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3 G Architecture

& Various releases


BY J.K.BACHANI
S.D.E (GSM)
BRBRAITT JABALPUR
AGENDA
Brief Architecture of 3G Network.
Various releases & difference in
them.
Call flow in a 3G Network
Discussion.
High data rates
(384kbps-14.4 Mbps)
+ 2
nd
gen. services
1990 2000
1
st
Generation 2
nd
Generation 3
rd
Generation
Analog speech Digital speech +
low-rate data ( 64 kbps)

NMT, AMPS, TACS

GSM, PDC,
IS-136, IS-95

UMTS/IMT-2000
1980
Journey to Third Generation
Third Generation System
Third generation systems are designed for
multimedia communications.
With them person to person communication
can be enhanced with high quality images
and video,
And access to information and services on
public and private networks will be enhanced
by higher data rates.
Examples of Third Generation
System
In the standardized forums WCDMA technology
has emerged as the most widely adopted third
generation air interface. Its specifications have
been created in the 3GPP (3rd Generation
Partnership Project), which is the joint
standardization bodies from Europe, Japan,
Korea, USA etc.
In addition to WCDMA, the other air interfaces
that can be used to provide the third generation
services are EDGE (up to 384 kbps),multi carrier
CDMA (cdma 2000), CDMA EVDO & EVDV.
Bandwidth on demand
Compared to GSM and other existing mobile
networks, UMTS provides a new and important
feature, namely it allows negotiation of the
properties of a radio bearer.
UMTS allows a user/application to negotiate
bearer characteristics that are most appropriate
for carrying information.
It is also possible to change bearer properties
via a bearer renegotiation procedure in the
course of an active connection.
Required Applications:
Speech
Email
Web browsing
Video conference
Data transfer

RAB:
AMR 12.2
CS64
PS I/B 64/64
PS I/B 64/128
Mapping
between
required
applications
and the RABs
Application Service Class Data Rate Bearer Service
Speech Conversational 12.2 kbps Speech AMR 12.2
Video Conferencing Conversational 64 kbps CS 64
e-Mail via mobile phone Background 64 kbps PS I/B 64/64
Web Browsing Interactive 64 kbps PS I/B 64/64
64 kbps UL
128 kbps DL
Fast Web Browsing & Data Transfer Interactive PS I/B 64/128
Example of mapping
Applications mapping to RABs
Example
UMTS Radio Access Bearers
Typical availability list
Domain QoS RAB (UL/DL)
CS Conversational (speech) 12.2 kbps AMR
CS Conversational (videotelephony) 64/64 kbps
CS Streaming 14,4 kbps
CS Streaming 57,6/57,6 kbps
PS Interactive/Background 64/64 kbps
PS Interactive/Background 64/128 kbps
PS Interactive/Background 64/384 kbps
PS Interactive/Background 32/32 kbps
PS Interactive/Background 64/256 kbps
PS Interactive/Background 32/64 kbps
PS Interactive/Background 32/128 kbps
PS Interactive/Background 128/128 kbps
PS Streaming 16/64 kbps
CS+PS Multiservice: Conv. (speech) + I/B CS 12.2 + PS 64/64 kbps
CS+PS Multiservice: Conv. (speech) + I/B CS 12.2 + PS 64/128 kbps
CS+PS Multiservice: Conv. (speech) + I/B CS 12.2 + PS 64/384 kbps
CS+PS Multiservice: Conv. + I/B CS 64/64 + PS 64/64 kbps
CS+PS+PS Multiservice: Conv. (speech) + I/B +I/B CS 12.2 + PS 64/64 + PS 64/64 kbps
PS+PS Multiservice: I/B + I/B PS 64/64 + PS 64/64 kbps
RAB combinations will depend on Application needs and these
will change Enough flexibility is necessary
Spectrum for 3G Systems
The IMT 2000 band has been identified in most
of the countries for the launch of 3G services-
Uplink- 1920-1980 MHz,
Downlink- 2110-2170 MHz.
There have been some dispute which has been
raised by CDMA operators for the use of PCS
1900 band 1850-1910 and 1930-1990.
Two main evolution paths to 3G
cdmaOne CDMA2000 1X
2G First Step into 3G 3G phase 1
GSM/GPRS GSM
64 - 144 Kb/s
Evolved 3G
384 Kb/s 3.6 Mb/s Up to 14Mb/s+ 28.8 kb/s
EDGE
Existing
Spectrum
WCDMA/WCDMA-E
New
Spectrum
CDMA2000 1xDO Rev 0/A
New+Existing
Spectrum
TDMA
PDC
WCDMA Evolution
BTS Base Transceiver Station
BSC Base Station Controller
Typical 2G Architecture
MSC Mobile Switching Center
VLR Visitor Location Register
HLR Home Location Register
BTS
BSC
MSC/VLR
HLR BSC
GMSC
CO
BSC
BSC
MSC/VLR
CO
PSTN
PLMN
CO
Tandem Tandem
SMS-SC
PSDN
RNC RNC
Core Network
Node B Node B Node B Node B
Iu Iu
Iur
Iub
Iub
Iub Iub
Uu (the radio interface)
C h a n n e l
4
s a k d j f l l a d k s f j
a s l d f a d l k d
q w e r r t i u o d k l c .
s a k d j f l l a d k s f j
a s l d f a d l k d
q w e r r t i u o d k l c .
s a k d j f l l a d k s f j
a s l d f a d l k d
q w e r r t i u o d k l c .
UTRAN: UTRA Network
RNC: Radio Network Controller
UE: User Equipment
UTRAN
3G UMTS Architecture
UE

Manage and secure an optimal usage of the radio
resources.

