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Principles of

Teaching2

Nature and Principles of
Teaching and Learning in the Subject Areas
CECILIA R. AVELLANA, D.A.
PRINCIPLE OF TEACHING: THE LEARNER
The Nature of the Learner- The learner is an embodied spirit.
He is the union of sentient body and a rational soul. His body
experiences sensations and feels pleasure and pain. His soul is
the principle of spiritual acts, the source of intellectual
abstraction, self-reflection, and free rational volition. Body
and soul exist in mutual dependence. (Kelly, 1965)

The Fundamental Equipment of the Learner.
The learner has the power to see, hear, touch,smell, taste,
perceive, imagine, retain, recall, recognize past mental acts,
conceive ideas,make judgment, reason out, feel and choose.
Five Elements of the Learner
1. Ability The students native ability dictates the prospects of success in
purposeful activity. It determine their capacity to understand and
assimilate information for their own use and application.
2. Aptitude. Aptitude refers to the students innate talent or gift. It
indicates a natural capacity to learn certain skills.
3. Interest Learners vary in activities that are undertaken due to a strong
appeal or attraction.
4. Family & Cultural Background Students who come from different
socioeconomic background manifest a wide range behaviour due
5. Attitudes Students have unique way of thinking and reacting.
Confronted with the same situation in the learning environment each
one would react differently depending on their personal characteristics.

The Nature of the learner-comparison of
the Views on Intelligence
Old View
Intelligence was fixed
Intelligence was measured by a
number
Intelligence was used to sort
students and predict success
New View
Intelligence can be developed
Intelligence is not numerically
quantifiable and is exhibited
during a performance or
problem solving process
Intelligence can be exhibited in
many ways.
Intelligence is measured in
context/real life situations

Intelligence is used to understand human
capacities and the many and varied ways
students can achieve.
MULITIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS DISPOSITIONS
Howard Gardner of Harvard has identified seven distinct
intelligences. This theory has emerged from recent cognitive
research and "documents the extent to which students possess
different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember,
perform, and understand in different ways," according to
Gardner (1991).
According to this theory, "we are all able to know the world
through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial
representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to
solve problems or to make things, an understanding of
other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves.
Where individuals differ is in the strength of these
intelligences - the so-called profile of intelligences -and in
the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and
combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse
problems, and progress in various domains."
Visual-Spatial - think in terms of physical space, as do architects and sailors. Very aware
of their environments. They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, daydream. They
can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical imagery. Tools include models,
graphics, charts, photographs, drawings, 3-D modeling, video, videoconferencing,
television, multimedia, texts with pictures/charts/graphs.

Bodily-kinesthetic - use the body effectively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of
body awareness. They like movement, making things, touching. They communicate well
through body language and be taught through physical activity, hands-on learning, acting
out, role playing. Tools include equipment and real objects.

Musical - show sensitivity to rhythm and sound. They love music, but they are also
sensitive to sounds in their environments. They may study better with music in the
background. They can be taught by turning lessons into lyrics, speaking rhythmically,
tapping out time. Tools include musical instruments, music, radio, stereo, CD-ROM,
multimedia.
Interpersonal - understanding, interacting with others. These students learn through
interaction. They have many friends, empathy for others, street smarts. They can be taught
through group activities, seminars, dialogues. Tools include the telephone, audio
conferencing, time and attention from the instructor, video conferencing, writing, computer
conferencing, E-mail.

Intrapersonal - understanding one's own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy away
from others. They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and
motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence and opinions. They can be taught through
independent study and introspection. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy
and time. They are the most independent of the learners.

Linguistic - using words effectively. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and
often think in words. They like reading, playing word games, making up poetry or stories.
They can be taught by encouraging them to say and see words, read books together. Tools
include computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lecture.
Logical -Mathematical - reasoning, calculating. Think conceptually,
abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships.
They like to experiment, solve puzzles, ask cosmic questions. They can
be taught through logic games, investigations, mysteries. They need to
learn and form concepts before they can deal with details.
Naturalist intelligence
This area has to do with nurturing and relating information to ones
natural surroundings.
[7]
Examples include classifying natural forms such
as animal and plant species and rocks and mountain types. This ability
was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherers, and
farmers; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef.
[6]
This
sort of ecological receptiveness is deeply rooted in a "sensitive, ethical, and holistic
understanding" of the world and its complexitiesincluding the role of humanity
within the greater ecosphere.
[13]

