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Radio Broadcasting

Standards in the
Philippines
Engr. Efren T. Pineda, PECE

Basic knowledge on radio broadcasting

Know the present standards in radio


broadcasting as implemented in the
Philippines
Expected Outcomes

Broadcasting in General

Broadcast Operations

A !adio Broadcasting and "tandards

# !adio Broadcasting and "tandards

Engineering considerations in b$ilding a


radio broadcast stations
Topics
Broadcasting in
general
The Basic Considerations

%t is an art and science of con&e'ing


(intelligent) information thro$gh electrical
means intended for the reception of the
general p$blic.

As per !A *+*+, $nder "ection ,c, an


$ndertaking the ob-ect of which is to
transmit a$dio, &ideo, te.t, images or other
signals or messages for reception of a broad
a$dience in a geographical area &ia wired or
wireless means.
What is Broadcasting?
The Broadcast Chain
"t$dio

/i&e

!ecorded
/ink

0ired

0ireless
Transmitte
r

#or
Broadcas
t

Combo T'pe 1 "t$dio and Transmitter are


co2located3 link is commonl' wired, that is,
balanced a$dio cables, $nbalanced coa.ial
lines for !# &ideo, or 4ber optic s'stem.

"plit T'pe 1 "t$dio and Transmitter are not


co2located3 link is commonl' wireless &ia !#
or radio wa&es. #or a wired link, a telephone
codec is needed3 connection is made &ia
P"T5 (P$blic "witch Telephone 5etwork).
Studio-Transmitter
Confgurations

"T/ ("t$dio2to2Transmitter /ink) 1 $sed to link


st$dio to transmitter if the' are con4g$red split
t'pe.
6s$all' in 67# range (for radio)

Band A8 ,99 1 ,:; 7<

Band B8 =,> 1 =;+ 7<

Band C8 *>+ 1 *;+ 7<


a.im$m power allowable is :;0
od$lation is # 0ideband
!e?$ires high gain antenna s$ch as @agi26da, Corner
!eAector and Parabolic t'pes
Point2to2point comm$nication, that is, from st$dio to
transmitter onl'
Auxiliar Broadcast
Ser!ices

!P6 (!emote Pick2$p 6nit) 1 $sed to link


remote sites or st$dio to main st$dio for
o$tside broadcast (OB) p$rposes.
6s$all' in 67# range (for radio)

Band A8 ,:; 1 ,+; 7<

Band B8 >;9 1 >;: 7<

Band C8 >;; 1 >;B 7<


a.im$m power allowable is ,; 0atts
od$lation is # 0ideband
!e?$ires high gain antenna s$ch as @agi26da t'pes
Point2to2point comm$nication, that is, from remote
sites or st$dio to main st$dio onl'
Auxiliar Broadcast
Ser!ices

Coordination, Comm$nication and Control 1


$sed as per mentioned p$rpose.
6s$all' allocated as follows8

Band A8 > 1 :+ 7< (non2e.cl$si&e for broadcast)

Band B8 +;.B= 1 +B.: 7<

Band C8 :B+.+,; 1 :B+.B:; 7<, :BB.+; and :=9.:; 7<

Band C8 >,+.; 1 >,, 7<, >,=.; 1 >,D 7<


a.im$m allowable power are as follows8

Band A8 :99 0atts (A2""B)

Band B8 :B9 0atts (#5B, E!P)

Band C8 :B9 0atts (#5B, E!P)

Band C8 +99 0atts (#5B, for repeater)


Auxiliar Broadcast
Ser!ices
Studio Sstem
"Tpical Set-up#

icrophones 1 for the programEs hosts and


g$ests (for li&e programs)

Pla' back "o$rces 1 for m$sic, and other


recorded materials
CC pla'ers for m$sical materials
7ard disc based andFor PC based pla' back de&ices
for station %Cs, Program %ntro F E.tro m$sic, $sic
Beds, Commercials, Pl$gs, Goice Tracks, Hingles

Broadcast Console 1 for control (le&el and


switching), mi.ing, ampli4cation (at
appropriate mod$lation le&el), and ro$ting of
inp$t signals
Common E$uipment

7eadphones for solo monitoring

/o$dspeakers for st$dio (on2air) and control room


monitoring

Power Ampli4ers for dri&ing lo$dspeakers

A$dio Codec for telephone interface, $sed to


patch station callers on2air

!emote Pick2$p 6nit for li&e remote programming

A$dio Processor for making the so$nd of the


station good in ?$alit'. 0e can set here the
d'namic range, and e?$ali<ation of so$nd. #or
# "tereo, stereo encoding is incl$ded.
Common E$uipment

Cistrib$tion Ampli4ers $sed for signal


distrib$tion witho$t atten$ation and
possible mismatch in loading.

