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Module -IV

CHAPTER-17 & 24 ASWATHAPPA (HPH)


CHAPTER -3 RUSSEL AND TAYLOR (WILEY)
CH-9 AND 9A CHASE AQUILANO AND JACOBS ,
SHANKAR (TMH)
Open source for Safety Management
What is quality?
Quality, simplistically, means that a product should meet its
specification.
Types of Quality
The Quality Cycle
Quality management activities
Quality assurance
Establish organisational procedures and standards for quality.
Quality planning
Select applicable procedures and standards for a particular project and
modify these as required.
Quality control
Ensure that procedures and standards are followed by the software
development team.
Quality management should be separate from project
management to ensure independence.
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Meaning of Quality
Websters Dictionary
degree of excellence of a thing
American Society for Quality
totality of features and characteristics
that satisfy needs
Consumers and Producers
Perspective
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Meaning of Quality:
Consumers Perspective
Fitness for use
how well product or service
does what it is supposed to
Quality of design
designing quality
characteristics into a
product or service
A Mercedes and a Ford are
equally fit for use, but with
different design dimensions

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Dimensions of Quality:
Manufactured Products
Performance
basic operating characteristics of a product; how well
a car is handled or its gas mileage
Features
extra items added to basic features, such as a
stereo CD or a leather interior in a car
Reliability
probability that a product will operate properly
within an expected time frame; that is, a TV will work
without repair for about seven years
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Conformance
degree to which a product meets preestablished
standards
Durability
how long product lasts before replacement
Serviceability
ease of getting repairs, speed of repairs, courtesy and
competence of repair person
Dimensions of Quality:
Manufactured Products (cont.)
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Aesthetics
how a product looks, feels, sounds, smells, or
tastes
Safety
assurance that customer will not suffer
injury or harm from a product; an especially
important consideration for automobiles
Perceptions
subjective perceptions based on brand name,
advertising, and the like
Dimensions of Quality:
Manufactured Products (cont.)
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Dimensions of Quality:
Service
Time and Timeliness
How long must a customer wait for service, and is
it completed on time?
Is an overnight package delivered overnight?
Completeness:
Is everything customer asked for provided?
Is a mail order from a catalogue company
complete when delivered?
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Dimensions of Quality:
Service (cont.)
Courtesy:
How are customers treated by employees?
Are catalogue phone operators nice and are their
voices pleasant?
Consistency
Is the same level of service provided to each
customer each time?
Is your newspaper delivered on time every morning?
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Accessibility and convenience
How easy is it to obtain service?
Does a service representative answer you calls quickly?
Accuracy
Is the service performed right every time?
Is your bank or credit card statement correct every month?
Responsiveness
How well does the company react to unusual situations?
How well is a telephone operator able to respond to a customers
questions?
Dimensions of Quality:
Service (cont.)
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Meaning of Quality:
Producers Perspective
Quality of Conformance
Making sure a product or service is produced
according to design
if new tires do not conform to specifications, they
wobble
if a hotel room is not clean when a guest checks in,
the hotel is not functioning according to
specifications of its design
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Meaning of Quality:
A Final Perspective
Consumers and producers
perspectives depend on each other
Consumers perspective: PRICE
Producers perspective: COST
Consumers view must dominate
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Fitness for
Consumer Use
Producers Perspective Consumers Perspective
Quality of Conformance





Conformance to
specifications
Cost
Quality of Design





Quality characteristics
Price
Marketing Production
Meaning of Quality
Meaning of Quality
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Total Quality Management
Commitment to quality throughout organization



Principles of TQM
Customer-oriented
Leadership
Strategic planning
Employee responsibility
Continuous improvement
Cooperation
Statistical methods
Training and education
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Quality Gurus
Walter Shewart
In 1920s, developed control charts
Introduced the term quality assurance
W. Edwards Deming
Developed courses during World War II to teach statistical
quality-control techniques to engineers and executives of
companies that were military suppliers
After the war, began teaching statistical quality control to
Japanese companies
Joseph M. Juran
Followed Deming to Japan in 1954
Focused on strategic quality planning
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Armand V. Feigenbaum
In 1951, introduced concepts of total quality control and
continuous quality improvement
Philip Crosby
In 1979, emphasized that costs of poor quality far outweigh
the cost of preventing poor quality
In 1984, defined absolutes of quality management
conformance to requirements, prevention, and zero
defects
Kaoru Ishikawa
Promoted use of quality circles
Developed fishbone diagram
Emphasized importance of internal customer
Quality Gurus (cont.)
Demings 14 Points
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1. Create constancy of purpose
2. Adopt philosophy of prevention
3. Cease mass inspection
4. Select a few suppliers based on quality
5. Constantly improve system and workers
Demings 14 Points
6. Institute worker training
7. Instill leadership among supervisors
8. Eliminate fear among employees
9. Eliminate barriers between departments
10. Eliminate slogans
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Demings 14 Points
11. Eliminate numerical quotas
12. Enhance worker pride
13. Institute vigorous training and education
programs
14. Develop a commitment from top management
to implement above 13 points
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Deming Wheel: PDCA Cycle
1. Plan
Identify
problem and
develop plan
for
improvement.
2. Do
Implement plan
on a test basis.
3. Study/Check
Assess plan; is it
working?
4. Act
Institutionalize
improvement;
continue cycle.
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TQM and
Partnering
a relationship between a company and its
supplier based on mutual quality standards
Customers
system must measure customer satisfaction
Information Technology
infrastructure of hardware, networks, and
software necessary to support a quality
program

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Quality Improvement and
Role of Employees
Participative problem
solving
employees involved in
quality management
Example : every employee
has undergone extensive
training to provide quality
service to Disneys guests
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Presentation
Implementation
Monitoring
Solution
Problem results
Problem Analysis
Cause and effect
Data collection and
analysis
Problem
Identification
List alternatives
Consensus
Brainstorming
Training
Group processes
Data collection
Problem analysis
Organization
8-10 members
Same area
Supervisor/moderator
Quality Circle
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Strategic Implications of
TQM
Strong leadership
Goals, vision, or mission
Operational plans and policies
Mechanism for feedback
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Six Sigma
A process for developing and delivering near
perfect products and services
Measure of how much a process deviates
from perfection
3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO)
Champion
an executive responsible for project success

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Black Belts and Green
Belts
Black Belt
project leader
Master Black Belt
a teacher and mentor
for Black Belts
Green Belts
project team members
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3.4 DPMO
67,000 DPMO
cost = 25% of
sales
DEFINE CONTROL IMPROVE ANALYZE MEASURE
Six Sigma: DMAIC
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TQM in Service Companies
Principles of TQM apply equally well to
services and manufacturing
Services and manufacturing companies have
similar inputs but different processes and
outputs
Services tend to be labor intensive
Service defects are not always easy to
measure because service output is not
usually a tangible item
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Quality Attributes in
Service
Benchmark
best level of quality
achievement one
company or companies
seek to achieve
Timeliness
how quickly a service is
provided
quickest, friendliest, most
accurate service
available.
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Cost of Quality
Cost of Achieving Good Quality
Prevention costs
costs incurred during product design
Appraisal costs
costs of measuring, testing, and analyzing
Cost of Poor Quality
Internal failure costs
include scrap, rework, process failure, downtime, and
price reductions
External failure costs
include complaints, returns, warranty claims, liability,
and lost sales
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Prevention Costs
Quality planning costs
costs of developing and
implementing quality
management program
Product-design costs
costs of designing products
with quality characteristics
Process costs
costs expended to make sure
productive process conforms
to quality specifications
Training costs
costs of developing and
putting on quality training
programs for employees and
management
Information costs
costs of acquiring and
maintaining data related to
quality, and development of
reports on quality
performance