Existential
Further information: Spirituality
Some proponents of multiple intelligence theory proposed spiritual or religious
intelligence as a possible additional type. Gardner did not want to commit to a
spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an "existential" intelligence may be a
useful construct
EAt first, it may seem impossible to teach to all learning styles. However, as we
move into using a mix of media or multimedia, it becomes easier. As we
understand learning styles, it becomes apparent why multimedia appeals to
learners and why a mix of media is more effective. It satisfies the many types
of learning preferences that one person may embody or that a class embodies.
A review of the literature shows that a variety of decisions must be made when
choosing media that is appropriate to learning style.TAKE YOUR TEST AT:
http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks3/ict/multi
ple_int/questions
Learning styles-an individuals preferred
mode of gaining knowledge
Individuals differ in how they learn. If a
teacher aims to provide for individuals
needs, they need to consider learning
styles as one important factor in
learning. Proponents of the use of
learning styles in education recommend
that teachers assess the learning styles
of their students and adapt their
classroom methods to best fit each
student's learning style.
Although there is ample evidence for
differences in individual thinking and
ways of processing various types of
information, few studies have reliably
tested the validity of using learning
styles in education.
[

2]
Critics say there is no evidence that
identifying an individual student's
learning style produces better
outcomes. There is evidence of
empirical and pedagogical problems
related to the use of learning tasks to
"correspond to differences in a one-
to-one fashion".
[3]
Well-designed
studies contradict the widespread
"meshing hypothesis", that a student
will learn best if taught in a method
deemed appropriate for the student's
learning style.
[2]

(Wikipedia)
The Nature of Mathematics
Since Math relies on both logic
and creativity, its real essence
lies in its beauty and intellectual
challenge.
Mathematics is the science of
patterns and relationship. It
explores the possible
relationship among abstract
numerical formulas which can be
anything from numbers to
geometric figures to equations.
Mathematical Inquiry
Phase 1-abstraction and symbolic representation
abstractionthat is, noticing a similarity between
two or more objects or events. Aspects that they
have in common, whether concrete or hypothetical,
can be represented by symbols such as numbers,
letters, other marks, diagrams, or even words. Whole
numbers are abstractions that represent the size of
sets of things and events or the order of things
within a set. The circle as a concept is an abstraction
derived from human faces, flowers, wheels, or
spreading ripples; the letter A may be an abstraction
for the surface area of objects of any shape, for the
acceleration of all moving objects, or for all objects
having some specified property; the symbol +
represents a process of addition, whether one is
adding apples or oranges, hours, or miles per hour.
Phase 2-Manipulating Mathematical
Statements

After abstractions have been made and symbolic representations of
them have been selected, those symbols can be combined and
recombined in various ways according to precisely defined rules.
Sometimes that is done with a fixed goal in mind; at other times it is
done in the context of experiment or play to see what happens. Typically,
strings of symbols are combined into statements that express ideas or
propositions. For example, the symbol A for the area of any square may
be used with the symbol s for the length of the square's side to form the
proposition A = s
2
. This equation specifies how the area is related to the
sideand also implies that it depends on nothing else. The rules of
ordinary algebra can then be used to discover that if the length of the
sides of a square is doubled, the square's area becomes four times as
great. More generally, this knowledge makes it possible to find out what
happens to the area of a square no matter how the length of its sides is
changed, and conversely, how any change in the area affects the sides
Phase 3- Application
Mathematical processes can lead to a kind of model of a thing, from which
insights can be gained about the thing itself.
Example: 3 cups of water + 2 cups of water = 5 cups of water right? Or
wrong?

But: 2 cups of sugar + 3 cups of hot tea= 5 cups of sugar and hot tea?

