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Positive Displacement

Pumps
Moves Liquid, Creates Pressure
Centrifugal pumps considered to be
Head generators
Positive Displacement pumps
considered to be Flow generators

TYPES OF PUMPS
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
High pressure
Low flow
Flow does not change when pressure changes

CENTRIFUGAL
Low pressure
High flow
flow changes when pressure changes
Positive Displacement Pumps
Typical Characteristics
Constant Flow at Various Pressures
Pulse Flow is possible
Most can pump solids suspended in liquids
Self-priming
Hydraulic Use
Positive displacement pump
video

7/10/2014 Pumping Machinery, Pump School 6
Types of PD Pumps
Rotary Pumps
Gear Internal, External
Lobe
Vane
Screw

Reciprocating Pumps
Piston
Plunger
Diaphragm
Rotary vs. Reciprocating Pumps
Rotary pumps transfer liquid through the
action of a rotating mechanism (gear, lobe
or vane) operating inside a rigid container
Pumping rates vary by changing the speed
of the rotor
Rotary vs. Reciprocating Pumps
Reciprocating pumps
move liquids by
changing the internal
volume of the pump
Require valves on the
suction and discharge
sides
Pumping rates varied
by changing the
frequency of strokes or
the stroke length
Rotary vs. Reciprocating Pumps
Typical 2-stage Reciprocating
operation
1
st
stage pump intake
Suction created as piston or
diaphragm withdrawn from
cylinders chamber
Discharge valve closes,
suction valve opens, fluid
floods cylinder
2
nd
stage pump discharge
Motor pushes piston or
diaphragm back into pump
cylinders chamber
Suction valve closes,
discharge valve opens, fluid
forced out discharge valve
Source: http://www.watson-marlow.com/wna-se/p-fmi.htm
Internal Gear Pumps
Smaller gear rotating within
a bigger gear
Partial vacuum created by
meshing and un-meshing of
internal teeth with external
teeth
Crescent divides liquid flow
between rotor and idler
gears
Internal Gear Rotary Pump Gear Within A Gear
Drive Gear
Inlet Cam
Driven Gear
Delivery
Internal gear pump video

External Gear
Pumps
1. As the gears come out of mesh, they
create expanding volume on the inlet
side of the pump. Liquid flows into the
cavity and is trapped by the gear teeth
as they rotate.
2. Liquid travels around the interior of
the casing in the pockets between the
teeth and the casing -- it does not pass
between the gears.
3. Finally, the meshing of the gears
forces liquid through the outlet port
under pressure
External gear video
Video
Lobe Pumps
Food applications,
because they handle
solids without damaging
the pump.
Particle size pumped can
be much larger in these
pumps than in other PD
types
Lobe size can handle
larger particle sizes
Lobe video

video
Vane Pumps
Vane pumps usually operate at
1,000 rpm, but also run at
1,750 rpm.
Would the vanes handle low
or high viscosity better?
The pumps work well with low-
viscosity liquids that easily fill
the cavities and provide good
suction characteristics.
Speeds must be reduced
dramatically for high-viscosity
applications to load the area
underneath the vanes.
vane video
Unbalanced vane video
SELECTING THE RIGHT GEAR PUMPS
SCREW PUMPS
These pumps are used
where the required
quantity of flow is
high.
Double Screw Pump
Triple Screw Pump
Progressive Cavity Single Screw
Progressive Cavity Pump
Elastomer Stator
Universal Coupling
Single Screw Rotor
Sludge pump running
the pump dry or with
sludge at high temperature
or having abrasive
particles can damage the
neoprene stator.
Reciprocating Pumps
The piston pump and the diaphragm pump.
The liquid enters a pumping chamber via an
inlet valve and is pushed out via a outlet
valve by the action of the piston or
diaphragm.
Reciprocating pumps are generally very
efficient and are suitable for very high
heads at low flows.
The reciprocating pump is not tolerant to
solid particles.
Reciprocating pumps designed for
delivering high pressures must include
methods for releasing excessive fluid
pressures at high heads.
Reciprocating video

TYPES OF PD PUMPS
Diaphragm
Flexible diaphragm instead of piston
Relatively inexpensive
High degree of accuracy for chemical injection
3 types:
Mechanically actuated
Electronically actuated
Hydraulically actuated
DIAPHRAGM PD PUMPS
Mechanically actuated
Diaphragm attached to
metal rod
Metal rod attached to
off-center cam
Rotating cam pushes
against metal rod which
pushes against
diaphragm
35
DIAPHRAGM PD PUMPS
Electronically actuated
Operates same way as mechanical PD pump
2 advantages over mechanical PD pump
Cheaper than mechanical PD pump
More flexible control in amount of chemical it can
deliver
Axial Piston Pumps
Has a number of pistons
in a circular array within a
cylinder block. It can be
used as a stand-alone
pump, a hydraulic
motor or an automotive
air
conditioning compressor.


