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Confined Spaces
July 2011
What is a Confined Space?
Is large enough and so configured that an employee can
enter bodily and perform work;

Has limited or restricted means of entry or exit;

Is not designed for continuous human occupancy.

Where serious injury can occur from hazardous
substances or conditions within a space or nearby as the
result of a specified risk

Confined Space
Space large enough to enter &;
Limited or Restricted entry or exit &;
Not designed for continuous worker
Specific risk inside or nearby
Not a confined Space
YES Confined Space
Hazardous Atmosphere
Engulfment Hazard
Configuration Hazard
Any other recognized
serious hazard



Potential Hazards in Confined Spaces
<20.0% or >23.5%
Gasoline fumes
Toxic Materials
Carbon Monoxide
Hydrogen Sulfide
Welding fumes

Any condition which poses an immediate threat to the
health or life of an entrant, or;

Would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or;

Would interfere with an individuals ability to escape
unaided from a permit space.
Hazard Considerations
Examples of Confined Spaces:
The act by which a person
intentionally passes through
an opening into a permit
required confined space.

Any part of the body
passing through the opening
is considered entry.
Key Points
Involved Personnel
Written procedures
Confined Space Entry Preplanning
Isolation of Confined Spaces
Identification of Confined Spaces
Gas Testing
Safe Work Practices
Confined Space Emergency Response and Rescue
Involved Personnel/Groups
Project Manager
Ensures that specific procedures are
developed and implemented to
address confined space hazards. He
assures that the necessary training
and equipment is provided for safe
confined space operations.

EPC Contractor

Meets the requirements of JERGIs and that all
confined space entrants and stand-by personnel
have received the appropriate training

Any special precautions necessary to safely perform
the entry operation shall be agreed between
contractor and SATORP PMT.

Coordinate their entry operations with SATORP PMT
EPC Contractor
Must inform their personnel of the hazards within
the space

Must follow their own established confined space
entry procedure and use their own permit forms

Must ensure trained stand by men are supplied

Should review entry after completion of job
Confined Space Entry Supervisor
To assure adequate protection is provided to the
entrants by verifying adequate lockout/tagout and
that all hazards are securely isolated.
To support the standby mans authority in
controlling access to a confined space.
To verify that all personnel have exited prior to
closing the space.
To assure that all personnel involved are aware of
the hazards associated with the space.
To assure that rescue services are available prior to

Job Foreman

Supervises the activities in a manner that assures
compliance with the appropriate confined space
entry procedures.
A copy of the confined space entry procedure shall
be available for review and continuous reference.
Ensures that a pre-entry or toolbox meeting is held
with all entrants and the stand-by man
All applicable safety rules, instructions and
procedures are observed at all times.

Stand-By Man
To monitor entrants during the job and during entry & exit to help
ensure their safety.
The stand-by man may not leave his post for any reason while
personnel are in the space unless relieved by another qualified stand
by man

To monitor atmospheric conditions in the space prior to and during

To control access to the confined space.

To summon emergency assistance as needed

To assess hazards in and around the space, and take action on the

To keep records of confined space work, such as air test results,
personnel entry/exit, etc.
Standby Man (cont)
The confined space stand-by man
must remain at his post until relieved
by a qualified replacement who is
familiar with the job, or until all
entrants have exited the confined
space. If he must leave the area and
no relief confined space stand-by
man is provided, all confined space
entrants must exit the confined space
until his return.
He has been informed of the potential
hazards present in the confined space;
He properly uses equipment e.g. PPE
required ;
He signs the entry log when entering and
leaving the confined space.
He communicates with the confined space
stand-by man

He promptly alerts the confined space stand-
by man whenever:
The entrant recognizes any warning sign or
symptom of exposure to a dangerous situation
The entrant detects any potential hazardous
He promptly exits from the confined space
as quickly as possible whenever:
An order to evacuate is given by the confined space
stand-by man or the confined space entry supervisor
The entrant recognizes any potential hazardous
An evacuation alarm is activated.

SATORP SHE Department
Provide technical assistance in the development of
specific confined space entry procedures,

Conduct independent reviews of developed

Review pre-plans of confined space entry prior to

Assist in the development of confined space entry
awareness training materials.

Written procedures
Identify who will authorize work in and around
confined space entry activities.

Require that the entrants, confined space stand-by
man, confined space entry supervisor, and rescuers
be identified.

Provides requirements for permit to work

Establish a methodology to assure all personnel are
properly trained and proficient in confined space
entry work, before the start of each job.

Written procedures
Establish the requirements for a pre-job planning

Establish appropriate emergency action plans

Establish criteria to restrict access to the area in and
near the confined space entry activity to prevent
unauthorized entry into the confined space.

Establish requirements for the documentation of
gas testing results, personnel entry, safety
inspections, confined space entry supervisor
instructions, etc.