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Appraisal Costs
Inspection and testing
costs of testing and inspecting materials, parts, and
product at various stages and at the end of a process
Test equipment costs
costs of maintaining equipment used in testing quality
characteristics of products
Operator costs
costs of time spent by operators to gar data for testing
product quality, to make equipment adjustments to
maintain quality, and to stop work to assess quality
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Internal Failure Costs
Scrap costs
costs of poor-quality products
that must be discarded,
including labor, material, and
indirect costs
Rework costs
costs of fixing defective
products to conform to quality
specifications
Process failure costs
costs of determining why
production process is
producing poor-quality
products
Process downtime costs
costs of shutting down
productive process to fix
problem
Price-downgrading costs
costs of discounting poor-
quality productsthat is,
selling products as seconds
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External Failure Costs
Customer complaint costs
costs of investigating and
satisfactorily responding to a
customer complaint resulting
from a poor-quality product
Product return costs
costs of handling and replacing
poor-quality products returned by
customer
Warranty claims costs
costs of complying with product
warranties
Product liability costs
litigation costs resulting
from product liability
and customer injury
Lost sales costs
costs incurred because
customers are
dissatisfied with poor
quality products and do
not make additional
purchases
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QualityCost Relationship
Cost of quality
Difference between price of nonconformance
and conformance
Cost of doing things wrong
20 to 35% of revenues
Cost of doing things right
3 to 4% of revenues
Profitability
In the long run, quality is free
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Quality Management and
Productivity
Productivity
ratio of output to input
Yield: a measure of productivity


Yield=(total input)(% good units) + (total input)(1-%good units)(% reworked)
or
Y=(I)(%G)+(I)(1-%G)(%R)
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Product Cost
Y
R K I K
r d
) )( ( ) )( ( +
=
Product Cost
where:
K
d
= direct manufacturing cost per unit
I = input
K
r
= rework cost per unit
R = reworked units
Y = yield
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Computing Product
Yield for Multistage Processes
Y = (I)(%g
1
)(%g
2
) (%g
n
)
where:
I = input of items to the production process that will result
in finished products
g
i
= good-quality, work-in-process products at stage i
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QualityProductivity Ratio
QPR
productivity index that includes productivity and
quality costs
QPR =
(non-defective units)
(input) (processing cost) + (defective units) (reworked cost)
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Seven Quality Control Tools
Pareto Analysis
Flow Chart
Check Sheet
Histogram
Scatter Diagram
SPC Chart
Cause-and-Effect Diagram
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NUMBER OF
CAUSE DEFECTS PERCENTAGE
Poor design 80 64 %
Wrong part dimensions 16 13
Defective parts 12 10
Incorrect machine calibration 7 6
Operator errors 4 3
Defective material 3 2
Surface abrasions 3 2

125 100 %
Pareto Analysis
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P
e
r
c
e
n
t

f
r
o
m

e
a
c
h

c
a
u
s
e

Causes of poor quality
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
(64)
(13)
(10)
(6)
(3)
(2) (2)
Pareto Chart
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Flow Chart
Operation Decision
Start/
Finish
Start/
Finish
Operation
Operation Operation
Operation
Decision
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Check Sheet
COMPONENTS REPLACED BY LAB
TIME PERIOD: 22 Feb to 27 Feb 2002
REPAIR TECHNICIAN: Bob
TV SET MODEL 1013

Integrated Circuits ||||
Capacitors |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||
Resistors ||
Transformers ||||
Commands
CRT |
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Histogram
0
5
10
15
20
1 2 6 13 10 16 19 17 12 16 2017 13 5 6 2 1
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Scatter Diagram
Y
X
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Control Chart
18
12
6
3
9
15
21
24
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Sample number
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

d
e
f
e
c
t
s

UCL = 23.35
LCL = 1.99
c = 12.67
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Cause-and-Effect Diagram
Quality
Problem
Out of adjustment
Tooling problems
Old / worn
Machines
Faulty
testing equipment
Incorrect specifications
Improper methods
Measurement
Poor supervision
Lack of concentration
Inadequate training
Human
Deficiencies
in product design
Ineffective quality
management
Poor process design
Process
Inaccurate
temperature
control
Dust and Dirt
Environment
Defective from vendor
Not to specifications
Material-
handling problems
Materials
Benefits of Quality Control
I. Minimum scrap or rework due to reduced defectives.
II. Reduced cost of labour and material as a result of reduced
defectives.
III. Uniform quality and reliability of product help in increasing
sales turn over.
IV. Reduced variability resulting in-higher quality and reduced
production bottle necks.
V. Reduced inspection and reduced inspection costs.
VI. Reduced customer complaints.
VII. Increased quality consciousness among employees.
VIII. Higher operating efficiency.
XI. Better utilisation of resources.
X. Better customer satisfaction and employee satisfaction
Quality Assurance: Activity of providing adequate
confidence that a product or service will satisfy
given requirement for quality.
Ensuring Quality
A. Control of Engineering Quality
B. Control of Purchased Material Quality
C. Control of Manufacturing Quality
D. Actions Supporting the Product After Delivery
Statistical Quality Control
(SQC)
Statistical Quality Control: Application of
statistical techniques to accept or reject products
already produced or to control the process while
it is being carried out.
Statistical Process Control (SPC): Statistical
evaluation of the output of a process during
production.
Acceptance Sampling
Acceptance Sampling: A statistical technique
used to take a decision regarding acceptance or
rejection of a lot without having to examine the
entire lot.
Types of Control Charts
Control charts for variables.
Control charts for attributes.
Control Chart: A graphic comparison of process
performance and data with control limits drawn
as limit lines on a chart. Helps to determine
whether the on-going process is under statistical
control or not.
Acceptance Sampling Technique
Acceptance sampling inspection can be either sampling by
attributes or sampling by variables.
Accepting sample inspection can be either sampling
attributes or sampling by variables.
Acceptance sampling plans have two important concepts as
background when the characteristic being measured are
attributes. They are.
A. Average outgoing quality curves
B. operating characteristic curves. Which are described below.
An Average Outgoing Quality (AOQ) Curve
Operating Characteristic (OC) Curve
An operating characteristics curve shows how well an
acceptance sampling plan discriminates between good and
bad lots.
Operating Characteristic Curve
Types of Acceptance Sampling Plans
Three types of acceptance sampling plans are:
Single sampling
Double sampling
Sequential sampling
Total Quality Management
New Thinking About Quality
Old Quality is small q New Quality is Big Q
About products About organisations
Technical Strategic
For inspectors For everyone
Led by experts Led by Management
High grade The appropriate grade
About control About improvement
CustomerDriven Definitions of
Quality
1. Conformance to specifications (requirements).+
2. Value for money
3. Fitness for use.
4. Support provided by seller (customer services)
5. Psychological impression (image, aesthetics)
Three Levels of Quality
1. Organisation level Meeting external customer
requirements
2. .Process level Meeting the needs of internal
customers
3. Performer level (job level Meeting the requirements of
or task design level) accuracy, completeness innovation,
timeliness and cost.
Nowadays Total Quality Management (TQM) means
1. Top Management Commitment to quality
2. Customer involvement and focus
3. Employee involvement and focus
4. Leadership and strategic planning for quality
5. Company-wide quality culture
6. Continuous improvement
7. Customer satisfaction and delight
What is Quality Control?
1. Setting quality standards (objectives or targets)
2. Appraisal of conformance (quality
measurement)
3. Taking corrective actions to reduce deviations
4. Planning for quality improvement
Principles of Total Quality
1. Focus on the customer (Both internal & external
2. Participation and Team work
3. Employee involvement and empowerment
4. Continuous improvement and learning.

