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MANUFACTURING AND

SYSTEM DESIGN OF
INSULATION FOR
AIR COOLED TURBO
GENERATOR
BY V.P.I PROCESS
PREFACE
 Power is the basic necessity for
economic development of a country.
 production of electrical energy its per
capital consumption deemed as an
index of standard of living.
 An AC generator works on the principle
of ‘Electro Magnetic Induction’.
INTRODUCTION
 Turbo generators are machines which can generate high voltages
and capable of delivering KA of currents
 The designer should be cautious in designing the winding
insulation.
 Insulation design plays a major role on the life of the Turbo
Generator
 First half we discuss about manufacture of a

 The latter half we explain the insulation design

 We more over stress on stator manufacture and on VPI


Process
STATOR MANUFACTURE
PROCESS:

 Stator core construction and

 Coil construction and their assembly.


Stator core construction
PREPARATION OF STATOR
LAMINATIONS
 RECEPTION OF SILICON STEEL

ROLLS
 SHEARING- cutting
BLANKING AND NOTCHING
 Deburring: Carried out for individual laminations
to remove extra projection material -5 μicrons
 Varnishing: Sheets are dried at a temperature of
around 300 – 400 oC
8-10 microns, mini tester, 90 secs
 Quality Check: viscosity of varnish using DIN 4
cup, should empty in 44 secs
 xylol test-varnish should not dissolve
 Mandrel- no cracks
 Hardness – 7H pencil
 I.R – 20 laminatons ,26 KG/CM ,IR should be
2

greater than 1MΩ


STATOR CORE ASSEMBLY
A.TRAIL PACKET ASSEMBLY
B. NORMAL CORE ASSEMBLY
i) Trail packet assembly
ii) Normal packet assembly
 In process pressings 150 kg/cm2
 Fitting of clamping bolts
 Guide bars, winding brackets
MANUFACTURE OF
STATOR COILS
STATOR WINDING INSULATION
SYSTEM FEATURES
 Strand Insulation
 For roebel and multi turn coils
 Easy to bend
 Skin effect-greater R
 Skin effect of cu 8.5mm at 60hz
 Damage during insulation.
 Turn Insulation
 Shorts b/w turns

 100 turns 2ndary of auto t/f

 100 times rated

 Ground wall Insulation


 Triggers ground fault relay

 If close to neutral- special III harmonic GF

relays
 Slot discharges
 Ground V at slots n almost cond pot in OH.

 SD takes place if voltage gradient at the

transition from slots to the OH is excessive.


A) For Resin Rich Process

 Reception of copper conductors


 Transposition
Resin Rich Process
Contd…,
 Putty operation
 775 varnish_ and mica putty on width faces
 Mica putty
 775varnish+powder+chinaclay
 Stack consolidation
 2 to 3 bars at 150kg/cm2 --- 140-160o for 3hrs
 Bending
 1-2-OH-3 BEND on BS
 NOMEX upto 3bend
 Heated 600 for 30 mins
 IH and IS tests
R.R process
Contd…,
 Final taping
 12 ½ in SP and 9 in overlap.
 Intermittant layers
 ICP – By butting only in SP
 Split mica – 1 layer + cond taping without overlaping
 OCP – only in SP
 ECP – end of SP to OH 90 TO 110mm.
 Hyper seal tape – end of SP to 3rd bend with over lapping –
anti-fingering
 IH and IS tests
RR process
Contd…,
 Final baking
 1 hr 90o jelling
 30 min 110o + tightening 90- 110
 25% remains
 Raise to 165 for 3 hrs
 Conductive on SP and S.C from end of
SP to 3rd bend.
 HV and tan tests
DISADVANTAGES OF RESIN RICH
SYSTEM OF INSULATION

 Resin is a costliest material.


 It is a very long procedure
 Due to fully manual oriented process, the cost is
more
 It is possible to process stator bars only.
B. Resin Poor Process

 Putty operation
 Nomex sheets in the
cross overs
 Form mica net
 Wrapped with PTFE.

