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Graphene and its nanocomposites: A Review
Vasiuddin Siddiqui, Zafar Iqbal, Masab Mohammad Shoeb, Braj Raj Singh, Syyed Asad Ali
Department of Applied Physics, ZHCET, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, India
Contact Email- zafar.iraqi88@gmail.com , vasi.siddiqui@gmail.com , masab.shoeb@gmail.com
< VasiUddin Siddiqui, Zafar Iqbal, Masab Mohammad Shoeb, Braj Raj Singh, Syyed Asad Ali >
Email: zafar.iraqi88@gmail.com , vasi.siddiqui@gmail.com , masab.shoeb@gmail.com
Website: www.amu.ac.in

Graphene is the new wonder material and a premium carbon
product, one atom thick planar sheet of sp
bonded carbon atoms
densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice, has grabbed
appreciable attention to be used as a next generation material due
to its exceptional properties of these nanocomposites including
ballistic transport , flexibility ,transparency, mechanical stiffness,
strength and elasticity, thermal and electrical conductivity,
corrosion resistant, optical transmittance and super
hydrophobicity at nanometer scale. Researchers are still in initial
stages of discovering all its properties and potential applications.
Graphene and its derivatives are being studied in nearly every field
of science and engineering. Recent progress have shown that the
graphene based material can have a profound impact on
electronics and optoelectronic devices , chemical sensors ,
biosensors, nanocomposites and energy storage . We review
recent progress in graphene research and in the development of
productions method and feasibility of various graphene
1. Graphene in energy production
and storage applications
2. The transport properties of
3. Graphene in biosensing
4. Graphene behave like silicon
5. Biodevices
6. See-through electronics
7. Strong and stretchy
Graphene: A new wonder of material
It is logical to categorize these by the quality of the resulting
graphene (and thus the possible applications) depend very much
on the quality of the material, type of defects, substrate, and so
forth, which are strongly affected by the production method
1. Liquid phase and thermal exfoliation -Meanwhile chemical
methods can produce bulk quantities of small-area graphene
sheets for use as structural composites, chemical filters or battery
2. Chemical vapour deposition -An alternative approach is to
employ the established industrial process of chemical vapour
deposition in which graphene is grown by decomposing hot
hydrocarbon gases on a reactive metal surface.
3. Synthesis on SiC -The first laboratory methods of making
graphene involved laboriously isolating monolayer flecks peeled
from a graphite surface.The first method of creating large sheets of
graphene was by heating silicon carbide wafers in a vacuum so
that the silicon was vaporised, leaving behind the carbon.
Methods of synthesis
Properties of graphene obtained by different methods
Amazing properties of graphene
Graphene's journey is quite remarkable considering the
tremendous scientific and technological impact this material has
had on the scientific community. It could be one of the best
materials used as conductive additives. The preparation of
graphene with large electron conductivity is of paramount
importance. Other sophisticated techniques for the synthesis of
graphene is still the dream of scientists worldwide.
The research in the area of electronics and photonics is still in an
early development stage and much more work is needed to realize
graphenes technological potential. However, that applications of
graphene in radio frequency electronics, flat panel displays, and
photovoltaic cells as transparent conductive electrodes, and high
current density conductors are very promising. Success will require
a persistent, multidisciplinary research effort and sufficient
funding. At last we shall only say that a lot remains to be done and
that graphene will be an important topic for many years to come.
Future prospects
Figure 1. graphene Figure 2. Andre Geim & Konstantin Novoselov
Graphene electrodes could be
incorporated in transparent, flexible
Nanostructures etched from suspended
graphene flakes could be used as mechanical
~20 nm
What is graphene?
Grapheneis a 2-dimensional, crystalline allotrope of carbon. In
graphene, carbon atoms are densely packed in a regular sp
bonded atomic-scale chicken wire (hexagonal) pattern, with a
carbon-carbon distance of 0.142 nm. Graphene can be described
as a one-atom thick layer of graphite. It can also be considered as
an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the limiting case of the
family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Discovery of graphene
Graphene had already been studied theoretically in 1947 by P.R.
Wallace18 as a text book example for calculations in solid state
physics. He predicted the electronic structure and noted the linear
dispersion relation.It came as a surprise to the physics community
when Andre Geim, Konstantin Novoselov and their collaborators
from the University of Manchester (UK), and the Institute for
Microelectronics Technology in Chernogolovka (Russia), presented
their results on graphene structures. They published their results
in October of 2004 in Science. In this paper they described the
fabrication, identification and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
characterization of grapheneThe breakthrough was done by Geim,
Novoselov and their co-workers; it was their paper from 2004
which ignited the development. For this they are awarded the
Nobel Prize in Physics 2010.
Chart 1.The development of the field of graphene research as
indicated by the total number of papers published as a function of
year. A comparison with the number of citations of Novoselov et
als 2004 paper very clearly demonstrates the enormous impact of
this work, and its overall influence on the trend in graphene
research. (Web of Knowledge data accessed on 29 August 2011)

Researchers have
fabricated an ultra-fast
laser based on graphene
The Manchester researchers have
added fluorine atoms to graphene to
make highly insulating
fluorographene, which could be
used as a barrier material in
Method Crystallite size (m) Sample size (mm) Charge carrier
mobility (at ambient
>1,000 >1 >210
and > 10
low temperature)
Chemical exfoliation 0.1 Infinite as a layer of
overlapping flakes
100 (for a layer of
overlapping flakes)
Coatings, paint/ink,
conductive layers,
energy storage,
Chemical exfoliation
via graphene oxide
~100 Infinite as a layer of
overlapping flakes
1 (for a layer of
overlapping flakes)
Coatings, paint/ink,
conductive layers,
energy storage,
CVD 1,000 ~1,000 10,000 Photonics,
conductive layers,
SiC 50 100 10,000 High-frequency
transistors and other
electronic devices
1. A roadmap for graphene K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Falko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G.Schwab & K. KimNature 490,192200 (11 October 2012) doi:10.1038/nature11458
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene
3. Gints Kucinskis*, Gunars Bajars, Janis Kleperis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, LV-1063 Riga, Latvia,journal of power sources 240(2013)66-79
4. Phaedon Avouris* and Christos Dimitrakopoulos ,IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA,materials today, vol-15,March 2012
5. Wonbong Choi,1, Indranil Lahiri,1 Raghunandan Seelaboyina,1 and Yong Soo Kang2, Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, 35:5271, 2010
6. Tajinder Panesor,IOP Institute of physics 76, Registered charity no. 293851,Institute of Physics 2011
7. P B Sorokin, L A Chernozatonskii, Physics -Uspekhi 56 (2) 105 -122 (2013), 2013 Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, Russian Academy of Sciences

(a) Grapheneasthebasisforgraphite-
and (b)a photoofgraphene
Role of grtaphene in various fields.