What is Total Quality
Management (TQM)?
A philosophy that involves everyone in an organisation in a
continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer
satisfaction.
Six Basic Concepts in TQM
Top management commitment and support.
Focus on both internal and external customers.
Employee involvement and empowerment.
Continuous improvement (KAIZEN)
Partnership with suppliers
Establishing performance measures for processes.
Scope of TQM
1. Are integrated organisational infrastructure
2. A set of management practices
3. A wide variety of tools and techniques
Modern Quality Management
1. Quality Gurus and their Philosophies
W. Edwards Deming (USA) [U.S. statistician &
consultant known as father of quality control]
Demings 14 Points for Quality Management
Demings Seven Deadly Diseases and Sins
Demings Triangle (3
Axioms)
Deming Wheel/Deming
Cycle/PDCA Cycle
2. Joseph Juran (USA)
Defined quality as fitness for use.
a. Top management commitment
b. Costs of quality
c. Quality triology
d. 10 steps for quality improvement
e. Universal breakthrough sequence.
Costs of Quality
1. Prevention costs
2. Appraisal cost
3. Internal failure costs
4. External failure costs
Quality Triology
i. Quality planning
ii. Quality control and
iii. Quality improvement
Quality Habit
Philip B Crosby (USA): (Management consultant and
director of Crosbys Quality College. Wrote a book
titled Quality is free of which 1 million copies sold)
Quality Philosophies
i. Quality is free
ii. Goal of zero defects
iii. 6 Cs Comprehension, Commitment, Competence,
Correction, Communication, Continuance.
iv. Four absolutes of Quality
v. 14 steps for quality improvement
vi. Quality Vaccine/Crosby Triangle.
Armand V. Feigenbaum (USA)
a. Concept of TQC (Total Quality Control)
b. Quality at the source
c. Three steps to quality Quality leadership, Modern
quality technology, Organisational Commitment.
d. SQC and CWQC (Company-Wide Quality Control)
Kaoru Ishikawa (Japan) (Japanese Quality Authority
Quality circles
Ishikawa diagram for problem solving
Quality training
Root cause elimination
Total employee involvement
Customer focus
Elimination of inspection
C.W.Q.C.
Japanese quality strategy.
Genichi Taguchi (Japan)
Quality Engineering
Taguchi Methods
Taguchis quality loss function (L = cd2) [L=LossC =
Constant d = deviation i.e., x T]
Masaki Imai (Management Consultant of Japan)
(Continuous improvement)
Shigeo Shingo (Japan)
Poka Yoke means Fail proofing or Fool-
proofing to reduce defects to zero (Handle errors as
they occur)
Dr. Walter Shewhart (USA) : (Statistician at Bell
Laboratories)
Statistical Quality Control : (a) SPC control charts (b)
Acceptance sampling (with Dodge & Romig)
Total Quality Management Program
1. Top management commitment and involvement
2. Customer involvement
3. Designing products for quality
4. Designing and controlling production processes
5. Developing supplier partnerships
6. Customer service, distribution, installation
7. Building teams of empowered employees
8. Benchmarking and continuous improvement (Kaizen)
Process Management
Process management involves design, control and
improvement of key business process.
4 category of business processes are:
1. Design processes product design (or service
design) and design of production/delivery processes
that create and deliver products
2. Process design (conversion processes)
3. Support processes (purchase, stores, quality control,
marketing, maintenance, finance etc)
4. Supplier processes/partnering process (vendor
development)
5 W 2 H Approach to Process
Improvement
1. What is being done?
2. Why is this necessary?
3. Where is it being done?
4. When is it done?
5. Who is doing it?
6. How is it being done?
7. How much does it cost now?
Process Improvement
Methods
1. Work simplification
2. Planned methods change
Kaizen enhances quality through:
1. Improvement in supplier relations
2. New product planning and development
3. Improvement in employee safety
4. Reduction in cost
5. Meeting delivery schedules
6. Employer skill development
Activities Falling Under Kaizen Umbrella
1. Customer orientation
2. Total quality control
3. Robotics
4. Advanced technology (NC, CNC machines)
5. Quality circles Automation
6. Automation Discipline in workforce
7. Discipline in workforce
8. Total productive maintenance
9. Kanban (JIT)
10. Quality improvement
11. Zero defect program
12. Quality improvement teams
13. Co-operation (labour management relation)
14. New product development
15. Productivity improvement
Benchmarking
Bench marketing : Measuring a companys performance
against that of best-in-class companies, determining
how the best-in-class achieve those performance levels
and using the information as a basis for the companys
targets, strategies and implementation.


3 Types of Benchmarking
1. Performance benchmarking
2. Process benchmarking
3. Strategic benchmarking
Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
Business Process Reengineering: The
fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of
business processes to achieve dramatic
improvements in critical contemporary measures
of performance such as cost, quality, service and
speed.
Kaizen
Kaizen Japanese word for improvement" or "change for
the best", refers to philosophy or practices that focus
upon continuous improvement of processes in
manufacturing, engineering, and business management.
When used in the business sense and applied to the
workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually
improve all functions, and involves all employees from
the CEO to the assembly line workers.
It also applies to processes, such as purchasing
and logistics, that cross organizational boundaries into
the supply chain.
It has been applied in healthcare, psychotherapy,

life-
coaching, government, banking, and other industries.

The Toyota Production System is known for kaizen, where
all line personnel are expected to stop their moving
production line in case of any abnormality and, along with
their supervisor, suggest an improvement to resolve the
abnormality which may initiate a kaizen.
The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as: PDCA
There are five primary 5 S phases: They are known as
Sort,
Systematize,
Sweep,
Standardize,
Self-Discipline

1.Seiri<Sort>
Remove unnecessary items and dispose them
properly .
Make work easy by eliminating obstacles .
Provide no chance of being disturbed with
unnecessary items .
Prevent accumulation of unnecessary items.

2.Seiton<Systematize>
Arrange necessary items in good order so that
they can be easily picked for use .
Prevent loss and waste of time .
Easy to find and pick up necessary items .
Ensure first-come-first-serve basis .
Make work flow smooth and easy

3.Seiso<Sweep>
Clean your work place completely .
Easy to check abnormality .
Prevent machinery and equipment
deterioration .
Keep workplace safe and easy to work

4.Seiketsu<Standardize>
Maintain high standards of house keeping and
workplace organization at all times .
Maintain cleanliness and orderliness

5.Shitsuke<Self-Discipline>
Do things spontaneously without being told or
ordered.
Standardize good practice.