The simple addition of volumes is appropriate to the first situation but not to
the secondsomething that could have been predicted only by knowing
something of the physical differences in the two situations. To be able to use
and interpret mathematics well, therefore, it is necessary to be concerned with
more than the mathematical validity of abstract operations and to also take into
account how well they correspond to the properties of the things represented.
Sometimes common sense is enough to enable one to decide whether the results of the
mathematics are appropriate. For example, to estimate the height 20 years from now of
a girl who is 5' 5" tall and growing at the rate of an inch per year, common sense
suggests rejecting the simple "rate times time" answer of 7' 1" as highly unlikely, and
turning instead to some other mathematical model, such as curves that approach
limiting values. Sometimes, however, it may be difficult to know just how appropriate
mathematical results arefor example, when trying to predict stock-market prices or
earthquakes.

Often a single round of mathematical reasoning does not produce satisfactory
conclusions, and changes are tried in how the representation is made or in the
operations themselves. Indeed, jumps are commonly made back and forth between
steps, and there are no rules that determine how to proceed. The process typically
proceeds in fits and starts, with many wrong turns and dead ends. This process
continues until the results are good enough.
Principles of Teaching Mathematics
1. Teachers should allow children and young people to experience
success in mathematics and develop the confidence to take
risks, ask questions and explore alternative solutions without
fear of being wrong.
2. They should be given opportunity to enjoy exploring and
applying mathematical concepts to understand and solve
problems, explaining their thinking and presenting their
solutions to others in a variety of ways.
3. At all stages, an emphasis on collaborative learning will
encourage children to reason logically and creatively through
discussion of mathematical ideas and concepts.
4. Through their use of effective questioning and discussion,
teachers will use misconceptions and wrong answers as
opportunities to improve and deepen childrens
understanding of mathematical concepts.
5. Teachers should utilize experiences and outcomes that
encourage learning and use teaching approaches that
challenge and stimulate children and young people and
promote their enjoyment of mathematics.
To achieve this, teachers will use a skilful mix of approaches,
including:
planned active learning which provides opportunities to
observe, explore, investigate, experiment, play, discuss and
reflect

modelling and scaffolding the development of mathematical thinking skills
learning collaboratively and independently
opportunities for discussion, communication and explanation of thinking
developing mental agility
using relevant contexts and experiences, familiar to young people
making links across the curriculum to show how mathematical concepts are
applied in a wide range of contexts, such as those provided by science and
social studies
using technology in appropriate and effective ways
building on the principles of Assessment for Learning, ensuring that young
people understand the purpose and relevance of what they are learning
developing problem-solving capabilities and critical thinking skills.
Sometimes common sense is enough to enable one to decide whether the
results of the mathematics are appropriate. For example, to estimate the
height 20 years from now of a girl who is 5' 5" tall and growing at the rate of
an inch per year, common sense suggests rejecting the simple "rate times
time" answer of 7' 1" as highly unlikely, and turning instead to some other
mathematical model, such as curves that approach limiting values.
Sometimes, however, it may be difficult to know just how appropriate
mathematical results arefor example, when trying to predict stock-market
prices or earthquakes.

Often a single round of mathematical reasoning does not produce
satisfactory conclusions, and changes are tried in how the representation is
made or in the operations themselves. Indeed, jumps are commonly made
back and forth between steps, and there are no rules that determine how to
proceed. The process typically proceeds in fits and starts, with many wrong
turns and dead ends. This process continues until the results are good
enough.
Answer the following questions:
1-3. what are the phases or stages in Mathematical
inquiry?
4. What should a teacher do with students misconception
and erroneous ideas?
a. probe them further with questions until they arrive at the
correct answer
b. tell them the right concept right away
c. reprimand them for their ideas
d. tell them their answer is wrong
5. A teacher makes a review on fractions before he moves
on to decimal numbers. what specific approach is she
using?
A. modelling b. scaffolding c. using technology d.
discussing and reflecting.
Nature and Principles of Teaching and
Learning Natural Science
Over the course of human history, people have developed many
interconnected and validated ideas about the physical, biological,
psychological, and social worlds. Those ideas have enabled
successive generations to achieve an increasingly comprehensive
and reliable understanding of the human species and its
environment. The means used to develop these ideas are particular
ways of observing, thinking, experimenting, and validating. These
ways represent a fundamental aspect of the nature of science and
reflect how science tends to differ from other modes of knowing.