Control the user mobility and handover.

Support Inter Radio Access Technology interworking
towards other radio access systems.

Support Radio Access Bearer (RAB) services with: Circuit
Switched and Packet Switched data

Provide a transparent bearer service for control message
between the Core Network and the User Equipment (UE)




RNC Radio Network Controller



The Old GSM Core Network
(Monolithic MSCs)
In the Old 2G MSC the control,
connectivity & application functionality of
the network were in one node.
Which makes customization &
implementation more difficult, more over
all the nodes were dependent on each
other, there were no pool type of
resource management.
The Old GSM Network
(Monolithic MSCs)
The most important aspect, convergence
of the network which was very much
difficult due to the use of CCS#7 network
as it uses specific protocols & procedures
and the 64 kbps constraint.
To overcome this in the 3G network
distributed architecture & IP has been
adopted.


MSC/GMSC Server:
Application
Servers
Application
Service enablers
Services/applicatio
ns
Control
Servers
Control
MSC HLR/AuC/FNR
GMSC/Transit
Connectivity
MGW
MGW
Server
Server
PSTN/
ISDN
Internet
Intranets GGSN
SGSN
SGW
User data
Main MSC Server functions
Service control
Mobility management
Charging control and CDR generation
Can control more than one MGW
GSM
EDGE
WCDMA
Media Gateway:
Application
Servers
Application
Service enablers
Services/applicatio
ns
Servers
Control
MSC HLR/AuC/FNR
GMSC/Transit
Connectivity
MGW
MGW
Server
Server
PSTN/
ISDN
Internet
Intranets GGSN
SGSN
SGW
Control
User data
GSM
EDGE
WCDMA
Main Media Gateway functions
Speech & media processing
Setup/release of user data bearers
Interfacing between different transport
standards
Boundary between different networks
Can be controlled by several MSC Servers
MGW
S
G
W
BSS/GSM
UTRAN/3G
Ext. NWs
(PSTN, PLMN)
Control Layer
Transport Layer
H.248(GCP)
TDM, ATM, IP
ATM
TDM
TDM
G.711 Voice
AMR
G.711 Voice
MGWs Interfaces
MSS Protocol Overview
PSTN/
PLMN
PSTN/
PLMN
BICC
BICC (Bearer Independent Call Control) routes between MSC servers
G
C
P

G
C
P

GCP (Gateway Control Protocol) connection between Server and M-MGw
ISUP (ISDN User Part) routes towards ISDN
RANAP between MSC Server and RNC
Nb/IP User Plane
IPBCP IP bearer control protocol between M-MGws
IPBCP
BSC
M-MGw
MSC-S
M-MGw
MSC-S
Q.AAL2
Q.AAL2 (Bearer Control Protocol) in the AAL2 transport layer (Iu and Iur)
BSSAP between MSC-S and BSC
BSSAP
Iu
RNC PCM/TDM
Traditional STP Network
- TDM or ATM based (SL or HSSL)
Bandwidth
limitations
MSC
STP
STP
HLR
STP
STP
HLR
MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC
SS7 routing
intelligence in
SEPs and STPs
STPs are physical
connection and
aggregation points
Meshed/hierarchical
STP network
SIGTRAN Network

IP Network
HLR HLR
MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC
Bandwidth
flexibility
L3/IP routing
intelligence in
routers
SS7 routing
intelligence only
in SEPs
Multi-service IP backbone
All SEPs are IP-based
RNC RNC
Core Network
Node B Node B Node B Node B
Iu Iu
Iur
Iub
Iub
Iub Iub
Uu (the radio interface)
C h a n n e l
4
s a k d j f l l a d k s f j
a s l d f a d l k d
q w e r r t i u o d k l c .
s a k d j f l l a d k s f j
a s l d f a d l k d
q w e r r t i u o d k l c .
s a k d j f l l a d k s f j
a s l d f a d l k d
q w e r r t i u o d k l c .
UTRAN: UTRA Network
RNC: Radio Network Controller
UE: User Equipment
UTRAN
UMTS Architecture
UE
Various releases & difference
in them-3GPP R99
3G rel99 Architecture (UMTS)
- 3G Radios
SS7
IP
BTS
BSC
MSC
VLR
HLR
AuC
GMSC
BSS
SGSN GGSN
PSTN
PSDN
CN
C
D
Gc
Gr
Gn Gi
Abis
Gs
B
H
BSS Base Station System
BTS Base Transceiver Station
BSC Base Station Controller

RNS Radio Network System
RNC Radio Network Controller
CN Core Network
MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller
VLR Visitor Location Register
HLR Home Location Register
AuC Authentication Server
GMSC Gateway MSC
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
A
E PSTN
2G MS (voice only)
2G+ MS (voice & data)
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
Gb
3G UE (voice & data)
Node B
RNC
RNS
Iub
IuCS
ATM
IuPS
Various releases & difference
in them
In R99 the only difference is UTRAN ( UMTS
terrestrial Radio access network.
Only access type is changed to WCDMA.
To do that BTS is replaced by Node B & BSC
is replaced by RNC.
In 2G network there is no interconnection
between BSC & BSC. But now two RNCs are
connected to support the soft handover.