Kaizen Movement or Japanese 5 S
Approach
1. Seiri Straighten-up Avoid unnecessary materials, tools,
machinery, documents etc.
2. Seiton putting things in order Everything should be in its
place and there should be place for everything (good house
keeping)
3. Seiso clean-up Every individual should clean-up his
work place everyday after the work.
4. Seiketsu (Personal cleanliness) Healthy body healthy
mind.
5. Shitsuke (discipline) Every worker & manager has to
follow rules and procedures in the work place.
3 MUs Check List (of Kaizen)
1. Muda (Waste)
2. Muri (Strain)
3. Mura (Discrepancy)
Quality Circles (QC)
Quality circle: A small group of employees who meet
regularly to undertake work-related projects designed to
improve working conditions, spur mutual self-development
and to advance the company, all by using quality control
concepts.
Quality Standards
Quality Certification
Quality Systems
A quality system is defined as "The collective plans,
activities and events that are provided to ensure that a
product, process or service will satisfy given needs".
ISO 9000
ISO 9000: A set of international standards on quality
management and quality assurance, critical to
international business
ISO 14000: A set of international standards for assessing a
companys environmental performance.
ISO 9001 : 2000
The Indian standard (second revision) which is identical with
ISO 9001 : 2000 "Quality Management Systems
Requirements" issued by International organisation for
standardisation (ISO) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian
Standards (BIS) on the recommendation of the Quality
Management Sectional Committee and approval of the
Management and Systems Division Council.
Process Approach
ISO 9001 : 2000 promotes the adoption of a process approach
when developing, implementing and improving the
effectiveness of a quality management system, to enhance
customer satisfaction by meeting customer requirements.
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ISO 9000
A set of procedures and
policies for international
quality certification of
suppliers
Standards
ISO 9000:2000
Quality Management
SystemsFundamentals
and Vocabulary
defines fundamental
terms and definitions used
in ISO 9000 family
ISO 9001:2000
Quality Management Systems
Requirements
standard to assess ability to
achieve customer satisfaction
ISO 9004:2000
Quality Management Systems
Guidelines for Performance
Improvements
guidance to a company for
continual improvement of its
quality-management system
Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-97
Implications of ISO 9000 for U.S.
Companies
Many overseas companies will
not do business with a supplier
unless it has ISO 9000
certification
ISO 9000 accreditation
ISO registrars
A total commitment to quality
is required throughout an
organization
Encapsulation of best practice- avoids
repetition of past mistakes.
They are a framework for quality assurance
processes - they involve checking compliance
to standards.
They provide continuity - new staff can
understand the organisation by understanding
the standards that are used.
Importance of standards
Product and process standards
Product standards Process standards
Design review form Design review conduct
Requirement s document struct ure Submission of document s to CM
Method header format Version release process
Java programming style Project plan approval process
Project plan format Change control process
Change request form Test recording process
Problems with standards
They may not be seen as relevant and up-to-
date by software engineers.
They often involve too much bureaucratic
form filling.
If they are unsupported by software tools,
tedious manual work is often involved to
maintain the documentation associated with
the standards.
Involve practitioners in development. Engineers should
understand the rationale underlying a standard.
Review standards and their usage regularly.
Standards can quickly become outdated and this reduces their
credibility amongst practitioners.
Detailed standards should have associated tool
support. Excessive clerical work is the most
significant complaint against standards.
Standards development
ISO 9000
An international set of standards for quality
management.
Applicable to a range of organisations from
manufacturing to service industries.
ISO 9001 applicable to organisations which
design, develop and maintain products.
ISO 9001 is a generic model of the quality
process that must be instantiated for each
organisation using the standard.
ISO 9001
Management responsibility Quality system
Control of non-conforming product s Design control
Handling, storage, packaging and
delivery
Purchasing
Purchaser-supplied product s Product identificat ion and traceabilit y
Process control Inspection and testing
Inspection and test equipment Inspection and test st atus
Contract review Correct ive act ion
Document control Quality records
Internal quality audit s Training
Servicing St atistical techniques
ISO 9000 certification
Quality standards and procedures should be
documented in an organisational quality
manual.
An external body may certify that an
organisations quality manual conforms to ISO
9000 standards.
Some customers require suppliers to be ISO
9000 certified although the need for flexibility
here is increasingly recognised.
ISO 9000 and quality management
Documentation standards
Particularly important - documents are the tangible
manifestation of the software.
Documentation process standards
Concerned with how documents should be developed, validated and
maintained.
Document standards
Concerned with document contents, structure, and appearance.
Document interchange standards
Concerned with the compatibility of electronic documents.
Documentation process
Chase et. al .
Quality
management

Tata McGraw
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Chapter 9


Six-Sigma Quality



Total Quality Management Defined
Quality Specifications and Costs
Six Sigma Quality and Tools
External Benchmarking
ISO 9000
Service Quality Measurement
OBJECTIVES
9-111
Total Quality Management (TQM)

Total quality management is
defined as managing the entire
organization so that it excels on all
dimensions of products and
services that are important to the
customer
9-112
Quality Specifications
Design quality: Inherent value of the
product in the marketplace
Dimensions include: Performance, Features,
Reliability/Durability, Serviceability,
Aesthetics, and Perceived Quality.
Conformance quality: Degree to which
the product or service design
specifications are met
9-113
Costs of Quality
External Failure
Costs
Appraisal Costs
Prevention Costs
Internal Failure
Costs
Costs of
Quality
9-114
Six Sigma Quality
A philosophy and set of methods
companies use to eliminate defects in
their products and processes
Seeks to reduce variation in the
processes that lead to product defects
9-115
Six Sigma Quality (Continued)
Six Sigma allows managers to readily describe
process performance using a common metric:
Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO)
1, 000, 000 x
units of No. x
unit
per error for
ies opportunit
of Number
defects of Number
(
(
(

