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Computer Integrated

NC/CNC Machines
Prepared by : Maunish S Shah
What is a CNC Machine?

CNC : Computerised Numerical Control

Conventionally, an operator decides and adjusts
various machines parameters like feed , depth of cut
etc depending on type of job , and controls the slide
movements by hand. In a CNC Machine functions
and slide movements are controlled by motors using
computer programs.

CNC Machines
Definition of Numerical Control M/C

E.I.A : -(Electronic Ind. Association) defines NC Control as
A system in which actions are controlled by direct
insertion of numerical data or at least some portion of this
data. In simpler language NC means control by number.
The input information's for controlling the machine tool
motions is provided through punched paper tape or
Magnetic tapes in a coded language.

CNC :-Computerised Numerical Control

Computerised Numerical Control is a numerical control
system that utilizes a dedicated stored programmed.
Computer is used to perform some or all basic function.
Numerical control is a programmable automation in
which process is controlled by Numbers, Letters, and
symbols. (Computer +NC= CNC).

DNC :- Direct Numerical Control.

Direct Numerical Control is a manufacturing system in
which number of M/C are controlled by a computer
through direct connection and in real time. One
computer can be used to control 100 separate machines
and it is designed to provide instructions to each M/C
tool on demand.
Benefits of DNC
1. NC. Without punched tapes.
2. Greater computation & Flexibility.
3. Convenient storage of NC Part Programme in computer
4. Data collection function like shop floor Control etc.
5. Increases Productivity.
6. Save time.
CNC Machines- Advantages/Disadvantages
High Repeatability and Precision e.g. Aircraft parts
Volume of production is very high
Complex contours/surfaces need to be machined. E.g.
Flexibility in job change, automatic tool settings, less scrap
More safe, higher productivity, better quality
Less paper work, faster prototype production, reduction in
lead times
Costly setup, skilled operators
Computers, programming knowledge required
Maintenance is difficult
Conditions Suitable for Introducing CNC M/C.

Labour cost of the component--------------- High.
Size of batches ----------------------------------- Small.
Repetation of batches-------------------------- Often.
Complexity of the operation Carried out-- High.
Number of operation per Component------ Many.
Time lag between operation ------------------ Low.
Ratio of cutting time to non cutting time --- Low.
Variety of Components to be produced ---- More.
Design changes------------------------------------ Frequent.
Non uniform cutting conditions -------------- Required.
Cost of special tooling involved--------------- High.
Skill required by the operator ---------------- High.
Set-up time /Inspection time----------------- Low.
Number of dimensions to be maintained-- Many
Precision involved in the components------ High.
Classification of CNC machine tool systems

1. According to control loop feedback systems
1. Open loop type
2. Closed loop type
2. According to type of tool motion control
1. Finite positioning control
1. Point to Point CNC machines
2. Straight cut CNC machines
2. Continuous path control
1. Two axes contouring
2. Two and half axes contouring
3. Three axes contouring
4. Multi axes contouring

Classification of CNC machine tool systems

3. According to Programing methods
1. Absolute programming
2. Incremental Programming
4. According to axis and type of machine operations:
1. CNC horizontal machining centres
2. CNC vertical machining centres
3. CNC tturning centres
4. CNC milling centres

Axis designation (conventions)

Axis designation for each type of machine tool is suggested in the EIA
(Electronic Industries Association) RS 274-B standard. This conforms to
ISO Recommendations R831. The nomenclature of the three main
axes (X, Y AND Z) is based on the Left hand rule. The thumb
indicates the orientation of the X-axis; the index finger indicates the Y-
Axis, and the middle finger points in the direction of the Z-axis
Motion and coordinate system for NC machine

Z-axis: Always aligned with the spindle that imparts cutting power. This
spindle might rotate the work-piece as in a lathe, it might rotate a tool as in a
milling machine. It is perpendicular to work-holding surface if there is no such
spindle. Positive motion in z axis tends to increase the separation between the
work-piece and the tool

X axis: Positioning the moving element, parallel to the work-holding
surface, horizontal (if possible). On machines with rotating work-pieces, it is radial
and parallel to the cross-slide On machines with rotating tools,
1. If the Z-axis is horizontal, the positive x motion is to the right when looking
from the spindle to the work-piece.
2. If the z axis is vertical, the positive x axis is to the right when looking from the
spindle to the column
Y-axis: be in such a direction as to complete a right-handed Cartesian
coordinate system
Vertical Machining Centre
Turning Machine
HMC (Horizontal Machining Center)
What , if you have Multi spindle M/C

Select principle spindle as Primary Z axis and
other slides/quills are termed as secondary tertiary
motion axis.

