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10.

5 Basic Differentiation
Properties
10.5 Basic Differentiation
Properties
Instead of finding the limit of the different
quotient to obtain the derivative of a
function, we can use the rules of
differentiation (shortcuts to find the
derivatives).
Review: Derivative Notation
There are several widely used symbols to represent
the derivative. Given y = f (x), the derivative may be
represented by any of the following:
f (x)
y
dy/dx
The graph of f (x) = C is a
horizontal line with slope 0, so
we would expect f (x) = 0.
Theorem 1. Let y = f (x) = C be a constant function, then
y = f (x) = 0.
What is the slope of a constant function?

Examples: Find the derivatives of the
following functions
1) f(x) = -24
f(x) = ?

2) f(x) =
f(x) = ?

3) f(x) =
f(x) = ?
7
0
0
0
Power Rule
A function of the form f (x) = x
n
is called a power function.
This includes f (x) = x (where n = 1) and radical functions
(fractional n).
Theorem 2. (Power Rule) Let y = x
n
be a power function,
then
y = f (x) = n x
n 1
.
Example
Differentiate f (x) = x
10
.

Solution:
By the power rule, the derivative of x
n
is n x
n1
.
In our case n = 10, so we get f (x) = 10 x
10-1

= 10 x
9
Differentiate

Solution:
Rewrite f (x) as a power function, and apply the power rule:
Example
3 / 1
) ( x x f
. ) (
3
x x f
3 2
3 / 2
3
1
3
1
) ( '
x
x x f

Examples: Find the derivatives of the
following functions
1) f(x) = x
6
f(x) = ?

2) f(x) = t
-2
f(x) = ?

3) f(x) = t
3/2


f(x) = ?
4) f(x) =

f(x) = ?

5) f(x) =

f(x) =?

6) f(x) =

f(x) =?
3 2
u
x
1
6x
5
-2t
-3
=

= x
-1
3
2
t

2
1
2
3
t
x
1
2
2
1
1
x
x



= u
2/3
3 / 1
3
1
3
2
3
2
u
u

= x
-1/2
2 / 3
2
3
2
1
2
1
x
x

Constant Multiple Property
Theorem 3. Let y = f (x) = k u(x) be a constant k times a
function u(x). Then
y = f (x) = k u(x).
In words: The derivative of a constant times a function is the
constant times the derivative of the function.
Example
Differentiate f (x) = 10x
3
.

Solution:
Apply the constant multiple property and the power rule.
f (x) = 10(3x
2
) = 30 x
2

Examples: Find the derivatives of the
following functions
1) f(x) = 4x
5
f(x) = ?



2) f(x) =


f(x) = ?

4) f(x) =

f(x) =



5) f(x) =

f(x) =

3
3
1
x
12
4
t
3
9 . 0
x
20x
4
3
3
1

x
4
4
1
1
x
x



3
3
1
t
3
1
3
1
9 . 0
9 . 0

x
x
3 / 4
3
4
10
3
3 . 0
x
x



Sum and Difference Properties
Theorem 5. If
y = f (x) = u(x) v(x),
then
y = f (x) = u(x) v(x).

In words:
The derivative of the sum of two differentiable functions is
the sum of the derivatives.
The derivative of the difference of two differentiable
functions is the difference of the derivatives.

Differentiate f (x) = 3x
5
+ x
4
2x
3
+ 5x
2
7x + 4.

Solution:
Apply the sum and difference rules, as well as the constant
multiple property and the power rule.
f (x) = 15x
4
+ 4x
3
6x
2
+ 10x 7.
Example
Examples: Find the derivatives of the
following functions
1) f(x) = 3x
4
-2x
3
+x
2
-5x+7

f(x) = ?



2) f(x) = 3 - 7x
-2
f(x) = ?

4) f(x) =
f(x) =?



5) f(x) =



f(x) =?

4
3
5 v v
8
4
4
3
4
3
x
x x

5 2 6 12
2 3
x x x
3
3
14
14
x
x

4 / 1 3
5 v v
4 / 3
2 4 / 3 2
4
1
15
4
1
15
v
v v v

8
4
4
3
4
3 1
x
x x

3 4 2
2
1
12
4
3
x x x

3
4 2
2
1 12
4
3
x
x x

Applications
Remember that the derivative gives the instantaneous rate of
change of the function with respect to x. That might be:
Instantaneous velocity.
Tangent line slope at a point on the curve of the function.
Marginal Cost. If C(x) is the cost function, that is, the total cost
of producing x items, then C(x) approximates the cost of
producing one more item at a production level of x items. C(x) is
called the marginal cost.
Example: application
Let f (x) = x
4
- 8x
3
+ 7
(a) Find f (x)
(b) Find the equation of the tangent line at x = 1
(c) Find the values of x where the tangent line is horizontal

Solution:
a) f (x) = 4x
3
- 24x
2

b) Slope: f (1) = 4(1) - 24(1) = -20
Point: (1, 0)
y = mx + b
0 = -20(1) + b
20 = b
So the equation is y = -20x + 20

c) Since a horizontal line has the slope of 0, we must solve f(x)=0 for x
4x
3
- 24x
2
= 0
4x
2
(x 6) = 0
So x = 0 or x = 6
Example: more application
The total cost (in dollars) of producing x radios per day is
C(x) = 1000 + 100x 0.5x
2
for 0 x 100.
1. Find the marginal cost at a production level of radios.
Solution: C(x) = 100 x

2) Find the marginal cost at a production level of 80 radios and
interpret the result.
Solution: The marginal cost is
C(80) = 100 80 = $20
It costs $20 to produce the next radio (the 81
st
radio)

3) Find the actual cost of producing the 81st radio and compare
this with the marginal cost.
Solution: The actual cost of the 81st radio will be
C(81) C(80) = $5819.50 $5800 = $19.50.




Summary
If f (x) = C, then f (x) = 0
If f (x) = x
n
, then f (x) = n x
n-1
If f (x) = k x
n
then f (x) = kn x
n-1

If f (x) = u(x) v(x),
then f (x) = u(x) v(x).