It is the union of science, mathematics, and technology that
forms the scientific endeavour and that makes it so successful.
Although each of these human enterprises has a character and
history of its own, each is dependent on and reinforces the
others. Accordingly, the first three chapters of recommendations
draw portraits of science, mathematics, and technology that
emphasize their roles in the scientific endeavour and reveal
some of the similarities and connections among them.
THE SCIENTIFIC WORLD VIEW

Scientists share certain basic beliefs and attitudes about what they do and how
they view their work. These have to do with the nature of the world and what can
be learned about it.

The World Is Understandable

Science presumes that the things and events in the universe occur in consistent
patterns that are comprehensible through careful, systematic study. Scientists
believe that through the use of the intellect, and with the aid of instruments that
extend the senses, people can discover patterns in all of nature.

Science also assumes that the universe is, as its name implies, a vast single system
in which the basic rules are everywhere the same. Knowledge gained from
studying one part of the universe is applicable to other parts
Scientists Try to Identify and Avoid Bias

When faced with a claim that something is true, scientists respond by asking what evidence
supports it. But scientific evidence can be biased in how the data are interpreted, in the
recording or reporting of the data, or even in the choice of what data to consider in the first
place. Scientists' nationality, sex, ethnic origin, age, political convictions, and so on may incline
them to look for or emphasize one or another kind of evidence or interpretation. For example,
for many years the study of primatesby male scientistsfocused on the competitive social
behavior of males. Not until female scientists entered the field was the importance of female
primates' community-building behavior recognized.

Bias attributable to the investigator, the sample, the method, or the instrument may not be
completely avoidable in every instance, but scientists want to know the possible sources of bias
and how bias is likely to influence evidence. Scientists want, and are expected, to be as alert to
possible bias in their own work as in that of other scientists, although such objectivity is not
always achieved. One safeguard against undetected bias in an area of study is to have many
different investigators or groups of investigators working in it.
Scientific Ideas Are Subject To Change

Science is a process for producing knowledge. The process depends both on
making careful observations of phenomena and on inventing theories for
making sense out of those observations. Change in knowledge is inevitable
because new observations may challenge prevailing theories. No matter how
well one theory explains a set of observations, it is possible that another
theory may fit just as well or better, or may fit a still wider range of
observations. In science, the testing and improving and occasional discarding
of theories, whether new or old, go on all the time. Scientists assume that
even if there is no way to secure complete and absolute truth, increasingly
accurate approximations can be made to account for the world and how it
works.

Scientific Knowledge Is Durable

Although scientists reject the notion of attaining absolute truth and
accept some uncertainty as part of nature, most scientific knowledge is
durable. The modification of ideas, rather than their outright rejection,
is the norm in science, as powerful constructs tend to survive and grow
more precise and to become widely accepted. For example, in formulating
the theory of relativity, Albert Einstein did not discard the Newtonian laws of
motion but rather showed them to be only an approximation of limited
application within a more general concept. (The National Aeronautics and Space
Administration uses Newtonian mechanics, for instance, in calculating satellite
trajectories.) Moreover, the growing ability of scientists to make accurate
predictions about natural phenomena provides convincing evidence that we
really are gaining in our understanding of how the world works. Continuity and
stability are as characteristic of science as change is, and confidence is as
prevalent as tentativeness.
Science Cannot Provide Complete Answers to All Questions

There are many matters that cannot usefully be examined in a
scientific way. There are, for instance, beliefs thatby their very
naturecannot be proved or disproved (such as the existence of
supernatural powers and beings, or the true purposes of life). In
other cases, a scientific approach that may be valid is likely to be
rejected as irrelevant by people who hold to certain beliefs (such as
in miracles, fortune-telling, astrology, and superstition). Nor do
scientists have the means to settle issues concerning good and evil,
although they can sometimes contribute to the discussion of such
issues by identifying the likely consequences of particular actions,
which may be helpful in weighing alternatives.
Science Demands Evidence

Sooner or later, the validity of scientific claims is settled by referring to
observations of phenomena. Hence, scientists concentrate on getting
accurate data. Such evidence is obtained by observations and
measurements taken in situations that range from natural settings (such as
a forest) to completely contrived ones (such as the laboratory). To make
their observations, scientists use their own senses, instruments (such as
microscopes) that enhance those senses, and instruments that tap
characteristics quite different from what humans can sense (such as
magnetic fields). Scientists observe passively (earthquakes, bird
migrations), make collections (rocks, shells), and actively probe the world
(as by boring into the earth's crust or administering experimental
medicines).
Science Is a Blend of Logic and Imagination