Tape !ecorders s$ch as PC or hard disc


based de&ices. %t can be of CAT (Cigital
A$dio Tape) format or PCC%A hard disc.

OI2air T$ner for OTA (oI2the2air) signal


monitoring, this will allow 'o$ to monitor if
'o$Ere still on the air (&ia broadcast
transmitter)
Common E$uipment
A% Transmitter
"&igh-le!el %odulation#
"TAB%/%JEC
!#
O"C%//ATO!
!# B6##E!
AP/%#%E!
(C/A"" A)
!# PO0E!
AP/%#%E!
(C/A"" C)
!# O6TP6T
AP/%#%E!
(C/A"" C)
O6TP6T
ATC7%5G
5ET0O!K
A#
P!E2
AP/%#%E!
A# PO0E!
AP/%#%E!
(C/A"" B)
A# O6TP6T
AP/%#%E!
OC6/ATO!
(C/A"" B)
A6C%O
%5P6T
A5TE55A
5ote8
#or low le&el mod$lation, replaced !# O6TP6T AP/%#%E! with Class B or Class AB.
'% Transmitter
"Armstrong Sstem#
KTA/
O"C%//ATO!
B6##E!
AP/%#%E!
*9L P7A"E
"7%#T
5ET0O!K
BA/A5CEC
OC6/ATO!
A6C%O
AP/%#%E!
A6C%O
EM6A/%JE!
!#
AP/%#%E!
#!EM6E5C@
6/T%P/%E!
#!EM6E5C@
6/T%P/%E!
%KE!
KTA/
O"C%//ATO!
!#
AP/%#%E!
!# PO0E!
AP/%#%E!
A6C%O
%5P6T
A5TE55A
5ote8
#!EM6E5C@ 6/T%P/%E! C%!C6%T" are cascaded CO6B/E!" and
T!%P/E!".
Broadcast Operations

Ca'time 1 refers to that period of time


between ++99 6ni&ersal Time Coordinates
(6TC) to :999 6TC. E?$i&alent to B A to B P
local standard time.

5ighttime 1 refers to that period of time


between :999 6TC to ++99 6TC. E?$i&alent to
B P to B A local standard time.

E.perimental Period 1 the period of time


between :+ 5 to ; A local standard time
for the p$rpose of testing and maintenance of
the licensee.
Parts o( Broadcasting in a
)a
Parts o( Program
*mplementation

Pre2prod$ction 1 this is the planning stage3


oc$lar site inspection is part of this if the
program is to be held at remote locations.

Prod$ction 1 the implementation stage3 li&e


program is broadcasted (from st$dio or remote
location $p to broadcast transmitter for
broadcast transmission), while recording or
taping for TG drama F doc$mentar' programs.

Post2prod$ction 1 this is where editing is done,


partic$larl' for station prod$ced programs
s$ch as TG dramas, or doc$mentar' programs.

Chief Engineer F Compan' ECE


7ead of the Broadcast Engineering N Operations
6s$all' a !egistered PECE

"t$dio "$per&isor
%n2charge of st$dio operations and maintenance
6s$all' a !egistered ECE

"t$dio Technicians
Operates the broadcast console for li&e programs
/og broadcast dail' operations
#acilitate recording of taped programs
Cond$ct st$dio maintenance
6s$all' holder of !adio OperatorEs /icense or its
e?$i&alent
Technical Positions+ their
(unctions and $ualifcations

Transmitter "$per&isor
%n2charge of transmitter operations and
maintenance
6s$all' a !egistered ECE

Transmitter Technicians
Operates and maintains the transmitter of the
station
/og transmitter &oltages and c$rrent ho$rl'
6s$all' a holder of !adio OperatorEs /icense or its
e?$i&alent
Technical Positions+ their
(unctions and $ualifcations

