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BJT AC Analysis

Chapter 5
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Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
BJT Transistor Modeling
A model is an equivalent circuit that represents
the AC characteristics of the transistor.
A model uses circuit elements that approximate
the behavior of the transistor.
There are two models commonly used in small
signal AC analysis of a transistor:
r
e
model
Hybrid equivalent model
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Ch.5 Summary
The r
e
Transistor Model
BJTs are basically current-controlled devices; therefore
the r
e
model uses a diode and a current source to
duplicate the behavior of the transistor.

One disadvantage to this model is its sensitivity to the
DC level. This model is designed for specific circuit
conditions.
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Ch.5 Summary
Common-Base Configuration
e
e
I
mV 26
r =
e i
r Z =
O ~
o
Z
e
L
e
L
V
r
R
r
R
A ~
o
=
1 ~ o =
i
A
Input impedance:

Output impedance:

Voltage gain:

Current gain:

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Ch.5 Summary
Common-Emitter Configuration
( )
b b e
I I I | ~ + | = 1
e
e
I
mV 26
r =
The diode r
e
model
can be replaced by
the resistor r
e
.
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Common-Emitter Configuration
e i
r Z | =
O ~ =
o o
r Z
e
L
V
r
R
A =
=
| =
o
r i
A
Input impedance:

Output impedance:
Voltage gain:

Current gain:

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Common-Collector Configuration
e i
r Z ) 1 ( + | =
E e o
R r Z || =
e E
E
V
r R
R
A
+
=
1 + = A
i
Input impedance:

Output impedance:
Voltage gain:

Current gain:

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
The Hybrid Equivalent Model
Hybrid parameters are developed and used for modeling the
transistor. These parameters can be found on a transistors
specification sheet:
h
i
= input resistance
h
r
= reverse transfer voltage ratio (V
i
/V
o
) ~ 0
h
f
= forward transfer current ratio (I
o
/I
i
)
h
o
= output conductance
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Simplified General h-Parameter Model
h
i
= input resistance
h
f
= forward transfer current ratio (I
o
/I
i
)
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Ch.5 Summary
r
e
vs. h-Parameter Model
ac fe
e ie
h
r h
=
=
Common-Emitter
Common-Base
1 ~ =
=
h
r h
fb
e ib
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Ch.5 Summary
The Hybrid t Model
The hybrid pi model is most useful for analysis
of high-frequency transistor applications.
At lower frequencies the hybrid pi model closely
approximate the r
e
parameters, and can be
replaced by them.
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Common-Emitter Fixed-Bias
Configuration
The input is applied to the base
The output is taken from the
collector
High input impedance
Low output impedance
High voltage and current gain
Phase shift between input and
output is 180
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Common-Emitter
Fixed-Bias
Configuration
AC equivalent
r
e,
model
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Ch.5 Summary
Common-Emitter
Fixed-Bias
Calculations
C o
R r
e
C
v
e
o C
i
o
v

r
R
A
r
) ||r (R
V
V
A
10 >
=
= =
e B C o
r , R R r i
e B C o
o B
i
o
i
A
) r )(R R (r
r R
I
I
A
10 10 > >
~
+ +
= =
C
i
V i
R
Z
A A = Current gain
from voltage gain:
Input
impedance:
Output
impedance:
Voltage gain:
Current gain:
e E
r R e i
e B i
r Z
||| R Z
10 >
~
=
C o
O
R r C o
C o
R Z
||r R Z
10 >
~
=
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Common-Emitter Voltage-Divider Bias
r
e
model requires you to
determine |, r
e
, and r
o
.
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Common-Emitter
Voltage-Divider Bias
Calculations
Input impedance
e i
2 1
r || R Z
R || R R
' =
= '
Output impedance
C o
10R r C o
o C o
R Z
r || R Z
>
~
=
Voltage gain
C o
10R r
e
C
i
o
v
e
o C
i
o
v
r
R
V
V
A
r
r || R
V
V
A
>
~ =

= =
Current gain
e C o
C o
r 10 R , 10R r
i
o
i
10R r
e i
o
i
e C o
o
i
o
i
I
I
A
r R
R
I
I
A
) r R )( R (r
r R
I
I
A
| > ' >
>
| ~ =
| + '
' |
~ =
| + ' +
' |
= =
Current gain from A
v