Axial Piston Pump
video
Positive Displacement Pumps Are Not Created Equal
40
PD Pump Features Viscosity Range Flow Rates
Sliding
Vane
Exceptional for thin liquids
Excellent on thick liquids at slow speeds
Exceptional efficiency at low flow rates
Excellent suction lift and line stripping capabilities
Self-adjusting vanes provide substantial energy savings
High mechanical efficiency = energy savings
Differential pressure to 200 psi
Speed to 3,600 RPM
Low energy consumption
Very thin (LPG,
Refrigerants,
Solvents, Fuel
Oils, Gasoline,
Liquid Carbon
Dioxide,
Ammonia,
etc.) to high
viscosities up to
50,000 cSt
1 to > 2,000 GPM
Internal
Gear
Differential pressure to 200 psi (higher pressures are attainable)
Speed to 3,600 RPM
Metal-to-metal gear wears and slips over time, resulting in
efficiency degradation and higher energy consumption
High viscosities up to
1,000,000 cSt
0.5 - 1,500
GPM
PD Pump Features Viscosity Range Flow Rates
External Gear
Do not perform well under critical suction
conditions, especially with volatile liquids
Good for high pressure applications such as
hydraulics
Differential pressure to 3,000 psi+
Speed to 3,600 RPM
Metal-to-metal gear design subject to efficiency
degradation
Must be rebuilt or replaced
No clearance adjustments for wear which results in
slip, efficiency degradation and higher energy
consumption
High viscosities up
to 1,000,000 cSt
Drops per minute
to 1,500 GPM
Lobe
Used frequently for food-type products due to
sanitary nature and ease of cleaning
Vertical drain port reduces efficiency by 15-20%
Sanitary models: Differential pressure to 200 psi
Non-sanitary models: Differential pressure to 400
psi
Low viscosity with
diminished
performance up to
1,000,000 cSt
5 - 3,000 GPM
Air Diaphragm
(AODD)
No bearings or rotating shaft
Can handle a wide range of shear-sensitive,
abrasive and non-abrasive liquids as well as solids
High pressure operation can cause excessive wear
around valve seats as the check valve closes
Variable speed flow operation
Requires air compression system. Electricity is
used to run compressors.
Energy accounts for 70% of compressed air life
cycle cost - air is not free. High energy costs.
Medium viscosity to
26,000 cSt
1 - 500 GPM
Not All PD Pumps Are Created Equal
Comparison of Sliding Vane Pumps Vs. Internal Gear Pumps
Sliding Vane Pumps Internal Gear Pumps




Superior mechanical performance
Provides greater energy savings
24% more efficient than gear pumps
Sliding vanes automatically adjust to maintain
near perfect clearances throughout operating life
Energy-wasting turbulence and slippage are
minimized and high volumetric efficiency and low
energy consumption are maintained




Less mechanically efficient
Consume more energy than sliding
vane pumps
The metallic gears wear over time resulting
in wider clearances. This increases energy-
robbing slippage and significantly decreases
volumetric efficiency
In order to compensate for performance
degradation, pump speed is increased which
requires greater energy consumption
42
Comparing Centrifugal
Pumps and Positive
Displacement Pumps
Centrifugal Pumps
larger flow rates
not self priming
discharge dependent of downstream pressure
drop
down stream discharge can be closed without
damage
uniform pressure without pulsation
direct motor drive
less maintenance
wide variety of fluids
Centrifugal Pumps
Advantages
simple and cheap
uniform pressure, without
shock or pulsation
direct coupling to motor
can handle liquid with large
amounts of solids
no close metal-to-metal fits
no valves involved in pump
operation
maintenance costs are lower

Disadvantages
cannot be operated at
high discharge
pressures
must be primed
maximum efficiency
holds for a narrow
range of operating
conditions
cannot handle viscous
fluids efficiently

Positive Displacement
smaller flow rates
higher pressures
self priming
discharge flow rate independent of
pressure utilized for metering of fluids
down stream discharge cannot be closed
without damage bypass with relief valve
required
pulsating flow
gear box required (lower speeds)
higher maintenance
Basic Comparison Centrifugal Pumps Vs. Positive Displacement Pumps
Centrifugal Positive Displacement
Mechanics
Imparts velocity to the liquid resulting in a
pressure at the outlet (pressure is created
and flow results)
Captures confined amounts of liquid and
transfers it from the suction to the discharge
port (flow is created and pressure results)
Performance Flow varies with changing pressure Flow is constant with changing pressure
Viscosity
Efficiency decreases with increasing viscosity
due to frictional losses inside the pump
(typically not used on viscosities above 850
cSt)
Efficiency increases with increasing viscosity
Efficiency
Efficiency peaks at best-efficiency-point. At
higher or lower pressures, efficiency
decreases.
Efficiency increases with increasing pressure
Inlet Conditions
Liquid must be in the pump to create a
pressure differential. A dry pump will not prime
on its own
Negative pressure is created at the inlet port. A
dry pump will prime on its own
Comparing Centrifugal Pumps to
Positive Displacement Pumps
If the system calls for: The best pump to use is:
Pressurized network of piping with a constant pressure requiring constant flow
rate
Centrifugal
Constant flow at various pressures Positive Displacement
Constant flow at various viscosities Positive Displacement
Constant flow at high viscosities (Particularly above 850 cSt) Positive Displacement
Line stripping Positive Displacement
Dry running short duration Positive Displacement
Priming Positive Displacement
Shear sensitive Positive Displacement
Entrained gases Positive Displacement
High flow/low head Centrifugal
Low flow/high head Positive Displacement
Centrifugal pumps Reciprocating Pumps
1.The discharge is continuous and
smooth
1.The discharging is fluctuating and
pulsating
2.It can handle large quantity of
liquid
2.handles small quantity of liquid
3.It is used for large discharge
through small heads
It is meant for small discharge at high
heads
4.Cost of centrifugal pump is less as
compared to reciprocating pump.
4.Cost of reciprocating pump is
approximately four times the
centrifugalpump.
5.Runs at high speeds. 5.Runs at low speed.
6.Efficiency is high 6.Efficiency is low
7.Needs smaller area and cost of
installation is less.
7.Needs large floor area and
installation is cost is high
8.Low maintenance cost 8.High maintenance cost
9.It can be used for lifting highly
viscous liquids
9.Used only for lifting pure water or
less viscous fluids.
Comparison between Centrifugal pumps and Reciprocating Pumps
(Piston & Diaphragm)