Program /og
Time entr' each program (li&eFtaped) incl$ding
station %C, station promos, commercial spots
Brief description of the program s$ch as Om$sicP,
OdramaP, Oli&eP, etc.
"ponsored programs
Origin of the program
Act$al time to be 4lled2$p b' Anno$ncer or
Technicians on2board noting the beginning and
end times of a partic$lar aired material
Additional remarks for a partic$lar material or
program
Broadcast ,ogs

Transmitter /og
Time entr' the transmitter is t$rned O5 as well as
the time it is t$rned O##
At least at ,9 min$tes inter&al, log of operating
&oltages, c$rrents and power of the transmitter as
well as the antenna c$rrent ($s$all' for A
transmitters), signed b' Tech on2d$t'
Entr' of each interr$ption of the broadcasting, its
ca$se and d$ration
/og shall be kept in orderl' manner, and in
s$itable form, a&oiding eras$res in an' entr'
/ogs shall be maintained b' the licensee for a
period of + 'ears
Broadcast ,ogs
A% Radio
Broadcasting
Philippine "tandard based on KBP
(:**: !e&ised Edition)

#re?$enc' Allocations8
;+B.; 1 :=9; k7<

Channel Bandwidth8
* k7<

5$mber of A Channels A&ailable8


:,: channels

Permitted Bandwidth8
,9 k7<

inim$m Carrier "eparation for Ad-acent


"tations ser&ing the same ser&ice area8
,B k7<
Broadcast Standards

Baseband #re?$enc' !ange8


;9 1 :;999 7<

ode of Emission8
A,E

T'pe of !ecei&er8
"$per2heterod'ne !ecei&er

%ntermediate #re?$enc'8
>;; k7<
Broadcast Standards

/ocation and la'2o$t considerations


Ade?$ate space, &entilation and air2conditioning, and
lighting

Transmitter design
Carrier Power /imits8 :9Q f$ll power
a.im$m od$lation for "atisfactor' Operation8 *9Q
Operating #re?$enc' /imits8 R :9 7< of assigned
carrier fre?$enc'
Carrier shift8 ;Q at an' mod$lation le&el
Carrier 7$m and E.traneo$s 5oise /e&el8 >; dB
below >99 7< tone
Total A$dio fre?$enc' Cistortion8 S;Q harmonics T
9Q2D>Q mod$lation, S=.;Q harmonics T D;Q2*;Q
mod$lation
Transmitter Standards

Alternate ain Transmitter Considerations


$st be co2located with the main transmitter
$st be of same parameters as the main
transmitter

A$.iliar' Transmitter Considerations


Can be co2located or installed at another location
O$tp$t power ma'be less b$t not greater than the
a$thori<ed power of the main transmitter
Transmitter Standards

"ite considerations
/ocation in relation to the pop$lation to be ser&ed
and other comm$nication installations and airports,
Cond$cti&it' of the soil at and immediatel'
ad-acent to site,
Cond$cti&it' of the path between the site and the
target area.

Cesign considerations
Gerticall' polari<ed
"hall radiate an eIecti&e 4eld of not less than that
of B9 &ertical tower
All parts shall be installed so as not to present a
ha<ard.
Antenna Re$uirements
5OTE8 Transmitters of etro anila ma'be located
o$tside etro anila pro&ided the said area
remains within D9 dB$ conto$r of the transmitter.

The station shall not operate more than ;Q


and not lower than :9Q of its a$thori<ed
operating power.
%aximum Po-er
Allocations
Area %aximum Po-er ".W#
etro anila (see 5ote) ;9
All other areas :9
'% Radio
Broadcasting
Philippine "tandard based on KBP
(:**: !e&ised Edition)

#re?$enc' Allocations8
DD 1 :9D 7< (+9 7< total B0)

Channel Bandwidth8
+99 k7< (for mono)

5$mber of A Channels A&ailable8


:99 channels

Permitted Bandwidth8
:D9 k7< (for mono), ,99 k7< (for stereo)

inim$m Carrier "eparation for Ad-acent


"tations ser&ing the same ser&ice area8
D99 k7<
Broadcast Standards

Baseband #re?$enc' !ange8


;9 1 :;999 7<

ode of Emission8
#,E

#re?$enc' Ce&iation8
R =; k7< T :99 Q mod$lation

Pre2emphasis8
=; Usec time constant

Pilot tone8
:* k7<
Broadcast Standards

T'pe of !ecei&er8
"$per2heterod'ne !ecei&er

%ntermediate #re?$enc'8
:9.= 7<
Broadcast Standards

/ocation and la'2o$t considerations


"ho$ld be chosen that line2of2sight can be
obtained from the antenna o&er the principal cit'
or cities to be ser&ed
Ade?$ate space, &entilation and air2conditioning,
and lighting

