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FAILURES AND REPAIR

OF

SILOS AND BUNKERS
STRUCTURAL DISTRESS OF SILOS AND BUNKERS :
DESIGN ERROR OR INADEQUACY
CONSTRUCTION ERRORS
MISUSE
EXPLOSION OR OTHER UNEXPECTED LOADING
TYPES OF STRUCTURAL FAILURES :
FOUNDATION FAILURE
FAILURES IN WALLS
ROOFS FAILURE
FAILURES IN HOPPER SYSTEMS
FOUNDATION FAILURES :
TILTING OF CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILROAD (CPR) ELEVATOR,
TRANSCONA, CANADA.
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
DESIGN ERROR OR INADEQUACY

Failure to consider Overpressure
Effect of horizontal variation of pressure
Shock Loading
Thermal Stresses
Pressure due to Flow improving devices
Use of incorrect material properties
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
DESIGN ERROR OR INADEQUACY
CONSTRUCTION ERRORS

Missing or misplaced hoop reinforcement
Difficulties with slip forming

FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
DESIGN ERROR OR INADEQUACY
CONSTRUCTION ERRORS
USAGE ERROR

Storing materials other than the material
for which the structure was designed.
Installing additional discharge openings.
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
DESIGN ERROR OR INADEQUACY
CONSTRUCTION ERRORS
USAGE ERROR
FOUNDATION MOVEMENT
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
DESIGN ERROR OR INADEQUACY
CONSTRUCTION ERRORS
USAGE ERROR
FOUNDATION MOVEMENT
SHRINKAGE AND CREEP
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
CORE REASON :
Nothing will happen, we are designing from so
many years its always like this only.!
TAKE IT FOR GRANTED ATTITUDE..
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
Horizontal bending, combined with horizontal
tension is perhaps, most serious cause of wall
cracking.

Horizontal bending will occur under all load
conditions in any NON-CIRCULAR silos.

In CIRCULAR silos, that are subdivided .
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
In SINGLE CIRCULAR SILO, horizontal bending will
occur whenever lateral pressure vary around the
circumference at any particular level.

This variation will be present under all condition
except that of a single central discharge opening
with a symmetrical centrally located flow channel.
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
NO HORIZONTAL
BENDING
HORIZONTAL
BENDING MUST
CONSIDERED
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
Since many circular silos have been
designed assuming the wall to be in
tension only, (ignoring bending)
It is not surprising that walls of circular
silos often have bed vertical cracks.

When multiple openings are used, the
horizontal bending may subject to reverse.
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
ECONOMY : - A SAILENT KILLER
Resistance to failure under combined bending
and tension is highly dependent on
reinforcement position in the wall.
where the bending moment is reversible, two
layers of reinforcing is preferred.
then also, in the interest of economy, engineers
frequently specify single layer reinforcement.
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
ECONOMY : - A SAILENT KILLER
The single layer is easier to handle than two
layers during slip forming.
Two layer reinforcing requires more labor to
place than the single layer.

However, TWO LAYER DESIGN PROVIDES
MUCH BETTER PROTECTION AGAINST WALL
CRACKING.
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
A CASE STUDY 1:-
FAILURE OF POCKET BIN WALL :
Group of Cement Storage Silos.
CONSTRUCTION ERROR :
The vertical spacing of the horizontal steel in
the bin wall varied and most sections exceeded
the specifiecd spacing.
Location of horizontal bars were close to
outside face of the wall, some were near the
center and some near the inside face.
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
A CASE STUDY 1:-
FAILURE OF POCKET BIN WALL :
DETAILING ERROR :
The incorrect tie detail shown by the drawing
Inadequate anchorage of the Main horizontal
steel detail in the drawing.
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
A CASE STUDY 2:-
DAMAGED GRAIN ELEVATOR :
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
A CASE STUDY 2:-
DAMAGED GRAIN ELEVATOR :
CONSTRUCTION PROBLEM : Missing Bars
DESIGN DEFICIENCY : Ignoring Over pressure
USAGE PROBLEM : Storing Peas rather than
wheat as assumed in
design.
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
A CASE STUDY 3:-
CEMENT SILO WITH SERIOUS WALL CRACKS :
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
A CASE STUDY 3:-
CEMENT SILO WITH SERIOUS WALL CRACKS :
REASON : Stored Material Over pressure
REPAIR METHOD : Post Tensioning using wire winding
method
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
A CASE STUDY 4:-
COLLAPSED BIN AT AUSTRIA
(WEAT STORAGE) :
Continuous emptying and refilling
kept the grain constantly in motion ,
creating high flow induced
overpressure.
Other silos subjected serious
cracks.
Repaired by External wire
winding.
FAILURES OF CONCRETE SILO WALLS :
A CASE STUDY 5 :-
SERIOUS DEMAGE OF SILOS
AT UNITED STATES :
REASON :
Reinforcement were
inadequate and faulty construction
REPAIR TECHNOLOGIES :
REPAIR TECHNOLOGIES :
REPAIR SCHEMES :
Determination of full extent of damage & its
effects on Safety.
Cause of Damage
Various possible Methods
Economic Analysis.
REPAIR TECHNOLOGIES :
ALWAYS REMEMBER..
An effective repair should not merely return the
structure to its original unfailed condition, but should
also
Eliminate the cause of the Structure
So strengthen the structure that those
causes no longer pose a threat to it
REPAIR TECHNOLOGIES :
GANERALIZED METHODS :
EPOY GROUTING
SHOTCRETING
CAST IN SITU LINER CONSTRUCTION
EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING ( WIRE WINDING)

