Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 21

Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.

Design of Reinforced
Concrete Structures
N. Subramanian
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Chapter 20
Design of Multi-storey
Buildings
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Introduction

Most of the buildings in Indian cities have ground plus three floors.
The recent trend is to construct buildings with at least 1015 storeys, so
that the massive housing and commercial needs are satisfied (see Fig.
20.1).



Most of these buildings are made of reinforced concrete (RC). Mass of
concrete floor slabs, beams, and columns of RC construction is higher
than that of comparable steel construction.

Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Heading
Fig. 20.1 Construction of a multi-storey building in Chennai
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Introduction


This results in larger earthquake-induced bending moments and axial
forces. As the height of a building increases, the behaviour of the
structure becomes more complex.

Such buildings are more sensitive to wind and earthquake loads and
hence, need to be very carefully designed and detailed.


Wind influences the design of structural system of tall buildings as
well as their shape and form.
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.


Since daylighting design has a large impact on the sustainability of the
design, the faade may be one of the most important factors in
controlling the daylight and shadow that enters a high-rise structure.



The latest trend is the use of double skin, and occasionally triple skin,
faade with ventilation systems. Double glazing with argon-filled
cavities, triple-glazing, and glass coating can increase U-values.



Introduction
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
With careful design, high-rise structures can be aerodynamically
designed to resist high wind speeds and to simultaneously utilize them,
by using strategically placed wind turbines, thus producing more energy
with no risk to the safety of the buildings users.


Multi-storey buildings are often analysed, designed, and detailed
using commercially available software.


The commercial software packages available in the market include
STAAD.Pro, SAP 2000, ETABS, SAFE, Nastran, Midas NFX, ANSYS, and
STRUDS. Many of these programs have analysis and design capabilities.

Introduction
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.

Special structural design packages are also available and some
engineers have developed their own spreadsheets for the design of
structural elements (e.g., FRAME, RC Slab, RC Beam, and RC Foundation
developed by Computer Design Consultants).

AutoCAD is the most preferred detailing tool.

Linear analysis is considered sufficient for buildings having 15 storeys,
whereas dynamic analysis is preferred for regular buildings in high
seismic zones and having height greater than 40 m, irregular buildings,
and slender buildings subjected to heavy wind loads.
Introduction
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Estimation of Loads

STAAD.Pro is capable of estimating self-weight of the frame elements
modelled.

The user needs to provide the input for the loadings, which needs to
be considered for the analysis.

The different loadings, which need to be defined for the analysis of
buildings are given as follows:
1. Dead Load
2. Live Load
3. Earthquake Load


Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Analysis of Structure

A structure needs to be analysed for gravity and earthquake/ wind
loads.


Gravity loads are those that are more or less constant over the lifetime
of a structure.


The static analysis for gravity loads is much simpler compared to the
dynamic analysis for the earthquake/wind loads.
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.


1. Gravity Load Analysis: The space frame is modelled using software
STAAD.Pro.



2. Lateral Load Analysis: Two different seismic analyses, namely
equivalent static and response spectrum, are considered for this
purpose. Both the analyses are carried out using the STAAD.Pro
software.
Analysis of Structure
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Reinforced Concrete Design Using
STAAD.Pro For Indian Codes

STAAD. Pro has the capacity to design the frame elements through its
in-built subroutines.


It has different country codes in its library; hence, the given frame can
be designed for the Indian, American, British codes, etc.


The user needs to provide different parameters as mentioned in page
796 of the book to obtain correct results using STAAD.Pro.
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Design Parameters as per IS 13920
Following design parameters in addition to IS456 parameters need to
be used
1. Design Parameter Gravity Load Design:
Shear force to be resisted by the vertical hoops shall be the
maximum of the following:

1. Calculated factored shear force as per analysis
2. Shear force due to formation of plastic hinges at both
ends of the beam plus the factored gravity load on the
span
In STAAD.Pro, we need to specify gravity load case number to
generate UDL on beam. Gravity load case can be generated by using
repeat load or unfactored load combination.


Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.

2. Design Parameter PLASTIC: To calculate the plastic hogging and
sagging moments of resistance at beam ends, the parameter is
entered as one. If this parameter is not given (default value = 0),
then STAAD.Pro calculates the plastic hogging and sagging moments
of resistance.

3. Design Parameter IPLM: This parameter is specified if it is not
necessary to calculate the plastic or elastic hogging and sagging
moments of resistance at either the start or end of the beam. This
means support may or may not be there at the beam start or end.

4. Design Parameter COMBINE
Design Parameters as per IS 13920
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Strength Design of Columns

Columns are designed in STAAD.Pro through its in-built program.



IS 13920 is used for the design and the results are presented in this
section.
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Strength Design of Columns
Fig. 20.2 Typical reinforcement detail for column marked C101
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Strength Design of Beams


Beams are designed in STAAD.Pro through its inbuilt program. IS
13920 is used for the design. Typical design details are shown in Page
799 of the book.



Reinforcement recommended by STAAD.Pro needs to be customized
to meet the practical conditions. Typical reinforcement details for beam
FB5 are shown in Fig. 20.3 (SP 34:1987).
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Fig. 20.3 Typical reinforcement details for beam marked FB5
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Design of Foundations

STAAD.Pro does not have an inbuilt facility for the design of
foundations.


There are separate specialized software for the design of foundations
(e.g., STAAD Foundation Advanced, Foundation 3D, Mat 3D, etc.).


The design parameters and design forces for the case study are given
in Page 801 of the book.


Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Fig. 20.4 Reinforcement details of foundation marked F1
Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved.
Thank You!