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Session 1

“Market Research
Core Skills for Data Processing
ORSC 2004 - Internal Training

1 Core Skill Training Session Six: “Data Analysis”

At the end of the training program, participants

should be able to
 Understand Scope of Market Research
 Understand Research Process
 Understand functions of various departments
 In-depth understanding of Research Methodologies
 Role of data processing department

Case Study

 A company wants to launch a new laser printer into the market

 They have no idea who their customers are

 Whom should they target ?

 Where should they sell their goods?

 What should the price be?

 What should the brand name be?

 What is the type of advertising that they should do?


Market Research is the answer
What is Market Research?

To put it in simple terms Market Research is

‘A formal, planned approach to the

 collection, analysis,

 Interpretation and reporting

 of information required for marketing decision-making

What is Market Research?
Market research is the process of collecting and analyzing
information about the customers you want to reach, called
your target market.

This information provides you with the business intelligence

you need to make informed decisions.

Market research can help you create a business plan, launch

a new product or service, fine tune your existing products and
services, expand into new markets, develop an advertising
campaign, set prices or select a business location

When is MR done?

 Before starting a new business;

 When introducing a new product/service;

 To keep existing market share (markets are always changing).

 To identify new customers

 To measure customer/employee satisfaction

How is Market Research done?

2 ways of collection information

Primary Research Secondary Research

Primary Research

 Here data is collected specifically for the study at hand

 It can be obtained either by the person observing the subject

or phenomenon being studied

 Communicating directly or indirectly with the subject.

 Direct communication methods include Qualitative

Research techniques as in-depth interview, focus groups
and projective techniques, and Quantitative Research
techniques such as Face to Face, telephone, self-
administered interview surveys

Secondary Research

 Secondary research is based on existing data from

reference books, magazines and newspapers, industry
publications, chambers of commerce, government
agencies or trade associations. It yields information about
industry sales trends and growth rates, demographic
profiles and regional business statistics.

Using Market Research

Market research allows you to pinpoint a host of key business

factors about your market. It can help you identify:

 Growth trends in your business sector

 Size of your target market
 Best location for your business
 How your business stacks up against the competition
 Factors that influence buying decisions
 Degree of demand for your product or service

Using Market Research

It also can reveal key information about your customers and

prospects, including:

 Their demographic profile

 The types of features or special services they want
 What they like and dislike about your product or service
 How they use your product or service
 How often they buy and how much they will pay for your
product or service

Understanding the Research Process
People Involved

Who all are involved ?

Client Research Data

Processing ( DP)

An outline of the Research Process

Define the problem and Research Objectives Client &


Developing the Research plan Research

Collecting the Information Field

Analysing the Information DP

Presenting the findings Research

Research Process - Roles
 Client: The person (could also be a group of people) who action/s the research

 Researcher: People who act as an interface between the Client, Research

Office and Field office. This is explained below in the diagram.

 Field: The people who actually carry out the survey/interviews.

 Data Processing: The people who enter the data from the questionnaire into
the computer

Client Research Field

Data Processing
Role of a Researcher
 Identifies revenue generating clients for the agency

 Acts as interface between the client and the agency; and field office and

 Prepares Proposal for the research project being undertaken

 Determines the cost of the project

 Designs questionnaire for the research project

 Prepares all documents needed for field and DP

 Does analysis of data and prepares reports and presentations

 Makes presentation to client on Research findings

 Updates the client on the status of the Research project

Role of Field office/Interviewers
 Understanding the questionnaire that is sent by the research office

 Getting the questionnaire translated and sending it back to research office

for checking.

 Identifying a team of people who actually carry out the survey

 Train the interviewers

 Identifying group of people amongst whom the interview is going to be

carried out

 Guarantee the authenticity of the interviews done

 Sending a weekly status report to the research office on the status of the

 Finally to make sure that the survey is completed on time

Role of Data Processing/Analysis team
 Understanding questionnaire, analysis plan, other documents and research

 Prepare Data Structure to electronically capture questionnaire data

 Check the authenticity of the data collected by field department

 Control coding process for open-ended questions

 Validate/ clean the data

 Produce summary reports/ cross tabulation of data as per analysis plan

 Check the correctness of data and reports

 Perform Advanced Statistical Analysis

 Controls – Data Entry and Coding Teams

Support function to the Research

Role of Analysis in ORSC
 Understanding questionnaire, analysis plan, other documents and
research objective

