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BEHAVIORISM

Reporter: Maricris L. Colima


"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and
my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll
guarantee to take any one at random and train him
to become any type of specialist I might select -
doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even
beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents,
penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and the
race of his ancestors. (Watson, 1924, p. 104)


OUTLINE
Introduction
Proponents
Behaviorism defined
Conditioning: Classical and Operant
Key features in classical and operant conditioninh
Classroom implications



PROPONENTS
Albert Bandura-his social learning theory points out
the importance of observational learning
B. F. Skinner-coined the term operant conditioning
Clark L. Hull- wanted to explain learning and
motivation by observing ones behavior; famous for
the drive-reduction theory
Ivan Pavlov-discovered classical conditioning
John B. Watson-known as the father of behaviorism
WHAT IS BEHAVIORISM?
This theory implies that the learner responds to
environmental stimuli without his/her mental state
being a factor in the learners behavior.

Individuals learn to behave through
conditioning:Two types of conditioning-Classical
and Operant

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Ivan Pavlov
(also Pavlovian conditioning or respondent
conditioning) is a kind of learning that occurs
when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an
unconditioned stimulus (US) and through constant
pairing it will elicits a (CR) conditioned response.

A classic experiment by Pavlov exemplifies the
standard procedure used in classical
conditioning. First Pavlov observed the UR
(salivation) produced when meat powder (US) was
placed in the dog's mouth. He then rang a bell (CS)
before giving the meat powder. After some
repetitions of this pairing of bell and meat the dog
salivated to the bell alone, demonstrating what
Pavlov called a "conditional" response, now
commonly termed "conditioned response" or CR.
OPERANT CONDITIONING
Proponent: B.F. Skinner
Learner is able to make a connection with the
consequences associated with his/her behavior
through punishmenSkinner (1948) studied operant
conditioning by conducting experiments using
animals which he placed in a Skinner Box which
was similar to Thorndikes puzzle box.
ts and reinforcements


THIS CREATES A TOTAL OF FIVE BASIC
CONSEQUENCES :
Positive reinforcement. (Reinforcement): Occurs
when a behavior (response) is followed by a
stimulus that is appetitive or rewarding, increasing
the frequency of that behavior.
Negative reinforcement. (Escape): Occurs when a
behavior (response) is followed by the removal of
an aversivestimulus, thereby increasing that
behavior's frequency.


Positive punishment. (Punishment) (also called
"Punishment by contingent stimulation"): Occurs
when a behavior (response) is followed by a stimulus,
such as introducing a shock or loud noise, resulting in
a decrease in that behavior. Positive punishment is
sometimes a confusing term, as it denotes the
"addition" of a stimulus or increase in the intensity of a
stimulus that is aversive (such as spanking or an
electric shock). This procedure is usually called
simply punishment.

Negative punishment. (Penalty) (also called
"Punishment by contingent withdrawal"): Occurs
when a behavior (response) is followed by the
removal of a stimulus, such as taking away a child's
toy following an undesired behavior, resulting in a
decrease in that behavior.
Extinction. Occurs when a behavior (response) that
had previously been reinforced is no longer
effective.

CLASSROOM IMPLICATIONS
WHAT THE TEACHER DOES UNDER THIS
THEORY?
A teacher uses behaviorism to manage his/her
classroom. Teacher could use operant conditioning
to reward or punish his/her students -When a
student does well on a test, the teacher could use
candy as an incentive to continue do well on a test
(positive reinforcement) -Whenever a student
misbehaves, the teacher may prevent the student
from going outside during recess (punishment).
WHAT THE STUDENTS DO UNDER THIS
THEORY?
Under this theory, a student learns what behaviors
are or are not appropriate -A student received a bad
behavior mark for talking during class. The bad
behavior mark (or punishment) will teach the
student that talking while the teacher is talking is
not an appropriate behavior.
A student could also be classically conditioned to
behave a certain way in a classroom -If students
realize that they always have pop quizzes when
their teacher is carrying an orange-colored folder,
they will learn to prepare for a pop quiz at the sight
of the orange-colored folder, even if there is not a
pop quiz.
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