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Genetics

Similarity and variation

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The Laws of Heredity
Mendel’s 1st Law - The Law of Segregation
The first law, the law of segregation, states that
the two alleles for a trait segregate (separate)
when gametes are formed.
The first law of heredity describes the behavior of
chromosomes during meiosis At this time,
homologous chromosomes and then chromatids are
separated.
resulting in a 3:1 ratio between dominant and
recessive phenotypes
Observations:
1. The F1 derived from the crosses between two
different varieties showed only one of the traits and
never the other.
2. The trait that was hidden in F1, reappeared in F2.
3. Reciprocal crosses gave the same result. 4
Mendel’s 2nd Law – Law of
Independent Assortment
The law of independent assortment states that the
alleles of different genes separate independently
of one another during gamete formation.
The inheritance of one trait did not influence the
inheritance of any other trait.
his experiments with mixing two traits (dihybrid
cross) showed 9:3:3:1 ratios. But the 9:3:3:1 ratio
shows that each of the two genes are
independently inherited with a 3:1 ratio. Mendel
concluded that different traits are inherited
independently of each other, so that there is no
relation, for example, between a flower colour
and seed shape. This is actually only true for
genes that are not linked to each other. 5
Variations on Mendel’s Laws
1. Incomplete Dominance
2. Codominance
3. Multiple Alleles
4. Pleiotropy
5. Epistasis
6. Polygenic Inheritance
7. Environmental Effects

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Incomplete Dominance
In some organisms, however, an individual displays a
trait that is intermediate between the two parents, a
condition known as incomplete dominance
(intermediate expression).
If there are only two alleles involved in determining the
phenotype of a certain trait, but there are three possible
phenotypes, then the inheritance of the trait illustrates either
incomplete dominance or codominance.
In these situations a heterozygous (hybrid) genotype produces
a 3rd phenotype that is either a blend of the other two
phenotypes (incomplete dominance) or a mixing of the other
phenotypes with both appearing at the same time
(codominance)(both are expressed).

Ex- when a snapdragon with red flowers is crossed


with a snapdragon with white flowers, a snapdragon
with pink flowers is produced

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P Generation
Red White
CRCR CW CW

Gametes
CR CW

Pink
F1 Generation CRCW

Gametes
/2 /2 C
1 W
1
CR

Sperm
1
/2 CR / 2 CW
1

F2 Generation
/ 2 CR
1

CR
Eggs

1
/2 CW CRCR CR CW
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For some traits, two dominant alleles
are expressed at the same time.
In this case, both forms of the trait are displayed,
a phenomenon called codominance.

Codominance is different from incomplete


dominance because both traits are displayed.

Characters with two forms displayed at the same time:


For some traits, two dominant alleles are expressed at the same time.
In this case, both forms of the trait are displayed, a phenomenon called
codominance.
Codominance is different from incomplete dominance because both
traits are displayed.
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Genes with three or more alleles are
said to have multiple alleles.
Now, if there are 4 or more possible phenotypes for a particular
trait, then more than 2 alleles for that trait must exist in the
population.  We call this "MULTIPLE ALLELES".

Even for traits controlled by genes with


multiple alleles, an individual can have only
two of the possible alleles for that gene.
Multiple alleles originate because of changes
in nucletides in the DNA sequence.

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Allele Carbohydrate
IA A
Multipl IB B
e i none
allele
(a) The three alleles for the ABO blood groups
and their associated carbohydrates
s
Red blood cell Phenotype
Genotype appearance (blood group)

IAIA or IA i A

IBIB or IB i
B

IA IB AB

ii O
(b) Blood group genotypes and phenotypes
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