottom of the cylinder
rest on a thermal reservoir
that we can use to control
the temperature with a
knob.
The system is insulated
from everything else.

dW = F.ds = pA.ds = pdV
Shaded area is the work done by the
system
p depends on V in general
Below are many ways to take the system from i to f.
The work W done and Q depends on the path.

W = pdV
V
i
V
f
}
First Law of Thermodynamics
Conservation of energy

E
int
is the internal energy of the system
Q is the heat flow
W is the work
Significance is that that Q - W is path independent. That
is it only depends on the initial and final states. Similar to
conservation of energy. Found experimentally.
Q and W are path dependent. Also Q+W and Q-2W.
The first law extends the conservation of energy to
systems that include heat and work done by the system.

AE
int
= QW
Special Cases of the First Law
Adiabatic process

Constant - volume process

Cyclical process

Free expansion

(gas is not in equilibrium during expansion)
Q = 0
AE = W
W = 0
AE = Q
AE = 0
Q = W
Q = W = 0
AE = 0
Heat Transfer Mechanism: Conduction,
Convection, and Radiation
Conduction
Through solid slabs

- Carried by conduction
electrons
P
cond
= Q / t (energy/time)

k is called the thermal conductivity
Substance k (W/m . K)
Stainless steel 14
aluminum 235
copper 401
Polyurethane foam 0.024
air 0.026
Demo: heat up rods. What order will
the wads of putty fall off?

Conduction thru one slab in a steady
state
51) Consider the slab shown above. Suppose that L = 26.0 cm, A =
91.0 cm2, and the material is copper. If T
H
= 104C, T
C
= 12.0C,
and a steady state is reached, find the conduction rate through the
slab.
Q
t
=
kA(T
H
T
C
)
L
Conduction thru two slabs in a steady
state
We want to know the conduction rate from T
H
to T
C
during steady state
Rate through each slab are equal in steady state.

P
cond
=
k
1
A(T
x
T
C
)
L
1
=
k
2
A(T
H
T
x
)
L
2
P
cond
=
A(T
H
T
C
)
L
1
k
1
+
L
2
k
2
P
cond
=
A(T
H
T
C
)
L
1
k
1
+
L
2
k
2
+
L
3
k
3
Three slabs
Two slabs
Heat Conduction
Copper rod k = 401 W/m . K
Aluminum rod k = 235 W/m . K
Steel rod k = 14 W/m . K

Convection
Convection and Buoyancy
Works because when a fluid such as air or water is heated
its density decreases. The unheated fluid below
it pushes it up through a buoyant force because the lower
colder air, for example is more dense. The heated air from a
candle flame or hot stove rises because of this.
Requires a medium

Radiation
No medium is needed for E/M waves. Called thermal radiation
or blackbody radiation

ois the Stefan Boltzman constant = 5.603 x 10
-8

W/m
2
. K
4

e is the emissivity between 0 and 1, e=1 means
perfect emitter

Units are Watts
A good emitter is a good absorber

P
rad
= o c A T
4