= DPMO
9-116
Six Sigma Quality (Continued)
Example of Defects Per Million
Opportunities (DPMO) calculation.
Suppose we observe 200 letters delivered
incorrectly to the wrong addresses in a
small city during a single day when a
total of 200,000 letters were delivered.
What is the DPMO in this situation?
| |
000 , 1 = = 1, 000, 000 x
200, 000 x 1
200
DPMO
So, for every one
million letters
delivered this
citys postal
managers can
expect to have
1,000 letters
incorrectly sent
to the wrong
address.
Cost of Quality: What might that DPMO mean in terms
of over-time employment to correct the errors?
9-117
Six Sigma Quality: DMAIC Cycle
Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve,
and Control (DMAIC)
Developed by General Electric as a
means of focusing effort on quality
using a methodological approach
Overall focus of the methodology is
to understand and achieve what the
customer wants
A 6-sigma program seeks to reduce
the variation in the processes that
lead to these defects
DMAIC consists of five steps.
9-118
Six Sigma Quality: DMAIC Cycle (Continued)
1. Define (D)
2. Measure (M)
3. Analyze (A)
4. Improve (I)
5. Control (C)
Customers and their priorities
Process and its performance
Causes of defects
Remove causes of defects
Maintain quality
9-119
Example to illustrate the process
We are the maker of this cereal.
Consumer reports has just published an
article that shows that we frequently
have less than 16 ounces of cereal in a
box.
What should we do?
9-120
Step 1 - Define
What is the critical-to-quality
characteristic?
The CTQ (critical-to-quality) characteristic
in this case is the weight of the cereal in
the box.
9-121
2 - Measure
How would we measure to
evaluate the extent of the
problem?
What are acceptable limits on this
measure?
9-122
2 Measure (continued)
Lets assume that the government
says that we must be within 5
percent of the weight advertised
on the box.
Upper Tolerance Limit = 16 +
.05(16) = 16.8 ounces
Lower Tolerance Limit = 16
.05(16) = 15.2 ounces
9-123
2 Measure (continued)
We go out and buy 1,000 boxes
of cereal and find that they
weight an average of 15.875
ounces with a standard deviation
of .529 ounces.
What percentage of boxes are
outside the tolerance limits?
9-124
Upper Tolerance
= 16.8
Lower Tolerance
= 15.2
Process
Mean = 15.875
Std. Dev. = .529
What percentage of boxes are defective (i.e. less than 15.2 oz)?

Z = (x Mean)/Std. Dev. = (15.2 15.875)/.529 = -1.276

NORMSDIST(Z) = NORMSDIST(-1.276) = .100978

Approximately, 10 percent of the boxes have less than 15.2
Ounces of cereal in them!


9-125
Step 3 - Analyze - How can we
improve the
capability of our cereal box filling
process?
Decrease Variation
Center Process
Increase Specifications
9-126
Step 4 Improve How good is
good
enough? Motorolas Six Sigma
6o minimum from process
center to nearest spec
1 2
3
1 0 2 3
12o
6o
9-127
Motorolas Six Sigma
Implies 2 ppB bad with no process
shift.
With 1.5o shift in either direction
from center (process will move),
implies 3.4 ppm bad.
1 2 3 1 0 2 3
12o
9-128
Step 5 Control
Statistical Process Control
(SPC)
Use data from the actual
process
Estimate distributions
Look at capability - is good
quality possible
Statistically monitor the
process over time


9-129
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Flow
Chart
No,
Continue
Material
Received
from Supplier
Inspect
Material for
Defects
Defects
found?
Return to
Supplier for
Credit
Yes
Can be used to
find quality
problems
9-130
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Run Chart
Can be used to identify
when equipment or
processes are not
behaving according to
specifications
0.44
0.46
0.48
0.5
0.52
0.54
0.56
0.58
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Time (Hours)
D
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9-131
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Pareto Analysis
Can be used
to find when
80% of the
problems
may be
attributed to
20% of the
causes
Assy.
Instruct.
F
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Design Purch. Training
80%
9-132
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement:
Checksheet
Billing Errors

Wrong Account

Wrong Amount

A/R Errors


Wrong Account

Wrong Amount



Monday
Can be used to keep track of
defects or used to make sure
people collect data in a
correct manner
9-133
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement:
Histogram
N
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o
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L
o
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s

Data Ranges
Defects
in lot
0 1 2 3 4
Can be used to identify the frequency of quality
defect occurrence and display quality
performance
9-134
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Cause &
Effect Diagram
Effect
Man Machine
Material Method
Environment
Possible causes:
The results
or effect
Can be used to systematically track backwards to
find a possible cause of a quality problem (or
effect)
9-135
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Control Charts
Can be used to monitor ongoing production process
quality and quality conformance to stated standards of
quality
970
980
990
1000
1010
1020
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
LCL
UCL
9-136
Other Six Sigma Tools
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (DMEA) is
a structured approach to identify, estimate,
prioritize, and evaluate risk of possible
failures at each stage in the process
Design of Experiments (DOE) a statistical
test to determine cause-and-effect
relationships between process variables and
output
9-137
Six Sigma Roles and Responsibilities
1. Executive leaders must
champion the process of
improvement
2. Corporation-wide training in
Six Sigma concepts and tools
3. Setting stretch objectives for
improvement
4. Continuous reinforcement and
rewards

9-138
The Shingo System: Fail-Safe Design
Shingos argument:
SQC methods do not prevent defects
Defects arise when people make errors
Defects can be prevented by providing
workers with feedback on errors

Poka-Yoke includes:
Checklists
Special tooling that prevents workers from
making errors
9-139
ISO 9000 and ISO 14000
Series of standards agreed upon by the
International Organization for
Standardization (ISO)
Adopted in 1987
More than 160 countries
A prerequisite for global competition?
ISO 9000 an international reference for
quality, ISO 14000 is primarily concerned
with environmental management
9-140
Three Forms of ISO Certification
1. First party: A firm audits itself against
ISO 9000 standards
2. Second party: A customer audits its
supplier
3. Third party: A "qualified" national or
international standards or certifying
agency serves as auditor
9-141
External Benchmarking Steps
1. Identify those processes needing
improvement
2. Identify a firm that is the world
leader in performing the process
3. Contact the managers of that
company and make a personal visit
to interview managers and workers
4. Analyze data
9-142
Question Bowl
Approximately what percentage of
every sales dollar is allocated to
the cost of quality?
a. Less than 5%
b. About 10%
c. Between 15 and 20 %
d. More than 30%
e. None of the above
Answer: c. Between 15 and 20 % (for cost of reworking, scrapping, repeated
service, etc.)
9-143
Question Bowl
Which of the following are
classifications of the cost of
quality?
a. Appraisal costs
b. Prevention costs
c. Internal failure costs
d. External failure costs
e. All of the above
Answer: e. All of the above
9-144
Question Bowl
Which of the following are functions
of a quality control department?
a. Testing product designs for
reliability
b. Gathering product performance
data
c. Planning and budgeting the QC
program
d. All of the above
e. None of the above
Answer: d. All of the above
9-145
Question Bowl
Which of the following is a Critical
Customer Requirement (CCR) in the
context of a Six Sigma program?
a. DMAIC
b. DPMO
c. PCDA
d. DOE
e. None of the above
Answer: e. None of the above (The
CCR is the criteria that is used to
define desired quality. Processing a
loan in 10 days is an example of a
CCR.)
9-146
Question Bowl
The DMAIC cycle of Six Sigma is
similar to which of the
following quality management
topics?
a. Continuous improvement
b. Servqual
c. ISO 9000
d. External benchmarking
e. None of the above
Answer: a. Continuous improvement
9-147
Question Bowl
The A in DMAIC stands for which
of the following?
a. Always
b. Accessibility
c. Analyze
d. Act
e. None of the above
Answer: d. Analyze (Define, Measure,
Analyze, Improve and Control)
9-148
Question Bowl
Which of the following analytical
tools depict trends in quality
data over time?
a. Flowcharts
b. Run charts
c. Pareto charts
d. Checksheets
e. Cause and effect diagrams
Answer: b. Run charts
9-149

