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JOB SHOP INDUSTRIES

1
WHAT IS A JOB SHOP?

ware that industrial life as lived in the job shop differs considerably from that

mall to very large. Some are captive; others are independent. Some serve sophistica

among them differences and commonality that affect the fashioning of a quality co

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WHAT IS A JOB SHOP?

operation. Percent repeat jobs is defined as the percentage of the total number

5 to 80 percent; “high” over 80 percent.

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WHAT IS A JOB SHOP?

eing defined by its own “drawing number.”

e of the endless variations of size, shape, color, style, or configuration typicall

and fill their shops with customer-designed parts of thousands of different config

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WHAT IS A JOB SHOP?

t shops specializing in particular operations, often working on customer-furnished

ing the average number of different orders, or different setups, or setup changes

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WHAT IS A JOB SHOP?

r on the same diagram, there emerges a convenient way to quantify the distinction

week and a high percentage of repeat jobs. Above the level of 20 jobs per worker p

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THE JOB SHOP QUALITY PROGRAM

es, or people; these generally remain common to all jobs. Neither is the impact on

c., and (3) what needs to be done to assure that the “newness” is correctly identif

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THE JOB NUMERICS

wn product specifications, spelling out in detail the materials, formulation, conf

tion the necessary details of input materials, operation sequence, inspection or l

n” comes close, but it sometimes is used to include the recorded quality data, whi

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THE JOB NUMERICS

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THE JOB NUMERICS

aterial specification, formulation or batching sheet, tool drawings, exploded assem

uct or to attain economic operation. There are additional numerics which provide t

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THE JOB NUMERICS

tails to the shop personnel provides the advance knowledge that can often spell t

the primary numerics is extended to the supplementary. This virtually eliminates

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THE JOB NUMERICS

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JOB PLANNING

umerics present a problem in striking the proper balance between overplanning and

ssarily devote a major effort to planning the supplementary job numerics, since

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JOB PLANNING

there is no universal pattern of responsibility for generating the supplementary

clear. As a general rule, if the generation and maintenance of any portion of the

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JOB PLANNING

l arise from lack of sufficient knowledge, by the planner, of processes, economics

ting not only goes over errors and refinements; it also identifies possible proble

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JOB PLANNING

ng processes, classifying characteristics, etc.

is used as a basis for standardization of drawings, tooling, etc., with an obvious

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JOB SHOP CONTROL

r of jobs per worker per week and the mass of detail contained in the job numeric

The main reason is that the running time is usually so short that the “time-to-tim

quality control” will protect them against bad purchased materials, stop defects f

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JOB SHOP CONTROL

ctors. Consideration of these factors leads to the “current job approach” and the

the manufactured portion of the same job. It can be used whenever the running tim

machinery; i.e., large lots or expensive items are involved.

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JOB SHOP CONTROL

n when the normal running time would be too short to use it. Instead of processing

tive action” can be completed. In such cases, the knowledge gained from the analys

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JOB SHOP CONTROL

er the completion of the current job order. They were least successful when the da

ts, for example, special “warning” or “caution” slips are often attached to the blu

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JOB SHOP CONTROL

variety of improvement purposes. It can warn of inspection errors, lead to revisi

time, the stored data can be readily manipulated to prepare Pareto analyses and to

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QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

conceptual approach to breakthrough is identical for these two forms of industri

tion” in each of the jobs affected may blind the managers to the existence of a c

reby will result in the greatest value of improvement for the least cost of analy

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QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

ne of identifying the few jobs that result in the bulk of the quality losses. The

he parts accounted for half of the value of the punch-press scrap. It became a log

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QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

1 . The Chronic Offenders Approach .


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QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

account for the greatest dollar loss, or are the most serious to the customer, or

ry to revise the list of the “worst” offenders periodically

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QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

is a repeat for any other job in the same product family. Through this relationshi

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QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

to identify those common causes that might warrant further analysis. The Pareto st

me each rejection or error is carefully traced to its origin by a task force repr

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QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

llect large quantities of data at will; lot sizes are too small. This calls for in

late, a statistically adequate basis for estimating machine capability emerges fro

ance. In the latter event, the accumulated data give important quantified informat

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REMEDIES FOR JOB SHOP PROBLEMS

le effort is being devoted toward changing them or even questioning them. These pr

c specifications loosely enforced” become unmanageable because the shop people mu

ionship is gradually eroded by sheer size and complexity, and the need is for grea

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REMEDIES FOR JOB SHOP PROBLEMS

or should be able to prepare the quotation. The premise is sound only if the estim

ties, feedback systems, etc. The really decisive question is whether to formalize o

them) that the planning should not be uniformly applied to all jobs or functions.

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REMEDIES FOR JOB SHOP PROBLEMS

to develop skills in the respective processes. This colony form of machine organi

use special machine designs to minimize the preparation of extensive job numerics

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REMEDIES FOR JOB SHOP PROBLEMS

second source. As the shop grows, material usage grows with it, and there may be a

alence of worker monotony and boredom, but also increases the extent of worker con

shop is thereby a good laboratory for testing out some of the modern ways being

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