 Validate/ clean the data

 Produce summary reports/ cross tabulation of data as per analysis plan

 Check the correctness of data and reports

 Perform Advanced Statistical Analysis

 Client interaction

Revenue Generating function to the Company

More on Research Methodologies

Research Tools

Research Tools can broadly be divided into 2 parts

Quantitative Research Qualitative Research

One to Depth Interviews
One Interviews Group Discussions
Observation Exercise

Research Approach

 Qualitative
 Exploratory

 In quest for finer nuances

 Quantitative
 Quantifies or Provides numbers

Choice of a particular research approach is a

function of Objectives of the study , Target group(
Household / Industrial ) , product being studied
(Financial products, Personal care etc.)

Quantitative Research

 Research that measures (quantifies) responses to a structured


 Conducted through Structured interviews

 Data is collected through interviews

Steps involved in Quantitative Research
 Define goals and objectives

 Define the Data collection method

 Determine feasibility

 Develop the Questionnaire

 Select Sample (Do we need to discuss the types of samples also?)

 Conduct Pilot Test

 If need be revise the questionnaire

 Conduct Research

 Analyse Data

 Prepare Report/ Presentation

Data collection methods

All of these mostly

for quantitative
 Face to Face Interviews (F2F/ Pen and Paper) data collection

 Web Based Interviews (CAWI)

 Telephonic Interviews (CATI)

 Using Personal Computers (CAPI)

 Self-Completion (Postal)

The Sampling Process
 The first step in the sampling process is defining the population.

 The population or universe is the entire set of elements being studied

 A sample by definition is a subset of a larger population

 For example in a grocery store the desired population would probably

consist of people who live in areas where the chain has stores and who
shop for groceries .

 Quantitative Research is based on sampling which involves getting

information only from some members of the population

Types of Sampling Methods

2 types of Sampling Methods

Probability Samples Non probability samples

Probability samples
 Over here every member of the population has a chance of being included
in the sample

 Probability methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, and

stratified sampling

Random sampling - is the purest form of probability sampling. Each

member of the population has an equal and known chance of being

Stratified Sampling – The population is separated into sub groups,

called strata and separate simple random samples are drawn from each
sub group. For example in drawing a sample of students from a university,
graduate and undergraduate students might be separated and each group
sampled separately.

Cluster Sampling – The population is separated into subgroups called

as ‘clusters‘ and a sample of clusters is drawn, can also sub sample within
selected clusters. For example in drawing a sample of students from a
university we could randomly select classes and then students within
Non – Probability Samples
 Are samples in which the selection of units is based on factors other
than random chance, e.g. convenience, prior experience or the
judgment of the researcher.

 Types of Non – Probability samples are convenience, judgmental, quota

and snowball samples

Convenience sampling as the name implies, the sample is selected because

they are convenient. This non probability method is often used during preliminary
research efforts to get a gross estimate of the results, without incurring the cost
or time required to select a random sample.

Judgement Sample is a type of non-probability sample where the selection of

units is based on the judgement of the researcher When using this method, the
researcher must be confident that the chosen sample is truly representative of
the entire population

Quota Sampling – As the name suggests interviewers are given quotas for the
number of interviews to be gathered in various sample groups . For example 20
men in the age group of 18 to 34 ; or married men in the age group of 35 to 64
and so on ….

The Questionnaire

An important data
collection tool used in
Quantitative Research

 To put it in simple terms is a structured technique for collecting data consisting of a

series of questions. Questionnaires can be self-completion or administered by an
interviewer, they can be completed orally or in writing.

 Questionnaire preparation is a detailed and lengthy task.

 A badly created questionnaire will not achieve the desired objectives of the research

 The questionnaire is prepared by the researcher.

 It is administered by the person who is conducting the interview - Interviewer

General Structure of Questionnaire

The questionnaire is normally divided into 2 parts

Screening Questionnaire Main Questionnaire

Screening/Listing Questionnaire
 All respondents don’t qualify automatically for the interview they have to
be asked some questions which qualify them for the interview.

 In research "screening" questions are used to make sure that only those
people they are interested in participate in the survey.

