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Carbon and alloying steels are the most

commonly used metals


The structural makeup and controlled processing
of these steels make them suitable for many
different functions.
Basic product shapes include plate, sheet, bar,
wire, tube, castings, and forgings.
Increasing the percentages of these elements in
steels, increases the properties they impart.

Different elements are added to steels to given
the steel different properties.

The elements pass on properties such as
harden- ability, strength, hardness, toughness,
wear resistance, etc.

Some properties are beneficial while others
are detrimental.
Boron: Improves hardenability without the loss of (or even with
some improvement in) machinability and formability.

Calcium: Deoxidizes steels, improves toughness, and may improve
formability and machinability.

Carbon: improves hardenability, strength, hardness, and wear
resistance; it reduces ductility, weldability, and toughness.

Cerium: controls the shape of inclusions and improves toughness
in high-strength low alloy steels; it deoxidizes steels.

Chromium: improves toughness, hardenability, wear and corrosion
resistance, and high-temperature strength; it increases the depth of
the hardness penetration resulting from heat treatment by
promoting carburization.

Cobalt: improves strength and hardness at elevated temperatures.
Copper: improves resistance to atmospheric corrosion and, to
a lesser extent, increases strength with little loss in ductility; it
adversely affects the hot-working characteristics and surface
quality.

Lead: improves machinability; it causes liquid-metal
embrittlement.

Magnesium: has the same effects as cerium.

Manganese: improves hardenability, strength, abrasion
resistance, and machinability; it deoxidizes the molten steel,
reduce shot shortness, and decreases weldability.

Molybdenum: improves hardenability, wear resistance,
toughness, elevated-temperature strength, creep resistance,
and hardness; it minimizes temper embrittlement.
Nickel: improves strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance; it
improves hardenability.

Niobium (columbium): imparts fineness of grain size and
improves strength and impact toughness; it lowers transition
temperature and may decrease hardenability.

Phosphorus: improves strength, hardenability, corrosion
resistance, and machinability; it severely reduces ductility and
toughness.

Selenium: improves machinability.

Silicon: improves strength, hardness, corrosion resistance, and
electrical conductivity; it decreases magnetic-hysteresis loss,
machinability, and cold formability.
Sulfur: Improves machinability when combined with manganese; it
lowers impact strength and ductility and impairs surface quality and
weldability.

Tantalum: has effects similar to those of niobium.

Tellurium: improves machinability, formability, and toughness.

Titanium: improves hardenability; it deoxidizes steels.

Tungsten: has the same effects as cobalt.

Vanadium: improves strength, toughness, abrasion resistance, and
hardness at elevated temperatures; it inhibits grain growth during heat
treatment.

Zirconium: has the same effects as cerium
Carbon steels are group by
their percentage of carbon
content per weight. The higher
the carbon content the greater
the hardness, strength and wear
resistance after heat treatment.

Low-carbon steel, also called
mild steels, has less than
0.30% carbon. Used in
everyday industrial products
like bolts, nuts, sheet, plate and
tubes.
High Carbon Steel Nails
Medium-carbon steel has 0.30% to 0.60%
carbon. Used for jobs requiring higher strength
such as machinery, automotive equipment
parts, and metalworking equipment.

High-carbon steel has more than 0.60%
carbon. Used parts that require the highest
strength, hardness, and wear resistance. Once
manufactured they are heat treated and
tempered
Alloy steels are steels that contain significant
amounts of alloying elements.

High strength low alloy steels
Microalloyed steels
Nanoalloyed steels
High-strength, low-
alloy steels (HSLA)
steels were developed
to improve the ratio of
strength to weight.
Commonly used in
automobile bodies and in
the transportation
industry (the reduced
weight makes for better
fuel economy ).
Microalloyed steels
Provide superior
properties without
the use of heat
treating. When
cooled carefully these
steels develop
enhanced and
consistent strength.
Stainless steels are
primarily know for their
corrosion resistance,
high strength, and
ductility and chromium
content.
The reason for the name stainless is due to the fact
that in the presence of oxygen, the steel develops a
thin, hard, adherent film of chromium.
Even if the surface is scratched, the protective film is rebuilt
through passivation.
For passivation to occur there needs to be a minimum chromium
content of 10% to 12% by weight.
Stainless steels tend to have lower carbon content
since increased carbon content lowers the corrosion
resistance of stainless steels.

Since the carbon reacts with chromium it decreases
the available chromium content which is needed for
developing the protective film.
Using stainless steels as reinforcing bars, has become a new
trend, in concrete structures such as highways buildings and
bridges.
It is more beneficial than carbon steels because it is resistant
to corrosion from road salts and the concrete itself.

corrosion in
concrete
Tool and die steels are alloyed steels design
for high strength, impact toughness, and wear
resistance at normal and elevated
temperatures.

High-speed steels Maintain their hardness and
strength at elevated operating temperatures.
There are two basic types the M-series and T-
series
M-series contain 10 %
molybdenum and have
higher abrasion resistance
than T- series
T- Series contain 12 % to
18 % tungsten. They
undergo less distortion in
heat treatment and are less
expensive than the M-
series.

M- series steel drill bits coated
with titanium
Dies are tools used for drawing wire, and for
blanking, bending, cutting, machine forging,
and embossing. .
H-series (Hot-working steels) for use at elevated
temperatures. They have high toughness and high
resistance to wear and cracking.
S-series (shock resisting steels) designed for
impact toughness.