C
i
v i
R
Z
A A =
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Common-Emitter Emitter-Bias
Configuration
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Ch.5 Summary
Impedance Calculations
E b
E e b
E e b
b B i
R Z
) R (r Z
1)R ( r Z
Z || R Z
| ~
+ | ~
+ | + | =
=
Input impedance:
Output impedance:
C o
R Z =
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Gain Calculations
Current gain from A
v
:
Voltage gain:
Current gain:
E b
E e b
R Z
E
C
i
o
v
) R (r Z
E e
C
i
o
v
b
C
i
o
v
R
R
V
V
A
R r
R
V
V
A
Z
R
V
V
A
| ~
+ | =
~ =
+
= =
|
= =
b B
B
i
o
i
Z R
R
I
I
A
+
|
= =
C
i
v i
R
Z
A A =
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Emitter-Follower Configuration
This is also known as the common-collector configuration.
The input is applied to the base and the output is taken from the emitter.
There is no phase shift between input and output.
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Impedance
Calculations
Input impedance:
Output impedance:
e E
r R e o
e E o
r Z
||r R Z
>>
~
=
E b
E e b
E e b
b B i
R Z
) R (r Z
)R ( r Z
||Z R Z
~
+ ~
+ + =
=
1
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Gain Calculations
Current gain from voltage gain:
Voltage gain:
Current gain:
E e E e E
R r , R r R
i
o
v
e E
E
i
o
v

V
V
A
r R
R
V
V
A
~ + >>
~ =
+
= =
1
b B
B
i
Z R
R
A
+
~
E
i
v i
R
Z
A A =
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Common-Base Configuration
The input is applied to the emitter

The output is taken from the
collector

Low input impedance.
High output impedance

Current gain less than unity

Very high voltage gain

No phase shift between input
and output
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Calculations
e E i
r || R Z =
C o
R Z =
e
C
e
C
i
o
v
r
R
r
R
V
V
A ~
o
= =
1
I
I
A
i
o
i
~ o = =
Input impedance:
Output impedance:
Voltage gain:
Current gain:
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Common-Emitter Collector Feedback
Configuration
A variation of the common-emitter fixed-bias configuration
Input is applied to the base
Output is taken from the collector
There is a 180 phase shift between the input and output
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Calculations
F
C
e
i
R
R

r
Z
+
=
1
F C o
R || R Z ~
e
C
i
o
v
r
R
V
V
A = =
C
F
i
o
i
C F
F
i
o
i
R
R
I
I
A
R R
R
I
I
A
~ =
+
= =
Input impedance:
Output impedance:
Voltage gain:
Current gain:
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Collector DC Feedback
Configuration
The input is applied to the
base
The output is taken from
the collector
There is a 180 phase shift
between input and output
This is a variation of the common-
emitter, fixed-bias configuration
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Calculations
F
C
e
i
R
R

r
Z
+
=
1
F C o
||R R Z ~
e
C
i
o
v
r
R
V
V
A = =
C
F
i
o
i
C F
F
i
o
i
R
R
I
I
A
R R
R
I
I
A
~ =
| +
|
= =
Input impedance:
Output impedance:
Voltage gain:
Current gain:
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Two-Port Systems Approach
o o Th
R Z Z = =
With V
i
set to 0 V:
The voltage across
the open terminals is:
where A
vNL
is the no-
load voltage gain
i vNL Th
V A E =
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Effect of Load Impedance on Gain
L
i
v i
R
Z
A A =
This model can be applied
to any current- or voltage-
controlled amplifier.
Adding a load reduces the
gain of the amplifier:
vNL
o L
L
i
o
v
A
R R
R
V
V
A
+
= =
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Ch.5 Summary
Effect of Source Impedance on Gain
The amplitude of the
applied signal that
reaches the input of
the amplifier is:
s i
s i
i
R R
V R
V
+
=
vNL
s i
i
s
o
vs
A
R R
R
V
V
A
+
= =
The internal resistance of the signal source reduces the overall
gain:
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Combined Effects of R
S
and R
L
on
Voltage Gain
Effects of R
L
:
Effects of R
L
and R
S
:
L
i
v i
o L
vNL L
i
o
v
R
R
A A
R R
A R
V
V
A
=
+
= =
L
i s
vs is
vNL
o L
L
s i
i
s
o
vs
R
R R
A A
A
R R
R
R R
R
V
V
A
+
=
+ +
= =
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Cascaded Systems
The output of one amplifier is the input to the next
amplifier
The overall voltage gain is determined by the product of
gains of the individual stages
The DC bias circuits are isolated from each other by the
coupling capacitors
The DC calculations are independent of the cascading
The AC calculations for gain and impedance are
interdependent
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
R-C Coupled BJT Amplifiers
C o
R Z =
Input impedance,
first stage:
Output impedance,
second stage:
Voltage gain:

e i
R R R Z | = || ||
2 1
2 1
2
2 1
1
|| || ||
v v v
e
C
v
e
e C
v
A A A
r
R
A
r
R R R R
A
=
=
|
=
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Cascode Connection
This example is a CECB
combination. This arrangement
provides high input impedance
but a low voltage gain.

The low voltage gain of the
input stage reduces the Miller
input capacitance, making this
combination suitable for high-
frequency applications.
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Darlington Connection
The Darlington circuit provides
very high current gain, equal to the
product of the individual current
gains:
|
D
= |
1
|
2

The practical significance is that
the circuit provides a very high
input impedance.
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
DC Bias of Darlington Circuits
B D B D E
I I I | ~ + | = ) 1 (
E E E
R I V =
E D B
BE CC
B
R R
V V
I
| +

=
Base current:
Emitter current:
Emitter voltage:
Base voltage:
BE E B
V V V + =
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Feedback Pair
This is a two-transistor circuit that operates like a Darlington
pair, but it is not a Darlington pair.
It has similar characteristics:
High current gain
Voltage gain near unity
Low output impedance
High input impedance
The difference is that a Darlington uses a pair of like
transistors, whereas the feedback-pair configuration uses
complementary transistors.
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Current Mirror Circuits
Current mirror
circuits provide
constant current in
integrated circuits.
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Ch.5 Summary
Current Source Circuits
Constant-current sources can be built using FETs, BJTs, and
combinations of these devices.
I
E
~ I
C
E
BE Z
E
R
V V
I I

= ~
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Ch.5 Summary
Current Source Circuits
V
GS
= 0V
I
D
= I
DSS
= 10 mA
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Ch.5 Summary
Fixed-Bias
ie B i
h R Z || =
oe C o
h R Z / 1 || =
( )
ie
o C fe
i
o
v
h
e h R h
V
V
A
/ 1 ||
= =
fe
i
o
i
h
I
I
A ~ =
Input impedance:

Output impedance:
Voltage gain:
Current gain:
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Voltage-Divider Configuration
ie
fe
i
h R
R h
A
+ '
'
=
ie i
h || R Z ' =
C o
R Z ~
( )
ie
oe C fe
v
h
1/h || R h
A =
Input impedance:
Output impedance:
Voltage gain:
Current gain:
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Emitter-Follower Configuration
b o i
E fe b
Z || R Z
R h Z
=
=
b o i
E fe b
Z R Z
R h Z
|| =
=
Input impedance:
Output impedance:
Voltage gain:
Current gain:
fe
ie
E o
h
h
R Z || ~
fe ie E
E
i
o
v
h h R
R
V
V
A
/ +
= =
E
i
v i
b B
B fe
i
R
Z
A A
Z R
R h
A
=
+
=
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Common-Base Configuration
ib E i
h || R Z =
C o
R Z =
ib
C fb
i
o
v
h
R h
V
V
A = =
1 h
I
I
A
fb
i
o
i
~ = =
Input impedance:
Output impedance:
Voltage gain:
Current gain:
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
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Ch.5 Summary
Troubleshooting
Check the DC bias voltages

If not correct, check power supply, resistors,
transistor. Also check the coupling capacitor
between amplifier stages.

Check the AC voltages

If not correct check transistor, capacitors and
the loading effect of the next stage.