End of Chapter 9

9-150

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Chapter 9A
Process Capability and SPC
Process Variation
Process Capability
Process Control Procedures
Variable data
Attribute data
Acceptance Sampling
Operating Characteristic Curve
OBJECTIVES
9A-153
Basic Forms of Variation
Assignable variation is
caused by factors that
can be clearly
identified and
possibly managed
Common variation is
inherent in the
production process
Example: A poorly trained
employee that creates
variation in finished
product output.
Example: A molding
process that always leaves
burrs or flaws on a
molded item.
9A-154
Taguchis View of Variation
Incremental
Cost of
Variability
High
Zero
Lower
Spec
Target
Spec
Upper
Spec
Traditional View
Incremental
Cost of
Variability
High
Zero
Lower
Spec
Target
Spec
Upper
Spec
Taguchis View
Traditional view is that quality within the LS and US is good
and that the cost of quality outside this range is constant, where
Taguchi views costs as increasing as variability increases, so seek
to achieve zero defects and that will truly minimize quality costs.
9A-155
Process Capability Index, C
pk
|
|
.
|

\
|

o o 3
X - UTL
or
3
LTL X
min = C
pk
Shifts in Process Mean
Capability Index shows
how well parts being
produced fit into design
limit specifications.
As a production process
produces items small
shifts in equipment or
systems can cause
differences in
production
performance from
differing samples.
9A-156

A simple ratio:
Specification Width
_________________________________________________________
Actual Process Width

Generally, the bigger the better.
Process Capability A Standard Measure of How Good
a Process Is.
9A-157
Process Capability
This is a one-sided Capability Index
Concentration on the side which is closest to the
specification - closest to being bad
)
`


=
o o 3
;
3
X UTL LTL X
Min C
pk
9A-158
The Cereal Box Example
We are the maker of this cereal. Consumer reports has just
published an article that shows that we frequently have less than
16 ounces of cereal in a box.
Lets assume that the government says that we must be within 5
percent of the weight advertised on the box.
Upper Tolerance Limit = 16 + .05(16) = 16.8 ounces
Lower Tolerance Limit = 16 .05(16) = 15.2 ounces
We go out and buy 1,000 boxes of cereal and find that they weight
an average of 15.875 ounces with a standard deviation of .529
ounces.

9A-159
Cereal Box Process Capability
Specification or Tolerance
Limits
Upper Spec = 16.8 oz
Lower Spec = 15.2 oz
Observed Weight
Mean = 15.875 oz
Std Dev = .529 oz
)
`


=
o o 3
;
3
X UTL LTL X
Min C
pk
)
`


=
) 529 (. 3
875 . 15 8 . 16
;
) 529 (. 3
2 . 15 875 . 15
Min C
pk
{ } 5829 . ; 4253 . Min C
pk
=
4253 . =
pk
C
9A-160
What does a C
pk
of .4253 mean?
An index that shows how well the units
being produced fit within the specification
limits.
This is a process that will produce a
relatively high number of defects.
Many companies look for a C
pk
of 1.3 or
better 6-Sigma company wants 2.0!

9A-161
Types of Statistical Sampling
Attribute (Go or no-go information)
Defectives refers to the acceptability of
product across a range of characteristics.
Defects refers to the number of defects
per unit which may be higher than the
number of defectives.
p-chart application

Variable (Continuous)
Usually measured by the mean and the
standard deviation.
X-bar and R chart applications

9A-162
Statistical
Process
Control
(SPC) Charts
UCL
LCL
Samples
over time
1 2 3 4 5 6
UCL
LCL
Samples
over time
1 2 3 4 5 6
UCL
LCL
Samples
over time
1 2 3 4 5 6
Normal Behavior
Possible problem, investigate
Possible problem, investigate
9A-163
Control Limits are based on the Normal Curve
x
0 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1
z

Standard
deviation
units or z
units.
9A-164
Control Limits
We establish the Upper Control Limits (UCL)
and the Lower Control Limits (LCL) with plus
or minus 3 standard deviations from some x-
bar or mean value. Based on this we can
expect 99.7% of our sample observations to
fall within these limits.
x
LCL UCL
99.7%
9A-165
Example of Constructing a p-Chart:
Required Data
1 100 4
2 100 2
3 100 5
4 100 3
5 100 6
6 100 4
7 100 3
8 100 7
9 100 1
10 100 2
11 100 3
12 100 2
13 100 2
14 100 8
15 100 3
Sample
No.
No. of
Samples
Number of
defects found
in each sample
9A-166
Statistical Process Control Formulas:
Attribute Measurements (p-Chart)
p =
T o t al N u m b er o f D efe ct i v es
T o t al N u m b er o f O b s e rv at i o n s
n
s
) p - (1 p
=
p
p
p
z - p = LCL
z + p = UCL
s
s
Given:
Compute control limits:
9A-167
1. Calculate the sample
proportions, p (these
are what can be plotted
on the p-chart) for each
sample
Sample n Defectives p
1 100 4 0.04
2 100 2 0.02
3 100 5 0.05
4 100 3 0.03
5 100 6 0.06
6 100 4 0.04
7 100 3 0.03
8 100 7 0.07
9 100 1 0.01
10 100 2 0.02
11 100 3 0.03
12 100 2 0.02
13 100 2 0.02
14 100 8 0.08
15 100 3 0.03
Example of Constructing a p-chart: Step 1
9A-168
2. Calculate the average of the sample proportions
0.036 =
1500
55
= p
3. Calculate the standard deviation of the sample
proportion
.0188 =
100
.036) - .036(1
=
) p - (1 p
=
p
n
s
Example of Constructing a p-chart: Steps 2&3
9A-169
4. Calculate the control limits
3(.0188) .036
UCL = 0.0924
LCL = -0.0204 (or 0)
p
p
z - p = LCL
z + p = UCL
s
s
Example of Constructing a p-chart: Step 4
9A-170
Example of Constructing a p-Chart: Step 5
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
p
Observation
UCL
LCL
5. Plot the individual sample proportions, the average
of the proportions, and the control limits
9A-171
Example of x-bar and R Charts:
Required Data
Sample Obs 1 Obs 2 Obs 3 Obs 4 Obs 5
1 10.68 10.689 10.776 10.798 10.714
2 10.79 10.86 10.601 10.746 10.779
3 10.78 10.667 10.838 10.785 10.723
4 10.59 10.727 10.812 10.775 10.73
5 10.69 10.708 10.79 10.758 10.671
6 10.75 10.714 10.738 10.719 10.606
7 10.79 10.713 10.689 10.877 10.603
8 10.74 10.779 10.11 10.737 10.75
9 10.77 10.773 10.641 10.644 10.725
10 10.72 10.671 10.708 10.85 10.712
11 10.79 10.821 10.764 10.658 10.708
12 10.62 10.802 10.818 10.872 10.727
13 10.66 10.822 10.893 10.544 10.75
14 10.81 10.749 10.859 10.801 10.701
15 10.66 10.681 10.644 10.747 10.728
9A-172
Example of x-bar and R charts: Step 1. Calculate sample means, sample ranges,
mean of means, and mean of ranges.
Sample Obs 1 Obs 2 Obs 3 Obs 4 Obs 5 Avg
1 10.68 10.689 10.776 10.798 10.714 10.732
2 10.79 10.86 10.601 10.746 10.779 10.755
3 10.78 10.667 10.838 10.785 10.723 10.759
4 10.59 10.727 10.812 10.775 10.73 10.727
5 10.69 10.708 10.79 10.758 10.671 10.724
6 10.75 10.714 10.738 10.719 10.606 10.705
7 10.79 10.713 10.689 10.877 10.603 10.735
8 10.74 10.779 10.11 10.737 10.75 10.624
9 10.77 10.773 10.641 10.644 10.725 10.710
10 10.72 10.671 10.708 10.85 10.712 10.732
11 10.79 10.821 10.764 10.658 10.708 10.748
12 10.62 10.802 10.818 10.872 10.727 10.768
13 10.66 10.822 10.893 10.544 10.75 10.733
14 10.81 10.749 10.859 10.801 10.701 10.783
9A-173
Example of x-bar and R charts: Step 2. Determine Control Limit Formulas and
Necessary Tabled Values
x Chart Control Limits
UCL = x + A R
LCL = x - A R
2
2
R Chart Control Limits
UCL = D R
LCL = D R
4
3
From Exhibit TN8.7
n A2 D3 D4
2 1.88 0 3.27
3 1.02 0 2.57
4 0.73 0 2.28
5 0.58 0 2.11
6 0.48 0 2.00
7 0.42 0.08 1.92
8 0.37 0.14 1.86
9 0.34 0.18 1.82
10 0.31 0.22 1.78
11 0.29 0.26 1.74
9A-174
Example of x-bar and R charts: Steps 3&4. Calculate x-bar Chart and Plot Values
10.601
10.856
= ) .58(0.2204 - 10.728 R A - x = LCL
= ) .58(0.2204 - 10.728 R A + x = UCL
2
2
=
=
10.550
10.600
10.650
10.700
10.750
10.800
10.850
10.900
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Sample
M
e
a
n
s
UCL
LCL
9A-175
Example of x-bar and R charts: Steps 5&6. Calculate R-chart and Plot Values
0
0.46504
= =
= =
) 2204 . 0 )( 0 ( R D = LCL
) 2204 . 0 )( 11 . 2 ( R D = UCL
3
4
0 . 0 0 0
0 . 1 0 0
0 . 2 0 0
0 . 3 0 0
0 . 4 0 0
0 . 5 0 0
0 . 6 0 0
0 . 7 0 0
0 . 8 0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5
S a m p l e
R
UCL
LCL
9A-176
Basic Forms of Statistical Sampling for Quality Control
Acceptance Sampling is sampling to
accept or reject the immediate lot of
product at hand
Statistical Process Control is sampling to
determine if the process is within
acceptable limits
9A-177
Acceptance Sampling
Purposes
Determine quality level
Ensure quality is within predetermined level
Advantages
Economy
Less handling damage
Fewer inspectors
Upgrading of the inspection job
Applicability to destructive testing
Entire lot rejection (motivation for improvement)
9A-178
Acceptance Sampling (Continued)
Disadvantages
Risks of accepting bad lots and rejecting
good lots
Added planning and documentation
Sample provides less information than 100-
percent inspection
9A-179
Acceptance Sampling: Single Sampling Plan
A simple goal