 Screening can be explained as the process of asking specific questions

to determine whether respondents are eligible to participate in a particular
research study. This is done at the very beginning of an interview.

 Screening Questions are the questions at the beginning of an interview

or questionnaire to ensure that a potential respondent is eligible for the

 It is only after this process that the respondents proceed to the Main

Main Questionnaire

 The main questionnaire is the actual questionnaire itself.

 It should answer all the objectives of the research

 It should be easy and simple to understand

 The questionnaire should be short and simple

Types of Questions asked
Market research data usually contains case data collected using
categorical questions. These are questions that have a predefined list of
responses or categories. For example:

Sex: Male 1
Female 2

WRITE IN 16-24 1
EXACT AGE 25-34 2
35-44 3 Single Response
................... 45-54 4
55-64 5
65+ 6
Numeric Question

Type of questions

Which of the following movies do you like ?

Main Hoon Na : 1

Deewar : 2

Dev : 3

Lakhsya : 4

Saathiya : 5

Multiple Response Question

Types of questions
 Scale questions

Extent of agreement with the following statements

I care a lot about if my clothes are in style

I sometimes do things to impress others

I am the leader of my group

Strongly disagree : 1 5 point Scale

Most positive
Somewhat disagree : 2 Most Negative
Neither agree nor disagree : 3

Somewhat agree : 4

Strongly agree : 5

Types of questions

 Frequency questions

On an average how often do you visit the cinema theatre in a month ?

Once every week : 1

twice or thrice a month : 2

once a month : 3

less often : 4

Never : 5

Administering a Questionnaire

 After the questionnaire is made the next step is to test the questionnaire
amongst the target audience

 The purpose of the pilot test is to identify the following

The time taken to complete the questionnaire is too long?

Is it answering all the needs of the clients

 After the test pilot is completed researchers carry out the necessary
changes in the questionnaire and send it to the field people.

 Once the field people receive the questionnaire they translate the same
and send it back to the research office in order to ensure that there are
no discrepancies between the original and translated questionnaire.

Why are questionnaires translated ?
 Not all interviews are carried out in the language in which the
questionnaires are made in; very often some of them are translated
into the local language of the respondents.

 This is done to facilitate the respondent.

 The open ended responses are once again translated back into the
language the researcher/clients desires .

 However, it should be noted that at this step the essence of the

verbatim response has not been lost ; for example – if a respondent
says that I like the appearance of this biscuit ; it should not be confused
with design. Design and appearance will classify as two different

Field Work
 When researchers talk about Field work it means the place where the
interviewers go and conduct the interviews

 The interviews are conducted at peoples homes, public places, or even

a call centre.

 There are two main forms of field work – face-to-face interviews , and
telephone interviews .

 The interviewers very often are not permanent staff of the agency and
are recruited as and when projects come

Show Cards
Show cards - are a type of cards that are shown to participants in
research studies in order to enable them to answer certain questions

For example if a question reads as “With the help of a Show card could
you please tell me which movie is your favourite movie ?”. After reading
the question the interviewer will hand the respondent the the list of
movies and then mark his answer on the questionnaire

Main Hoon Na : 1

Deewar : 2

Dev : 3

Lakhsya : 4

Saathiya : 5

Types of Quantitative Market Research
 Product Tests

 Advertising Tests

 Pricing Research

 Packaging Research

 Brand Health Checks

 Usage & Attitude studies

 Employee Satisfaction Studies

 Syndicated Studies

Product Testing

 Is used by the client in two situations

When they want to launch a new product

When they want to bring about changes in the existing product

 There are different types of product tests that exist in the

market to name a few

 Monadic, sequential monadic, paired-comparison, Central

Location Tests and Round Robin Tests

Different Types of Product Testing
 Monadic Tests is on in which the respondents evaluate only one product
on its own merits and there is no comparison with other product.

 Sequential monadic test are often used to reduce costs. In this design,
each respondent evaluates two products (he or she uses one product and
evaluates it, then uses the second product and evaluates it).

 Paired-comparison Tests - Here the consumer is asked to use two

products and determine which product is better

 Central Location Test - is one in which the research is conducted in a

premises such as a room in a shopping mall. Consumers would be
recruited to participate in a research product on the shopping mall and the
research would be conducted and completed at that time`

Advertisement Testing
 Ad Testing or more correctly "Advertisement Testing", refers to various
methodologies focusing exclusively on measuring the effectiveness, perception,
or targeting of a series of, or a single advertisement in a given market.