REPAIR TECHNOLOGIES :
EPOXY GROUTING :
Filling the Cracks with epoxy where there is no
other damage.
Spalled area of walls were reinforcing steel will
exposed, should be patched with grout.
REPAIR TECHNOLOGIES :
SHOTCRITING :
For patching lifts, fallouts and other holes and
indentations in the silo walls.
It is applied under high pressure.
It sticks very well to a existing surface,.
More dense than regular concrete.

REPAIR TECHNOLOGIES :
STRENGTHN BY LINER :
It is the construction of concrete wall over existing
wall at internal or external face of the silos.
It may be
cast in place concrete
slip formed
shotcrete

REPAIR TECHNOLOGIES :
STRENGTHN BY LINER :
SHOTCRET LINER
AROUND SILO WALL
SHOTCRET LINER
INSIDE SILO WALL
A CASE STUDY :

EXTERNAL REPAIR OF
CRACKED GRAIN SILOS.
ABOUT CASE STUDY :
The main grain storage :
60 concrete silos
Arranged in 3 clusters
One cluster consists of 20 silos
Configurations :
Capacity : 3100 tons
Diameter : 12 m
Height : 37 m
Draw-off openings are located concentrically at the
base of the each silo.
ABOUT CASE STUDY :
12 m
37 m
Steel
Hopper
180 mm
One Cluster of 20 silos
DISTRESS PROBLEM :
3-Years after Construction :


LARGE VERTICAL CRACKS
WERE DISCOVERED.
Silos are located in a
region of high rainfall.

Subjected to salt water
spray from nearby ocean.

DISTRESS PROBLEM :
CRACK PATTERN :

Cracks were typically 350 mm
apart.
Most cracks were wider than 0.2 mm
Some cracks were wider than 1 mm
A few cracks were so wide that
water had penetrated into the silos.

REPAIR SCHEME :
POST TENSIONE THE SILOS WITH EXTERNAL
TENDONS
CONSTRUCTING NEW RCC WALLS WITHIN THE
EXISTING SILOS
REPAIR SCHEME :
The repair scheme that was
chosen involver adding
reinforced concrete to the
exterior walls of the silo
clusters.
No repair was made to any
internal walls as they are
surrounded by external silo
walls.
POINT OF INTEREST :
THE EXTERIOR REPAIR OF
SINGLE SILO IS WELL
KNOWN
THE EXTERNAL JACKETING
OF AN ENTIRE SILO CLUSTER
IS INNOVATIVE
POINT TO BE TAKEN CARE..
With the exterior walls repaired, the WEAK LINK in
the structure would seem to be the buttress walls
between exterior silos.

However, the buttress walls have two layers of
reinforcement, and thus have batter crack control
characteristics than the original exterior walls which
had only one layer of reinforcement.
POINT TO BE TAKEN CARE..
Critical condition when two silos
are unloaded simultaneously.
During withdrawal, the horizontal
pressure exerted by the grain is
believed to increase by about 60%
from the static case.
To prevent overloading, an
operational limitation was
implemented
STRENGTHNING TECHNIQUE ..
Original Reinforcement Detail of 180 mm
thick silo wall
STRENGTHNING TECHNIQUE ..
Roughened the
surface of about
700 mm
Shear cut in
existing wall
STRENGTHNING TECHNIQUE ..
A 300 mm deep hole
was provided for
anchoring of the new
extra reinforcement.
A 130 mm deep hole
was provided for
anchoring the hook.
STRENGTHNING TECHNIQUE ..
Hooks are provided
with epoxy grouting
Vertical bars was
placed
Horizontal bars
was placed
STRENGTHNING TECHNIQUE ..
External concrete wall
of 125 mm extra was
cased.
CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY..
Method of Construction : SHOTCRITING

The silos were to be full of grain when the new
concrete was applied to the outside in order to
reduce the effect of restrained shrinkage.

The silos had to remain full until the shotcrete
had cured sufficiently.

CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY..
Method of Construction : SHOTCRITING

An appropriate shotcrete for this repair project is one
that provides
Required Strength
Good bond to the original Concrete
Corrosion protection for new
reinforcement.