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JPEG, JPEG 2000, SPIHT

JPEG
Acronym for Joint Photographic Experts Group.

It is an Image compression standard.

It employs lossy compression scheme.

Degree of compression can be adjusted allowing a
trade off between size and quality.
JPEG ENCODING


Basic steps in JPEG encoding
Step 1 - Colour space transformation
First, the image should be converted from RGB into a different
colour space called YC
B
C
R
.

The YC
B
C
R
color space conversion allows greater compression
without a significant effect on perceptual image quality

The compression is more efficient because the brightness
information, which is more important to the eventual
perceptual quality of the image, is confined to a single channel.

Step 2 Downsampling

Humans can see considerably more fine detail in the
brightness of an image (the Y' component) than in the hue
and color saturation of an image (the Cb and Cr components).

So in this step we reduce the spatial resolution of the Cb and
Cr components (called "downsampling" or "chroma
subsampling").



Step 3 -Block splitting

After subsampling, each channel must be split into 88
blocks.

This is called as block splitting.


Step 4 - Discrete cosine transform
Before computing the DCT of the 88 block, its values are
shifted from a positive range to one centered around zero.

Next a two-dimensional discrete cosine transform (DCT) is
performed.

DCT aggregates most of signal to one corner of result

Step 5 Quantization
The JPEG algorithm uses uniform midtread quantization to
quantize the various coefficients.
The quantizer step sizes are organized in a table called the
quantization table


Quantization output is obtained by
Example-

Quantized output

Step 6 Coding
The differences between neighboring labels are encoded rather
than the labels themselves.

These differences, can take on a large number of values.

A Huffman code for such a large alphabet would be quite
unmanageable.

The JPEG recommendation resolves this problem by partitioning
the possible values that the differences can take on into
categories.

Thus, category 0 has only one member (0), category 1 has two
members (1 and 1), category 2 has four members (3,2, 2, 3),
and so on.

The category numbers are then Huffman coded.
Decoding

Features of JPEG
Image contents with a simple structure lead automatically to
smaller files.

The quality of the representation is individually configurable.

A reliable reproduction of colour information, e.g. for background
colours, is not guaranteed at larger compression rates.

The compression of monochromatic images (e.g. b/w graphics,
technical drawings, etc.) result frequently in clearly perceptible
compression artifacts.

JPEG 2000
The current JPEG standard provides excellent performance at
rates above 0.25 bits per pixel.

However, at lower rates there is a sharp degradation in the
quality of the reconstructed image.

To correct this and other shortcomings, the JPEG committee
initiated work on another standard, commonly known as JPEG
2000.
Improvements over the 1992 JPEG standard
Superior compression performance

Choice of lossless or lossy compression.

Error resilience.

Flexible file format


Encoding of JPEG 2000
Steps

Color components transformation

Tiling

Wavelet transform Reversible or irreversible

Quantization

Coding


Application Areas
Wherever we require image compression we use JPEG or JPEG
2000

Some of the areas are:
1. Digital photography

2. Medical imaging

3. Digital cinema

4. Image archives

5. Surveillance
SPIHT
SPIHT (Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees) is
computationally very fast and among the best image
compression algorithms.

SPIHT Algorithm
Figure1 Parent-child relationship in SPIHT
SPIHT Algorithm
In the algorithm, three ordered lists are used to store the significance
information during set partitioning. List of insignificant sets (LIS), list of
insignificant pixels (LIP), and list of significant pixels (LSP) are those three
lists.
O(i, j) :Set of offspring of the coefficient (i, j),
D(i, j) :Set of all descendants of the coefficient (i, j),
L(i, j) :D(i, j) -O(i, j)

H :Roots of the all spatial orientation trees
SPIHT Algorithm

SPIHT Algorithm
the output binary stream:
11100011100010000001010110000