 Ad Testing can test ads in any advertising media including print, TV/Cable, radio,
billboard or others. It can be used at any stage of the advertisement
development process including conceptualization, story board, or final stages.

 Advertisement Testing is most frequently used however to decide on the most

effective advertisement from a series of alternatives at design stage.

 Some Advertisement Testing techniques include asking respondents to browse a

magazine and then being asked to remember what advertisements they saw and
what was most memorable about them

 During television ad testing the respondents are often bought to a central point
and then they are shown the ad and interviewed .

 Attributes most often tested include memorability, liking (or "affect"),

persuasiveness, consumer identification with settings or situations,
understanding of the appeal, and brand integrity

Pricing Research

 Pricing Research is research that aims to find out how demand for a
product or service will vary with changes in price.

 Pricing research aims to answer the following

How much will a respondent pay for an added value service/product

over and above the present price?


How much of a cutback in service / product requirement would

necessitate a price reduction?

Other types of Quantitative Research
 Package Test is a test that measures consumer reactions to a package
or label.

 Usage & Attitude Surveys (U&A) are research projects that aim to
describe users (and non-users) of a product, together with their attitudes
towards the product

 Employee / Customer Satisfaction Surveys are done to measure

Quality , Satisfaction and loyalty of a customer towards a particular

 Brand Health Checks are research projects that are undertaken to

determine how the customers brand is performing in a given market

Advantages of Quantitative Research
 The results are statistically reliable. That is, quantitative research can
reliably determine if one idea, concept, product, package, etc., is better
than the alternatives.

 The results are able to be projected to the population. That is, the
proportion of respondents answering a certain way are similar to the
proportion of the total population that would have answered that way if
they all had been asked.

 Quantitative methods are well-suited to addressing the who, what, when

and where of consumer behavior

 Quantitative methods have the advantage of allowing researchers to

measure and control the project

Disadvantages of Quantitative Research
 Quantitative research is not appropriate nor cost effective for learning
why people act or think as they do.

 The questions must be direct and easily quantified, and the sample must
be quite large (200 is an absolute minimum) so as to permit reliable
statistical analysis.

 The primary disadvantage of quantitative research is that issues are only

measured if they are known prior to the beginning of the survey (and,
therefore, have been incorporated into the questionnaire).

 Quantitative research requires the advance formulation of specific


An Insight into Qualitative Research
Qualitative Research

 Qualitative Research involves the use of unstructured techniques

- Such as group discussions ( focused groups ) and in-depth

interviews that are based on statistically small samples in order to
understand a problem further.

Types of Qualitative Research

2 types of Qualitative Research

Focus Groups In depth Interviews

Focus Group?
 A focus group is a small group discussion without a fixed questionnaire. It is
not structured so that we can get spontaneous thoughts and ideas from the

 A focus group consists of six to fifteen people.

 People are normally given an incentive to come to a focus group

 Usually focus groups run for an hour, the time determined by the concentration
limits of participants

 The respondents are recruited by the field people

 Focus groups are conducted by the researcher often referred to as the


 The moderators role is to ask the required questions, draw out answers, and
encourage discussion, and an observation area usually behind one way
mirrors, and video and/or audio taping facilities

 Sometimes focus groups can be used as a good basis to make questionnaires.

When do we use focus groups?
 When a company wants to launch a new product ; if the researcher
presents the product to the group the respondents can be divided into 3

 1) they love the product 2) They hate the product 3) or in between

 Focus groups are good for learning how people use a product and what
it means to them

 They are also good for finding out problems or complaints that people
have had with the product

 They can be used to find out why people are attached to a particular

In depth interviews
 An individual in-depth interview is an unstructured conversation on a
given topic between a respondent and interviewer

 The general purpose of an in-depth interview is the same as that of

Focus Group.; that is to obtain attitudes and feelings about a product or
service that would not come out in a structured interview.

 They can also be used to when the researcher wants all participants to
express opinions on the same topic

 And when the researcher wants the participants to respond to physical

stimuli such as projective measures.