Transmitter design
#re?$enc' "wing8 R =; k7< T :99 Q mod$lation
Pre2emphasis8 =; Usec time constant within ;9 1
:;999 7< of a$dio fre?$enc'
A$dio fre?$enc' harmonics8 S ,.; Q (within ;9 1
:99 7<), S +.; Q (within :99 1 =;99 7<), S , Q
(within =.; 1 :; k7<)
Transmitter Standards

Other considerations
Constr$ction considering its enclos$re, gro$nding
of controls, and interlocks on doors
0iring and shielding
etering e?$ipment
%ndicating instr$ments
%nstallation
Other data
Transmitter Standards

$st be 7ori<ontall' Polari<ed, howe&er,


circ$lar or elliptical polari<ation ma' also be
emplo'ed,

$st be installed or constr$cted s$ch that it


is clear from obstr$ctions that wo$ld ca$se
shadow problems,

#or a common tower shared b' + or more


licensees, the owner of the tower shall
ass$me f$ll responsibilit' for the
maintenance of the tower str$ct$re.
Antenna Sstem

ain Channel8 /V! (;9 1 :;999 7<)

Pilot tone8 :*k7< R +7< T DQ2:9Q of the


main # carrier

"tereophonic Channel8 /2! (+, 1 ;, k7<)


mod$lated $sing C"B"C2A

"tereophonic "$b2carrier8 ,Dk7< (+


nd harmonic of
the pilot tone)

"$bsidiar' Comm$nication A$thori<ation ("CA) channel8 ;*.; 1 =>.; k7<

$ltiple.ing8 #C
'% Stereo Broadcasting
Standards

Class A
A$thori<ed power SW +; k0
E!P SW :+; k0
Antenna height SW +999 ft abo&e a&erage terrain
inim$m transmitter power of :9 k0
Allowed in etro anila N etro Ceb$

Class B
A$thori<ed power SW :9 k0
E!P SW ,9 k0
Antenna height SW ;99 ft abo&e a&erage terrain
inim$m transmitter power of : k0
%mplemented in other areas not co&ered b' Class A
Classifcation o( Po-ers

Class C
A$thori<ed E!P SW : k0
#or non2commercial, comm$nit' station

Class C
A$thori<ed transmitter power SW :9 0
#or ed$cational stations
5OTE8 All classes of # stations shall be
protected to the : mGFm or B9 dB$ conto$r.
Classifcation o( Po-ers
Engineering
Considerations

Be s$re 'o$ ha&e the franchise appro&ed b' the


"enate and Congress of the Philippines. To ha&e
these, 'o$ m$st prepare a feasibilit' st$d' to be
s$bmitted in Congress and then "enate.

Obtain Pro&ision of A$thorit' (PA) to the


a$thorit', in this case 5ational
Telecomm$nications Commission (5TC). To ha&e
this, a p$blic hearing is cond$cted for new
stations. All aIected parties will be informed and
gi&en a chance to oppose on 'o$r application. %n
p$blic hearing, 'o$ need to present the legal,
technical and 4nancial capacities of 'o$r
compan'.
Pre-re$uisites

The technical part is prepared b' ECEs3 as


per !A *+*+, onl' PECEs are allowed to sign
and seal an engineering plan. "o in case of
technical witness, onl' PECE is allowed to
testif' on technical matters.

After the hearing, the 5TC will f$rther check


the s$bmitted e&idences. A PA will be grant
as temporar' permit for the applicantEs
constr$ction and operation of a radio station.

Appl' additional permits s$ch as Permit to


P$rchase, !adio Constr$ction Permit, and
Permit to Possess.
Pre-re$uisites

Aco$stics and 5oise Control for "t$dio

E&al$ation of appropriate e?$ipment for


"t$dio and Transmitter, depends on
programsE re?$irements (based on 'o$r
s'stemEs design)

E&al$ation of e?$ipment s$ppliers3 consider


after2sales s$pport

Training

%nstallation and Commissioning

Operation and aintenance


Other consideration
Than. ou (or
listening/
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