Confined Space Entry Preplanning

Confined Space Work Requirements - The scope of work
needs to be evaluated to determine what types of work are
to be performed and how it is to be conducted

Work Location - The work location needs to be assessed
to determine any potential hazards in the confined space
and the adjacent area,

Equipment Requirements The types of equipment and
materials that will be required

Personnel Requirements The adequate number of
individuals required to safely conduct the work needs to
be determined.

Hazardous Atmospheres need to be considered, evaluated
and provisions established for safe entry.

Confined Space Entry Preplanning
Material Hazards : Corrosive, toxic, reactive, pyrophoric,
flammable, and radioactive or substances pose a
biological hazard.

Physical Hazards : Equipment such as drills, welding
equipment, scaffolding, mixers, blenders, vehicular traffic,

Radioactive Hazards : Radioactive source material or
naturally occurring radioactive material deposits

Climatic Hazards - High or low temperature environment

Vessel or Structure Configuration - The design of the
structure to be entered ,isolation points, type and number
of access points , structure configuration (shape),

Isolation of Confined Spaces

Energy Isolation :All equipment and sources of
energy should be physically de-energized,
immobilized or disabled in accordance with JER
General Instruction 6.012, Isolation, Lockout and
Use of Hold Tags.

Mechanical Isolation : Physical isolation of all pipes,
lines, valves, mechanical equipment by installing
blinds, caps, or physically removing system
components (e.g., removing a section of pipe)

A closed valve or double block and bleed does not
qualify as a means of isolation for confined space
entry purposes.

Identification of Confined Spaces

All confined spaces
need to be identified
by posting warning

Gas Testing

Prior to entry into any confined space, gas tests
must be conducted by a certified gas tester and meet
the requirements specified in JER General
Instruction 2.709, "Gas Testing

Gas tests must be conducted at regular intervals
throughout the shift and test results properly

Anytime a hazardous atmosphere is detected, the
confined space should be evacuated of all personnel

Always test the
air at various levels
to be sure that the
entire space is safe.
Good Air
Poor Air
Deadly Air
Good air near the
opening does NOT
mean there is good
air at the bottom!

Where the potential for accumulation of hazardous
atmospheres exists, forced ventilation (e.g., air
movers) should be used
Forced air ventilation should ventilate the immediate
areas where a person is present and should continue
until all person(s) have left the space.
The air supply for the forced air ventilation should be
from a clean source
For welding, grit blasting, spray painting, etc.,
additional ventilation may be necessary
Natural ventilation may be used as the source of
ventilation in confined space operations only when
there is no potential for the development of a
hazardous atmosphere.
Consideration of temperature should also be given
when determining ventilation rates.
Safe Work Practices

Confined Space Entry Permit : This permit needs to be issued
prior to entry. Other work permits may be required, depending
on the work to be conducted within the confined space.

Access and Egress : A safe means of entering and exiting
confined spaces should be maintained at all times.

Safety Equipment :respirators, supplied-air breathing
apparatus, continuous gas monitors, radio equipment, retrieval
equipment, full body harness and life lines

Equipment Requirements :Air operated equipment is preferred
where the presence of flammables is a possibility, electrical
equipments shall be 110-120V, 15-20 Amps, temporary circuits
used in confined space operations shall be equipped with
ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI).All electrical and static
producing equipment shall be properly bonded and grounded.
Safe Work Practices
Compressed gas cylinders should not be used or
stored in confined spaces.

Internal combustion engines shall not be positioned
inside of confined spaces or in locations that could
allow exhaust gases to enter the confined space
work areas.

Flammable/combustible materials should not be
stored in working confined spaces.

The appropriate type and quantity of fire
extinguishing equipment shall be provided and a
qualified fire watch (es) should be assigned for all
hot work in a confined space.

A means must be provided
for both safe normal entry
or exit , and emergency
Tripods with hoist,
lifeline, and full body
are often used for emergency
Ladders may be
used for ordinary entry and
Emergency Response
Specific confined space emergency response plans that
address the hazards associated with a variety of confined
space entry situations shall be developed. These plans
should be reviewed and updated as necessary.
Confined space rescue may be conducted only by
individuals who:
Have received training approved by SATORP

Are equipped with the appropriate retrieval equipment,

Have adequate back up in place.

To facilitate non-entry rescue operations, retrieval
systems or methods should be used.

Standby Men are NOT

Only properly equipped
and trained emergency rescue
personnel may enter confined
spaces to make rescues.
Personnel responsible for supervising, planning, or
performing the function of a confined space stand-
by man need to successfully complete an approved
Confined Space Entry Awareness Course prior to
participating in any confined space entry operation
Hazards associated with entering specific confined
spaces, i.e., entry, exiting, atmosphere, contents,
residues, structure configurations, locations,
adjacent operations, etc.

Specific procedures for confined space activities.

Emergency response plans and notification

Personal protective equipment requirements

Respirator and SCBA training and gas testing, as
appropriate (not required during project)

Thank you,