Axis Rotator Axis

Principal: X,Y,Z
Second: U,V,W
Tertiary: P,Q,R

Fanuc used: - U,V,W to designates Incremental
Movement in X,Y,Z direction. X,Y,Z is used to designates
Absolutes Motion.
Five Axis machines
Table rotates round two simultaneous continuous axes
Designed for five axis precision machining of workpieces having
small dimensions and a complex geometry.
Location of Rotary axes on compound NC Tilt Round Table
The soft ware which controls the program in different languages
is known as controller.
*LAXMI NUMERIC(Indian Controller)
Important terms related to CNC machining
Machine Zero - Machine zero is
a point at the origin of the machines
coordinate measuring system. All the
Axis movements and other dimensions
are measured from this point. It is
similar to the origin of coordinate
measuring system.
Work Zero - This is the origin for
the measuring of dimensions of
workpiece. The programmer is free to
select it anywhere on the drawing.
Important terms related to CNC machining
Fixed zero V/S Floting zero
Fixed zero: -
Origin is always located at some position on M/C table (usually at south
west corner/Lower left-hand) of the tables & all tool location are defined
W.R.T. this zero
Floting Zero: -
Very common with CNC M/C used now a days.
Operator has freedom to set zero point at any convenient position on
M/C table
The Coordinate system is knows as work coordinate system (WCS)
What the Programmer has to do to make Part Programming

1. Study the relevant component drawing thoroughly.
2. Identify the type of material to be machined.
3. Determine the specifications & function of M/C to be used.
4. Decide the dimension and mode: -metric or inch.
5. Decide the coordinate system: -Absolute or Incremental.
6. Identify the plane of cutting.
7. Determine the cutting parameters for the job/tool combination.
8. Decide the feed rate programming: -MM/MIN or M/Rev.
9. Check the tooling required.
10. Establish the sequence of machining operations.
11. Identify whether use of special features like Subroutines, Mirror, Imaging etc. is
required or not.
12. Decide the mode of storing the part program once it is completed.
Part Programme
The coded instructions or commands listed in a logical sequence to have a
machine tool perform a specific tasks or a series of tasks in order to produce a finished
product in the minimum amount of time.

Programming Format
O - Program number (Used for program identification)
N - Sequence number (Used for line identification)
G - Preparatory function
X - X axis designation
Y - Y axis designation
Z - Z axis designation
R - Radius designation
F Feed rate designation
S - Spindle speed designation
H - Tool length offset designation
D - Tool radius offset designation
T - Tool Designation
M - Miscellaneous function

List of G-codes
G-code Function
G00 Positioning rapid traverse
G01 Linear interpolation (feed)
G02 Circular interpolation CW
G03 Circular interpolation CCW
G04 Dwell
G20 or G70 Inch unit
G21 or G71 Metric unit
G28 Automatic zero return or home position of tool
G40 Tool nose radius compensation cancel
G41 Tool nose radius compensation left
G42 Tool nose radius compensation right
G43 Tool length compensation (positive) ON
G44 Tool length compensation (Negative) ON
G49 Tool length compensation OFF

G80 Canned cycle cancel
G81 Drilling cycle
G82 Drilling cycle with dwell
G83 Peck drilling cycle / deep drill
G84 Tapping cycle
G85 Boring / Reaming cycle
G86 Boring cycle
G87 Back boring cycle
G90 Absolute command
G91 Incremental command
G94 Feed per minute
G95 Feed per revolution
G98 Return to initial point in canned cycle
G99 Return to R point in canned cycle
List of M codes
M codes vary from machine to machine depending on the functions
available on it. They are decided by the manufacturer of the machine. The
M codes listed below are the common ones.

M-codes Function
M00 Program stop
M01 Optional program stop
M02 Program end
M03 Spindle ON clock wise (CW)
M04 Spindle ON counter clock wise (CCW)
M05 Spindle stop
M06 Tool change
M07 Mist coolant ON (coolant 1 ON)
M08 Flood coolant ON (coolant 2 ON)
M09 Coolant OFF
M30 End of program, Reset to start
The word address format
Each line of program == 1 block

Each block is composed of several instructions, or (words)
Sequence and format of words:

N3 G2 X+1.4 Y+1.4 Z+1.4 I1.4 J1.4 K1.4 F3.2 S4 T4 M2
sequence no
preparatory function
destination coordinates dist to center of circle
feed rate spindle speed
miscellaneous function
This type of tape format uses alphabets called address, identifying the
function of numerical data followed. This format is used by most of the NC
Programming Format
Tab Sequential Format
Here the alphabets are replaced by a Tab code, which is inserted between two
words. The MCU reads the first Tab and stores the data in the first location
then the second word is recognized by reading the record Tab. A typical Tab
sequential instruction block will be as below :

>20 >00 >1.200 >.100 >325 >1000 >03 >09
Fixed Block Format
In fixed block format no letter address of Tab code are used and none of words
can be omitted. The main advantage of this format is that the whole instruction block
can be read at the same instant, instead of reading character by character. This format
can only be used for positioning work only. A typical fixed block instruction block will
be as below:

20 00 1.200 .100 325 1000 03 09 <EOB>
G00 Rapid traverse
When the tool being positioned at a point preparatory to a cutting motion, to
save time it is moved along a straight line at Rapid traverse, at a fixed traverse
rate which is pre-programmed into the machine's control system. Typical rapid
traverse rates are 10 to 25 m /min., but can be as high as 80 m/min.
N_ G00 X__ Y__Z__
G01 Linear interpolation (feed traverse)
The tool moves along a straight line in one or two axis simultaneously at a programmed
linear speed, the feed rate.
N__ G01 X__ Y__Z__ F__
G02/03 Circular interpolation
N__ G02/03 X__ Y__Z__ I__ J__K__ F__ using the arc center
N__ G02/03 X__ Y__Z__ R__ F__ using the arc radius
G02 moves along a CW arc
G03 moves along a CCW arc

Arc center
The arc center is specified by addresses I, J and K. I, J and K are the X, Y and Z
co-ordinates of the arc center with reference to the arc start point.
I = X coord. of center - X coord. of start point
J = Y coord. of center - Y coord. of start point
K = Z coord. of center - Z coord. of start point
I, J and K must be written with their signs.
Arc radius
The radius is specified with address R.
Block format
N__ G02 X__Y__ Z__ R__ F__
N__ G03 X__Y__ Z__ R__ F__

G04 Dwell
FormatG04X_; or G04U_; or G04P_;
X: Specified time(decimal point is permitted)
F: Specified time(decimal point is permitted)
P: Specified time(decimal point is unpermitted)
ExplanationG04 command dwell. The execution of the next block
is delayed by the specified time, specify dwell for each rotation in
feed per rotation mode. Dwell is use to stop feed for specified
period of time.

G04 X15 ,G04 U15, G04 P15000
Here M/C will Dwell for 15 second. It can be used in Boring, Making
CAM Profile, at these point dwell is required.
Cutter radius compensation
G41 offsets the cutter tool one half of the tool diameter selected with a D code, to the left
of the workpiece, relative to the direction of travel.
G42 offsets the cutter tool one half of the tool diameter selected with a D code, to the
right of the workpiece, relative to the direction of travel.
G40 cancels G41 and G42.
Format: -G41 X_ Y_D_ G42 X_ Y_D_
Tool path without cutter compensation
Tool path with cutter compensation

G41 D03 ; Tells the machine to compensate left half of the Diameter of the amount
that corresponds to D03 in the Tool Library
Cutter radius compensation
G43, G44, G49 - Tool Length Compensation
G43 Tool length compensation (positive) ON
G44 Tool length compensation (Negative) ON
G49 Tool length compensation OFF
Different tools of different lengths are used in machining any part. The lengths of the
tools are not considered in the part program. They are entered in the machines
memory, and are considered automatically for each motion in the program
depending on the tool that is being used. The tool lengths in the Z direction are
called the Tool length offsets.

Codes Function
G43 Make the value of the cutters offset add to the value of Z coordinates of the program
G44 Make the value of the cutters offset subtract the value of Z coordinates of the Program
G49 Cancel the offset of the length of the cutter
Format: - G43 Z_ H_ G44 Z_ H_ G49 Z_

Plane Selection
Circular milling operations (such as G02 and G03) must be aligned on a plane defined by two
axes of motion. This plane is selected by calling one of these functions.
G17 aligns the arc plane with the X and Y axes.
G18 aligns the arc plane with the X and Z axes.
G19 aligns the arc plane with the Y and Z axes.
Setting work co-ordinate system (G54 - G59)
G54 Work co-ordinate system 1 selection
G55 Work co-ordinate system 2 selection
G56 Work co-ordinate system 3 selection
G57 Work co-ordinate system 4 selection
G58 Work co-ordinate system 5 selection
G59 Work co-ordinate system 6 selection

G54 X_ Y_ Z_