 Final taping
 9 ½ in SP upto OH
and 6 ½ in
Intermittant Layers
10.1 ADVANTAGES OF RESIN POOR SYSTEM OF
INSULATION
 It has better dielectric strength
 Heat transfer coefficient is much better
 It gives better capacitance resulting in less dielectric losses due to
which the insulation life will be more
 The cost will be less and it is latest technology
 Reduction in time cycle and consumption for MW also less and it
gives high quality
RESIN POOR SYSTEM RESIN RICH SYSTEM

1. The insulation tape used in this system has 1. The insulation tape used in this is 7% of
40% resin. 40% resin.
2. This method follows thermosetting 2. Same as in resin poor.
process.
3. There is a need for addition of resin from 1. Further addition of resin is not required
outside. from outside.
4. Reduction in time cycle for this process 2. It is very long process and time
consuming while at processing stage.
1. No tests are carried out while at processing
3. Tests are being carried out Stage.
2. Processing of bars along with stator and
with conductors and processing of 1. Processing of stator bars is
exciter Coils along with exciter is only possible in resin rich
possible. systems.
3. The cost of repair is more 2. Repairing work is easy.
3. The total cost in this process is more.
4. The overall cost is less
compared to resin rich system.
Stator Winding
 The most prime part of a winding is insulation
ASSEMBLY OF
STATOR
Winding holder’s assembly
WINDING HOLDER ASSEMBLY

 Adapt required design size


 HGL rings on both sides centre with
respect to core
 Individual for pressing fixture apply
pressure 60 KG/CM2 for 30 min
 Tie with neoprene glass sleeve
 Check for uniform gap in overhang
 Top bar matching with bottom bar pitch
 Use RTD
 Inserting glass mats ,after tie with neoprene
glass sleeve

 EYE FORMATION : Brazing the conductors


with silver foil
 Adv : circulating current losses
Connecting rings
assembly
Phase connectors
 CONNECTOR RINGS:
Connect all the connectors to the phase
grooves ,by jointing with slaver foils ,insert
nomex and tape with semica folium

 RTDS are kept in straight portion

PHASE CONNECTORS : Consist of flat


copper sections ,low specific current loading
THE VPI PROCESS

 INTRODUCTION TO VACUUM
PRESSURE IMPREGNATION SYSTEM
-DR MEYER WESTING HOUSE house
earlier VPI SYSTEM -Bitumen Bonded
Mica Flake Tape
 Drawback -thermal limitations

 Failure of TG in 1970’s
 Failures were due to two types of problems:
-Tape separation
-Excessive relaxation of the main ground
insulation

New improved VPI system


-uses resin and mica improved mechanical
---strength and electrical properties

Advantages of increase in life


more economical
Vacuum Pressure Impregnation of resin poor
insulated jobs
 Preheating: the completed stator for period of
1 hr at 60 deg , temp>85deg

 Lifting and shifting

 Vacuum cycle: vacuum pressure of about 0.2


mb is maintained for about 17 HRS
 Vacuum drop test

 Heating the resin


 Resin admission.
 Resin settling
 Pressure cycle: subject resin to pressure
cycle of 4 kg/ cm2 of dry nitrogen, subj for 2
hrs.
 Aeration
 Post curing cycle
 Cleaning
FACILITIES AVAILABLE IN VPI PLANT IN
BHEL

 Steam furnace for preheating


 Size of chamber: 2 * 2 * 6.5 M
 Maximum temperature: 160°C
 Electrical power consumption: 75KW
 Work place: 1425
 Work centre: 3215
 Stream inlet: 200-250°C
DATA COLLECTION OF SAMPLES
Date and time RTD-I(°C) RTD-II(°C) Furnace air temperature Remarks
30.5.2007 19:00 32.0 30.0 45.6 Rotor temperature is
reached to
60± 3°C at
2:00hrs on
31.5.2007 and
it is maintained
for 4 hrs i.e.,
up to 6:00 on
31.5.2007

30.5.2007 20:00 45.4 48.6 57.9


30.5.2007 21:00 49.9 50.9 63.4
30.5.2007 22:00 52.5 54.3 70.5
30.5.2007 23:00 53.3 55.1 73.4
30.5.2007 24:00 56.6 57.3 75.6 Rotor is switched to
vac 140 tank at
7:00 hrs on
31.5.2007

31.5.2007 1:00 59.9 60.2 75.1

31.5.2007 2:00 62.4 63.9 77.0

31.5.2007 3:00 62.3 64.7 77.0


31.5.2007 4:00 63.3 64.1 75.0

31.5.2007 5:00 63.3 64.0 75.6

31.5.2007 6:00 63.1 63.7 75.6

Date and Time Vacuum in graph Vacuum in Job temperature Resin cycle
(mbar) meter (mbar) (°C)