Determine (1) how many units, n, to
sample from a lot, and (2) the
maximum number of defective items,
c, that can be found in the sample
before the lot is rejected
9A-180
Risk
Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)
Max. acceptable percentage of defectives
defined by producer
The o (Producers risk)
The probability of rejecting a good lot
Lot Tolerance Percent Defective (LTPD)
Percentage of defectives that defines
consumers rejection point
The | (Consumers risk)
The probability of accepting a bad lot
9A-181
Operating Characteristic Curve
n = 99
c = 4
AQL LTPD
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Percent defective
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
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o
f

a
c
c
e
p
t
a
n
c
e

| =.10
(consumers risk)
o = .05 (producers risk)
The OCC brings the concepts of producers risk, consumers
risk, sample size, and maximum defects allowed together
The shape
or slope of
the curve is
dependent
on a
particular
combination
of the four
parameters
9A-182
Example: Acceptance Sampling Problem
Zypercom, a manufacturer of video interfaces, purchases printed wiring boards
from an outside vender, Procard. Procard has set an acceptable quality level of 1%
and accepts a 5% risk of rejecting lots at or below this level. Zypercom considers
lots with 3% defectives to be unacceptable and will assume a 10% risk of accepting a
defective lot.

Develop a sampling plan for Zypercom and determine a rule to be followed by the
receiving inspection personnel.
9A-183
Example: Step 1. What is given and what is not?
In this problem, AQL is given to be 0.01 and LTDP is given to be 0.03. We are also given
an alpha of 0.05 and a beta of 0.10.
What you need to determine is your sampling plan is c and n.
9A-184
Example: Step 2. Determine c
First divide LTPD by AQL.
LTPD
AQL
=
.03
.01
= 3
Then find the value for c by selecting the value in the TN7.10
n(AQL)column that is equal to or just greater than the ratio above.
Exhibit TN 8.10
c LTPD/AQL n AQL c LTPD/AQL n AQL
0 44.890 0.052 5 3.549 2.613
1 10.946 0.355 6 3.206 3.286
2 6.509 0.818 7 2.957 3.981
3 4.890 1.366 8 2.768 4.695
4 4.057 1.970 9 2.618 5.426
So, c = 6.
9A-185
Question Bowl
A methodology that is used to show
how well parts being produced fit
into a range specified by design
limits is which of the following?
a. Capability index
b. Producers risk
c. Consumers risk
d. AQL
e. None of the above
Answer: a. Capability index
9A-186
Question Bowl
On a quality control chart if one of the values
plotted falls outside a boundary it should
signal to the production manager to do
which of the following?
a. System is out of control, should be stopped
and fixed
b. System is out of control, but can still be
operated without any concern
c. System is only out of control if the number
of observations falling outside the
boundary exceeds statistical expectations
d. System is OK as is
e. None of the above
Answer: c. System is only out of control if
the number of observations falling outside
the boundary exceeds statistical
expectations
9A-187
Question Bowl
You want to prepare a p chart and
you observe 200 samples with
10 in each, and find 5 defective
units. What is the resulting
fraction defective?
a. 25
b. 2.5
c. 0.0025
d. 0.00025
e. Can not be computed on data
above
Answer: c. 0.0025 (5/(2000x10)=0.0025)
9A-188
Question Bowl
You want to prepare an x-bar chart. If
the number of observations in a
subgroup is 10, what is the
appropriate factor used in the
computation of the UCL and LCL?
a. 1.88
b. 0.31
c. 0.22
d. 1.78
e. None of the above
Answer: b. 0.31
9A-189
Question Bowl
You want to prepare an R chart. If
the number of observations in a
subgroup is 5, what is the
appropriate factor used in the
computation of the LCL?
a. 0
b. 0.88
c. 1.88
d. 2.11
e. None of the above
Answer: a. 0
9A-190
Question Bowl
You want to prepare an R chart. If
the number of observations in a
subgroup is 3, what is the
appropriate factor used in the
computation of the UCL?
a. 0.87
b. 1.00
c. 1.88
d. 2.11
e. None of the above
Answer: e. None of the above
9A-191
Question Bowl
The maximum number of
defectives that can be found in a
sample before the lot is rejected
is denoted in acceptance
sampling as which of the
following?
a. Alpha
b. Beta
c. AQL
d. c
e. None of the above
Answer: d. c
9A-192
End of Chapter 9A
9A-193
JIT
What is a Just-in-time
System?
Just-in-time: A philosophy of manufacturing
based on planned elimination of all waste and
continuous improvement of productivity.
Concepts of JIT
The three fundamental concepts of JIT are :
1. Elimination of waste and variability
2. Pull versus Push system and
3. Manufacturing cycle time (or throughput
time).
Overview of JIT
manufacturing
Inventory reduction
Quality improvement
Lead time reduction
Lead time reduction
Continuous Improvement
Total Preventive Maintenance
Strategic Gain
Characteristics of Just-in-Time
System
1. Pull method of material flow
2. Constantly high quality
3. Mall lot sizes
4. Uniform workstation loads
5. Standardised components and work methods
6. Close supplier ties
7. Flexible workforce
8. Line flow strategy
9. Automated production
10. Preventive maintenance
JIT Manufacturing Versus JIT
Purchasing
JIT manufacturing: An Organisation- wide approach
to produce output with in the minimum possible lead
time and at the lowest possible total cost by
continuously identifying and eliminating all forms of
waste and variance.
JIT purchasing: Same pull type approach used in JIT
manufacturing applied to purchasing shipments of
parts and components from suppliers.
Pre-requisites for JIT Manufacturing
1. Stabilise production schedules.
2. Make the factories focussed.
3. Increase production characteristics of manufacturing work
centers.
4. Improve product quality.
5. Cross-train workers so that they are multi-skilled and
competent in several jobs.
6. Reduce equipment break downs through preventive
maintenance.
7. Develop long-term supplier relationships that avoid
interruptions in material flows.
Elements of JIT
Manufacturing System
1. Eliminate waste
2. Enforced problem solving
3. Continuous improvement
4. Involvement of people
5. TQM
6. Parallel processing
Benefits of JIT System