Although all sorts of imagination and thought may be used in coming
up with hypotheses and theories, sooner or later scientific arguments
must conform to the principles of logical reasoningthat is, to
testing the validity of arguments by applying certain criteria of
inference, demonstration, and common sense. Scientists may often
disagree about the value of a particular piece of evidence, or about
the appropriateness of particular assumptions that are madeand
therefore disagree about what conclusions are justified. But they
tend to agree about the principles of logical reasoning that connect
evidence and assumptions with conclusions.
Science Explains and Predicts

Scientists strive to make sense of observations of phenomena by constructing explanations for
them that use, or are consistent with, currently accepted scientific principles. Such
explanationstheoriesmay be either sweeping or restricted, but they must be logically
sound and incorporate a significant body of scientifically valid observations. The credibility of
scientific theories often comes from their ability to show relationships among phenomena that
previously seemed unrelated. The theory of moving continents, for example, has grown in
credibility as it has shown relationships among such diverse phenomena as earthquakes,
volcanoes, the match between types of fossils on different continents, the shapes of
continents, and the contours of the ocean floors.

The essence of science is validation by observation. But it is not enough for scientific theories
to fit only the observations that are already known. Theories should also fit additional
observations that were not used in formulating the theories in the first place; that is, theories
should have predictive power.
Science Is Not Authoritarian

It is appropriate in science, as elsewhere, to turn to knowledgeable
sources of information and opinion, usually people who specialize in
relevant disciplines. But esteemed authorities have been wrong many
times in the history of science. In the long run, no scientist, however
famous or highly placed, is empowered to decide for other scientists
what is true, for none are believed by other scientists to have special
access to the truth. There are no pre-established conclusions that
scientists must reach on the basis of their investigations.

In the short run, new ideas that do not mesh well with mainstream
ideas may encounter vigorous criticism, and scientists investigating
such ideas may have difficulty obtaining support for their research.
The Principles of Teaching Natural
Science
1. Start with questions about
nature.
2.Engage students actively
3. Concentrate on the collection
and use of evidence
4. Provide historical perspectives
5.Insist on clear expression
6. Use team approach
7. Do not separate knowing from
finding out.
Principles of
learning Natural
Science
1.What students learn is
influenced by their existing ideas
Progression in learning is usually
from concrete to abstract
People do well only what they
practice doing
Effective learning by students
require feedback
Expectations affect performance.
s
Reflect on the following:
?

1.Recall your feelings and behaviour
when you were young each time the
science period came. Picture yourself
before and after a learning activity.
2. Recall how your science teacher
guided the group in investigating things
in order to achieve the lesson objectives.
Was her methodology effective? Discuss
in detail
3. How will you make your students
interested in the learning activities you
plan in each day
Of all the creatures that God created, only man can learn a language. This is the
trait that differentiates man from animals. In certain cultures, a baby is not
considered human because it has not yet learned the language of its people.

When a person knows a language it means he can speak and be understood by
others who know the same language. He must know what sounds or signs there
are in the language and what sounds are not. This knowledge includes which
sounds may start a word, end a word and follow each other. For example, a
Filipino may know that the consonant cluster ng may start a word in Filipino as
in (ngano, ngunit, ngiti or ngitngit,) but an American may have difficulty
pronouncing these words for the reason that in his language this combination
never occurs in the beginning of the word.

The Nature of Language
Furthermore, knowing a language is knowing that certain sound sequences signify
concepts or meaning, and that there is an arbitrary relation between form and
meaning. For example bahay means house in Tagalog, but the same concept of
a house may have a different form or word equivalent in French or in Chinese.
The words of language can be listed in a dictionary, but not all the sentences can
be, and language consists of these sentences as well as words. This lends very
well to the creative quality of language. From out of a finite or countable number
of words numerous sentences can be formed. Speakers use a finite set of rules
called grammar, to produce and understand an infinite set of possible sentences.
To sum it up, a speaker of a language knows the grammar of that language, the
phonology or the sound system of the language, the structure of words
(morphology) and the ways in which sounds and meanings are related
(semantics). Similarly, these features of language need to be known to a learner of
English as a foreign language if he needs to learn the language well.