8.5.2007 22:00 -- -- 54.37 Resin tanks 025,102 are heated


for impregnation
8.5.2007 0:00 -- -- 54.89 Viscosity of resin at 60°C is
33CP
9.5.2007 2:00 -- -- 59.02 Viscosity after aging is
36.10CP
9.5.2007 3:30 0.65 0.65 61.6 9.5.2007 and 10.5.2007
9.5.2007 5:30 0.41 0.40 63.59 Resin admission started at
19:45hrs
9.5.2007 7:30 0.28 0.29 64.2 Resin admission completed at
19:55hrs
9.5.2007 9:30 0.22 0.22 63.2 Pressurisation started at
20:00hrs
10.5.2007 144.4 151.3 143.7 145.1 144.1 35.9 Job temp. is reached to 140± 5°C
22:30hrs i.e., from 136.2°C to 145.6°C at
9:30hrs on 10.5.2007 and it is
maintained for 32hrs i.e. up to
17:30hrs on 11.5.2007.

11.5.2007 143.1 146.7 145.2 145.1 145.2 33.8


1:30hrs

11.5.2007 144.3 151.0 143.6 144.0 144.7 31.1


4:30hrs

11.5.2007 135.7 142.1 144.3 145.1 145.0 31.3


7:30hrs

11.5.2007 135.0 135.7 135.1 135.0 135.8 34.8


10:30hrs

11.5.2007 135.6 141.4 135.4 135.6 135.9 38.3


13:30hrs

11.5.2007 148.0 149.2 142.8 142.2 142.1 39.8 Furnace is switched off at 17:30hrs
17:30hrs on 11.5.2007 and circulation fans
kept running till the job temperature
is reached from 70°C- 75°C
JUSTIFICATION

 Justification can be done by two tests


 HV and TAN δ tests
PRESENT INSULATION SYSTEMS IN
THE WORLD
 Vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) of
individual coils and bars
 Global VPI of complete stators
 Hydraulic molding of individual coils

and bars using resin-rich tapes


 Press curing of individual coils and
bars, also using resin-rich tapes
 Westinghouse Electric Co.: Thermalastic™

 General Electric Co. :Micapals I anII™,EpoxyMica Mat™, Micapal HT™,


and hydromat™
 Alsthom, GEC Alsthom, Alstom Power: Isotenax™, Resitherm™,

Siemens AG, KWU: Micalastic™

 ABB Industrie AG: Micadur™,

 Toshiba Corporation: Tosrich™ and Tostight- I™

 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation

 Hitachi, Ltd.: Hi-Resin™, Hi-Mold™, and Super Hi-Resin™

 Summary of Present-Day Insulation Systems


A NEW hype IN INSULATION
SYSTEM

 MICALASTIC

 Trademark for Siemens insulation systems


for high-voltage windings
 Mica, capable of withstanding high electrical
and thermal loads,
 Most important criterion ability to durably
withstand partial electrical discharges
MICALASTIC IN I’TAIPU

 Manufacturing and design

1. Single coils are continuously wrapped with MICA tape


2. Then dried out and degassed in a vacuum
impregnation tank
3. Nitrogen pressure applied to the impregnating bath
4. Curing
Features
 U-shaped slot liners of polyester fleece impregnated
with a conductive material, and a conductive,
curable synthetic resin paste between the surface of
the bar insulation and the slot liner
 Bracing the end windings and jumpers by using
glass fiber reinforced spacers and epoxy-resin
impregnated
 Mechanical stiffness
 commissioned in 1958, and are still in operation
today
Fitting of Roebel Bars into
Slots
 None of the MICALASTIC stator windings
showed evidence of damage or slot
discharges

 Practically un limited service life outstanding


insulating properties,

 The MICALASTIC insulation regarded as the


standard for the reliability of rotating electrical
machines
 Curable synthetic resins with a much higher
long-term resistance to high temperatures by
VPI

 Not technically or economically a viable


prospect due to their conservative thermal
design.
CONCLUSION:
 Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI)
yields superior results with better
insulating properties,
 Advancements are possible by including
MICALASTIC INSULATION used in
HYDRO PLANTS
Any Queries..???
Thank you