1. Low inventory levels
2. Shorter production cycle time
3. Improved product quality
4. Reduced WIP Inventory
5. Better labour utilisation.
Major Tools and Techniques of JIT
Manufacturing
Shop-floor JIT or little JIT has nine tactical tools.
The tactical tools of little JIT are :
i. Kanban system or Pull scheduling
ii. Set up reduction (SMED)
iii. Lean production
iv. Poka- Yoke (Fool proofing)
v. Quality at the source
vi. Standardisation and simplification
vii. Supplier partnerships
viii. Reduced transaction processing and
ix. Kaizen (continuous improvement).
Kanban system:
A physical control system consisting of cards and
containers. The system is used to signal the need for
more parts and to ensure that those parts are produced
in time to support subsequent fabrication or
assembly.
Benefits of Kanban
Kanban systems have resulted in significant benefits :
1. Reduced inventory level
2. Less confusion over sequence of activities
3. Less obsolescence of inventories while in storage
4. Smaller floor space requirements for storing inventory
The focus of JIT systems is on improving the process,
therefore, some of the JIT concepts useful for the manufacturer
are also useful to service providers. These concepts include the
following :
1. Consistently high quality
2. Uniform facility loads
3. Standardised work methods
4. Close supplier ties
5. Flexible workforce
6. Automation
7. Preventive maintenance
8. Pull method of material flow
9. Line flow strategy
Safety Management
Safety management system (SMS)
(SMS) is a term used to refer to a comprehensive
business management system designed to
manage safety elements in the workplace.
A SMS provides a systematic way:
to identify hazards and
control risks
while maintaining assurance that
these risk controls are effective.


SMS can be defined as:
...a businesslike approach to safety.
It is a systematic, explicit and comprehensive process
for managing safety risks.
As with all management systems, a SMS provides for :
goal setting,
planning, and
measuring performance.
A SMS is woven into the fabric of an organization.
It becomes part of the culture, the way people do their
jobs.

Defining safety
For the purposes of defining safety
management, safety can be defined as:
... the reduction of risk to a level that is as low
as is reasonably practicable.

Industry
Chemical industry
Manufacturing plants
Cement manufacturing plant
Textile industry
Diamond industry
Steel plant
Foundry ( Metal Casting Plant)
Power Production plant ( Coal based , nuclear
based , water based power plant , gas based
power plant )
Hazard
A hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat
to life, health, property, or environment. Most hazards are
dormant or potential, with only a theoretical risk of harm;
however, once a hazard becomes "active", it can create
an emergency situation.
A hazardous situation that has come to pass is called
an incident.
Hazard and possibility interact together to create risk.
Identification of hazard risks is the first step in performing
a risk assessment.
One key concept in identifying a hazard is the presence of
stored energy that, when released, can cause damage.
Types of energy
Heat energy
Mechanical energy
Chemical energy
Electrical energy
High Pressure energy
Energy due to speed
Types of hazards
Due to Heat high temperature work area
hazards
Coal ash dust
Due to Speed moving fast at work place with
material and without material
Due to machine tool or equipment failure
Fire hazards
Hazard due to Chemical leakage or gas leakage

Risk
Risk can be defined as the likelihood or probability of a
given hazard of a given level causing a particular level
of loss of damage (Alexander, Confronting catastrophe,
2000).
Risk can be equated with a simple equation, although it
is not mathematical but artificial equation .
The total risk according to UNDRO 1982 is the "sum of
predictable deaths, injuries, destruction, damage,
disruption, and costs of repair and mitigation caused
by a disaster of a particular level in a given area or
areas.
Mathematically it can be written as
Total risk = (Sum of the elements at risk) x (hazard x
vulnerability)
Risk, vulnerability and hazard
This is simplified into an equation:
R (Risk) = H (hazard) x V (vulnerability)
These are the three factors or elements which we
are considering here in this artificial
mathematical equation.
Vulnerability refers to the inability to withstand
the effects of a hostile environment.
A window of vulnerability (WoV) is a time frame
within which defensive measures are reduced,
compromised or lacking
.


Losses
Health
Life
Material
Time
Machinery
Plant
Ultimately adds costs (waste of money) and
increases idle time .
There are three imperatives for adopting a safety
management system for a business these are ethical,
legal and financial.
There is an implied moral obligation placed on an
employer to ensure that work activities and the place
of work to be safe, there are legislative requirements
defined in just about every jurisdiction on how this is
to be achieved and there is a substantial body of
research which shows that effective safety
management (which is the reduction of risk in the
workplace) can reduce the financial exposure of an
organisation by reducing direct and indirect costs
associated with accident and incidents.


To address these three important elements, an effective
SMS should:
Define how the organisation is set up to manage risk.
Identify workplace risk and implement suitable controls.
Implement effective communications across all levels of the
organisation.
Implement a process to identify and correct non-
conformities.
Implement a continual improvement process.
A safety management system can be created to fit any
business type and/or industry sector.

Terminologies used in Safety
management

Developing a Proactive Safety Program
1. Conduct a thorough risk assessment
2. Reduce Potential Hazards through Design
3. Consider Machine Guarding
4. Add Advanced Controls
5. Promote Awareness
6. Provide Training
7. Conduct Follow-up Assessments
8. Seek Experience and Expertise