Various releases & difference
in them-3GPP R4
3G rel4 Architecture (UMTS)
- Soft Switching
SS7
IP/ATM
BTS
BSC
MSC Server
VLR
HLR
AuC
GMSC server
BSS
SGSN GGSN
PSTN
PSDN
CN
C
D
Gc
Gr
Gn Gi
Gb
Abis
Gs
B
H
BSS Base Station System
BTS Base Transceiver Station
BSC Base Station Controller

RNS Radio Network System
RNC Radio Network Controller
CN Core Network
MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller
VLR Visitor Location Register
HLR Home Location Register
AuC Authentication Server
GMSC Gateway MSC
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
A
Nc
2G MS (voice only)
2G+ MS (voice & data)
Node B
RNC
RNS
Iub
IuCS
IuPS
3G UE (voice & data)
Mc
CS-MGW
CS-MGW
Nb
PSTN
Mc
ATM
Various releases & difference
in them-3GPP R4
In R4 the major changes has been done in
the core network to support the NGN
architecture & IP networking.
To do so MGW & MSC- Server ( Call Server)
has been deployed.


Various releases & difference
in them-3GPP R5
Various releases & difference
in them-3GPP R5 & further
In R5 and above most of the stress is given
on IP.
Whole of the network is integrated using IP
backbone.
For IP domain IMS has been deployed & for
connecting voice network to IP SIP,
SIGTRAN, MEGACO protocols has been
used.
New hardware such as CSCF,MGCF,MGW
are use
Various releases & difference
in them-3GPP R5
MGW- The primary function of MGW is to
convert media from one format to another.
The conversion usually take place between
the IP-based packet format to PCM-based
voice format and vice versa.
The MGW interact with MGCF using
MAGACO or ISUP

Various releases & difference
in them-3GPP R5
MGCF-Media Gateway Control function: The
MGCF communicates with serving CSCF
over SIP and with MGW using the MEGACO
protocol.
MEGACO is used by MGCF to establish the
bearer connection through MGW
One MGCF manages one or more MGWs.


Various releases & difference
in them-3GPP R5
SGW: Signaling Gateway :-The SGW carries
out the signaling conversion.
i.e. between sigtran , SCTP ( Stream Control
Transmission Protocol)/IP and SS7/MTP
But it does not interpret the application layer
e.g MAP,CAP,ISUP
But it may interpret SCCP or SCTP layer gor
proper routing of the massage.
Various releases & difference
in them-3GPP R5
Instead of MSC MSC server has been used
as it has to open the session with MGW over
the IP domain.
The HLR is also converted to HSS to support
the SIGTRAN as IP has to do signaling with
HLR prior to the call establishment.
Various releases & difference
in them-3GPP R5
CSCF- (Call Session Control Function)- It will
provide the SIP functionality in the IP domain.
Three types of CSCF
1. Proxy CSCF: The first contact point for the UE
within the IP
2. Interrogating CSCF: The contact point for all
IP(IMS) connection to a subscriber within an
operators network.
3. Serving CSCF: This CSCF actually handles the
session signaling in the IP
3GPP Releases
3GPP R4
NGN in the Circuit-Switched Domain
3GPP R5
HSDPA support
IP-RAN: Iu-B and Iu interfaces
Pre-IMS
3GPP Releases
3GPP R6
IMS
HSUPA support

3GPP R7
Full IP: VoIP/IP based Real Time Services
Fix Mobile Convergence: 3GPP
3GPP R8
3G LTE
ALL IP
OFDM
MIMO

Market Forecast
LTE will benefit from 2G / 3G market pre-
dominance and installed ecosystem
LTE
Market Forecast
LTE will benefit from 2G / 3G market pre-dominance and installed
ecosystem
GSM/UMTS
GSM/GPRS/EDGE
GSM/GPRS/EDGE
UMTS/HSPA+
L
T
E

Do-Rev A
Do-Rev A GSM/UMTS/HSPA+
Do-Rev A
Majority of current
operators are following
these paths
Majority of CDMA Ops
Operators skipping UMTS
CDMA ops in international
markets
Limited deployments
prior to LTE
UMB
Transparency indicates limited area deployment
HSPA+ for operators with limited spectrum availability or with significant 3G user base and
looking to provide high mobility coverage
LTE when available for existing operators pushing for hotspots and home coverage
HSPA+
THANK YOU