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ANTI-LOCK

BRAKING SYSTEM
PREPARED BY
Types Of Brakes

 Mechanical brakes
 Hydraulic brakes
 Pneumatic brakes
Problems In Conventional
Brakes
 Wheel lock up
 Slipping
 Lose of control
 Lose of stability
Advance System

 ABS (anti-lock braking


system)
 TCS (traction control system)
 ESP (electronic stability program)
Antilock Braking System (ABS)

 Why we need ABS?


 Effect of excessive braking
 Wheels get locked
 Looses steeribility

 Loss of control

 Increase in stopping distance


ANTI-LOCK BRAKES

 ABS, (Anti-Lock brake system)


 ABS allows the driver to maintain
steering control of the vehicle while
in hard braking situations .
ANTI-LOCK BRAKES
 Computerized
ABS is designed
to keep the
wheels from
locking as the
brakes are
applied.
 A locked wheel
provides very little
or no directional
control.
ANTI-LOCK BRAKES

 Drivers may experience a pulsation


in the brake pedal, or pedal kick
back during an ABS stop. This is
normal and not to be confused with
a conventional brake pedal
pulsation
Types of ABS

 ABS brakes are either


 1. Channel 1. Sensor
 3. Channel 3. Sensor

 4. Channel 4. Sensor
1. Channel 1. Sensor

 1 channel ABS system controls the


rear wheel together.
 A 1 channel system only has 1
speed sensor and control valve
assembly.
 Pickup trucks.
3. Channel 3. Sensor

 A three (3) channel ABS system


control the rear wheel together
and the front independently.
 Three channel ABS system have 3
speed sensor and one (1) control
module
 Trucks.
4. Channel 4. Sensor

 A four (4) channel ABS system


control the rear wheel and the
front wheel independently.
 Three channel ABS system have 4
speed sensor and controller
monitors each wheel individually.
 Modern cars.
ANTI-LOCK BRAKES

 ABS brake system are


 Integrated

 Nonintegrated
Integrated
Nonintegrated
 An integrated system has the
master cylinder and control valve
assembly made together.
 A nonintegrated has the master
cylinder and control valve
assembly made separate.
Components

 Major components of the anti-lock


brake system consist of a
 Speed sensor's
 Pump

 Solenoid valve assembly

 Electronic Brake Control Module

 Hydraulic Control Unit (HUC)


Speed sensors
 To determine if
wheel lock-up is
about to occur
vehicles a wheel
speed sensor.
Solenoid Valve
 It is a pair of valves that can:
A. Increase pressure
B. Hold pressure steady
C. Decrease pressure
Increase pressure
During pressure increase
mode of operation fluid is
Solenoid 1 allowed to flow through
both solenoids to the brake
Pressure increase
caliper
Solenoid 2
Pressure decrease/Vent
solenoid

Brake line under pressure

Brake fluid line not under pressure


Hold pressure steady
During Pressure Hold
mode of operation both
solenoids are closed and
Solenoid 1 no additional fluid is
Pressure increase allowed to flow to brake
calipers.

Solenoid 2
Pressure decrease/Vent
Decrease pressure
During Pressure Vent mode
the pressure increase solenoid
is closed. The Vent solenoid
Solenoid 1 opens allowing fluid to vent into
Pressure increase an accumulator chamber

Solenoid 2
Pressure decrease/Vent
Pump
 NECESSITY: Valve is able to
release from the brakes, there has
to be some way to put the pressure
back.
 When a valve reduces the
pressure in a line, the pump is
there to get the pressure backup.
Electronic Brake Control Module
(EBCM)
 The EBCM is a compute that
receives information from the
speed sensor and compares it to
the speed of other wheels.
 When one wheel is approaching
lock-up pressure can be vented
allowing the wheel nearing lock-up
to speed up.
Hydraulic Control Unit (HUC)

 It is a central unit which controls


flow of hydraulic fluid to each
valves located nearer to the wheel.
 Regulate the pressure for each
wheel independently.
ANTI-LOCK BRAKES

 ABS system can maintain


extremely high static pressure and
must be disabled before attempting
repairs.
 Normally pumping brake 20-30
times will release pressure.
ABS Working

 If a wheel is to fast pressure can


be increased to slow down the
wheel.
 If both wheel are approximately the
same speed the brake control
module can enter a pressure hold
mode of operation.
ABS
Antilock Braking System

 ABS
CAR BRAKED

NO IS YES
SPEED < 40 ?

NORMAL BRAKING
NORMAL BRAKING

APPLY FLUID PRESSURE

IS
SPEED < 2 ? NO
YES

RELESES FLUID PRESSURE


STOP
IS YES
SPEED < 40 ?
NO
Effect of ABS on
Stopping Distance
SKIDDING
SPEED

IDEAL ABS CONVENTIONAL

STOPPING DISTANCE
Wheel Slippage

 Wheel Slippage, is the wheel


speed in relation to vehicle speed.
 If vehicle speed is faster than the
wheel speed slippage is negative.
And the wheel may become lock-
up.
Effect of Wheel Slippage
 If vehicle speed is slower than wheel
speed. Wheel slippage is positive.
 Positive wheel slippage occurs when
a wheel is spinning.
 NOTE: Late model vehicles use the
same ABS components with traction
control. Traction control prevent a
vehicle from spinning out of control.
Effect of Wheel Slippage

 The best braking action occurs at


between 10-20% slippage.
 If vehicle speed and wheel speed
is the same wheel slippage is 0%
 A lock-up wheel will have a wheel
slippage of 100%
Advantages

 ABS operates using the same


hydraulic principal as conventional
brakes.
 ABS system only operates when
wheel lock-up is emanate.
 A bussing noise and bakes pedal
vibration is normal during ABS
operation.
Advantages

 Using the spare tire supplied with


vehicle will not affect the
performance of the ABS. Tire syze
can affect performance of the
system. Replacement tires must be
the same size, load range and on
four wheels.
 Helps in avoiding potential accident.
Disadvantages

 It won’t necessarily shorten


stopping distance – ABS will help
maintain vehicle control.
 It won’t increase or decrease
ultimate stopping power ABS is an
“add-on” to your normal brakes, not
a replacement of them.
Disadvantages

 It won’t change the way you normally


brake. Under normal brake conditions,
your truck will stop as it always stopped.
ABS only comes into play when a wheel
would normally have locked up because
of over braking.
 It won’t compensate for bad brakes or
poor brake maintenance.
Conclusion

 So we conclude that ABS or Antilock


Braking System is necessary equipment
in vehicles of all types. ABS is not an
independent system but it is an add on
to our already existing mechanical
braking system in our vehicles which
assist the driver to avoid potential fatal
accidents.
THANK YOU