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GAS TURBINE

Petronas Gas
Berhad
GPP 5&6
18 December 2005
History of Gas Turbine
1. Gas turbine cycle is also known as Brayton
Cycle Geoge Brayton 1870.
2. The first gas turbine was constructed by Brown
Boveri having a capacity of 4MW been
installed at Neuchatel, Switzerland at
efficiency of 17%.


GAS-TURBINE THEORY
A simple gas turbine is comprised of three main sections
a compressor, a combustor, and a turbine. The gas-
turbine operates on the principle of the Brayton cycle,
where compressed air is mixed with fuel, and burned
under constant pressure conditions. The resulting hot
gas is allowed to expand through a turbine to perform
work. approximately two / thirds of this work is spent
compressing the air, the rest is available for other work
ie.( mechanical drive, electrical generation)

Brayton Cycle

Types of Gas Turbines
There are two basic types of gas turbines
Aero derivative units are aircraft jet engines
modified to drive electrical generators
Industrial gas turbines units robust
construction, are suitable for base load
operation

Aero derivative (from jet engine)

Industrial Gas Turbines

Gas Turbine with Regeneration
One variation of this basic cycle is the addition of a
regenerator. A gas-turbine with a regenerator
(heat exchanger) recaptures some of the energy
in the exhaust gas, pre-heating the air entering
the combustor. This cycle is typically used on
low pressure ratio turbines.


Gas Turbine with Regeneration
HORSE POWER
A unit of power equals to 33,000 ft-lb/min or
550 ft-lb/sec or 2,545 Btu/hr.
1hp = 746 watts

COMPRESSOR SURGE
Pulsating of compressor discharge pressure
due to chokage as a result of too much of air to
be handled
Blow Off Valve

Prevention against compressor surge during start up
/ shut down and acceleration (The valve reduce back
pressure by venting air to atm through BOV line to
exhaust duct) and compressor began surging when
front stages of compressor would be highly loaded
(mid Span)

Type of Gas Turbine
There are two type of gas turbine
Single Shaft
Split Shaft
Single Shaft Gas Turbine
Inlet Air
Combustion Chamber
Exhaust
Work
Turbine
Compressor
Fuel
Single Shaft Gas Turbine
The single shaft gas turbine was develop
primarily for the electric power industry
and uses a compressor and a power
turbine integrated on a common shaft. As
the unit is used continuously at single
rotational speed.
Split Shaft Gas Turbine
Inlet Air
Combustion Chamber
Exhaust
Work
Power Turbine
Compressor
Fuel
High Power Turbine
Split Shaft Gas Turbine
The split shaft gas turbine was develop
primarily for mechanical drive application
like pump and compressor, where the
output power and speed might be
expected to be variable.
Main component
1. Gas Generator (GG) which consist of
Compressor / air compressor
Combustion chamber
High Power Turbine (HPT)
3. Power Turbine (PT)
Casing for compressor and turbine
Accessory (L.O, Sealing & etc)

Main component

Gas Generator
The gas generator consists of an axial flow
compressor, combustion chambers and two-
stage turbine.
When in operation, air enters the gas generator
inlet, passes through the inlet duct and enters
the compressor, where the air is compressed to
an approximate ratio of 18/1

The angles of the inlet guide vanes and first six
stages of compressor vanes are varied as a
function of gas generator speed and compressor
inlet temperature.
Changing the vane positions gives efficient
operation of the compressor over a broad speed
range, while maintaining an effective stall
margin. The vane positions are controlled by a
speed sensor and servo valve.

Air leaving the compressor, enters the
combustion section. Here the temperature
of some air is raised as a result of full
combustion, which takes place inside the
combustion liner. The remaining air
entering the combustor section cools the
combustion section,

Leaving the combustor, hot gas passes
through the two-stage high pressure
turbine, where energy is extracted from
the gas to turn the axial compressor.
Turbine blade and vane cooling air mixes
with the mainstream gas it passes through
the turbine.

Leaving the gas generator, the hot gas
drives the free wheeling GT-61 power
turbine. The power turbine provides the
mechanical power output for the driven
equipment.

Compressor
The compressor is driven by the
turbine via a connecting shaft and has
the job of drawing external air into
the engine, pressurizing it, and
passing it along to the combustion
chamber.

Compressor
stator
rotor
shaft
Air flow
Compressor
Axial compressor type is
mostly used due to its
high output and
efficiency. (Usually
variable blade could
produce 16bar)
Compressor design been
improve by
Improving blade profile
Improving blade sealing
Improving blade material to
withstand high
temperature.


1. Centrifugal compressor
This compressor uses a spinning impeller to draw in
intake air and accelerates it outward by means of
centrifugal force into a diffuser.
It is used in small gas turbines and is best suited
for low pressure ratios where the overall engine
diameter is not important.




2. Axial flow compressor
Consists of rotating blades and stationary vanes. Air is
compressed as it flows axially along the shaft. This allows
greater efficiency and higher pressure ratios by multi-
stage construction. A stage of compression consists of one
row of rotating blades followed by a row of stationary
vanes. This is the most common type of compressor used in
marine gas turbine engines.

Compressor component

Rotor
Stator


Variable stator
Air flow
Air for gas generator combustion flows
through air inlet filter, silencer and
plenum before entering the gas
generator

Combustor section
Function :
Provide proper mixing of fuel and air for
efficient combustion
Combustor
fuel and air are mixed and combust.
burner system
disperse/atomize the fuel
ignition system
ignite the main flame

Fuel sprayed from the fuel injector nozzles,
mixes with high-pressure air entering the
combustion chamber through its perforations
from the compressor.
This mixture of compressed air and fuel then
burns at temperatures approaching 2000
o
C , in
order to maximize the heat energy obtained
The combustion process is first initiated by
igniter plugs, which are then isolated after
ignition has been accomplished.
The combustion of the fuel and air mixture is
continuous and remains so until the fuel
supply is removed.


Zone in which fuel is evaporated
and mixed with air
Zone in which fuel is ignited
And burnt Heat is generated
Cooling air
combustor
Combustion chamber configuration
1.Single Silo
compressor is mixed with fuel and ignited in this
chamber
3.Twin silo (each consist of multiple burners)
4.Can annular (ez maintenance & better
balance)
5.Annular ring (popular for >200MW)


Silo combustor
Silo combustion chamber in
its simplest form
consist of single burner or
multiple burner.
Compressed air from the
The hot gas is then lead to
the turbine section


Silo combustor
Disadvantage
influence the size of the
turbine house.
Advantage
furnace inspection can be
done easily because of it big
size.

Silo combustor

Can Annular combustor
1. Individual burner cans are mounted around the
periphery of the engine. Each can is an
individual combustor and liner receiving its own
fuel supply.

Advantage: Easy replacement

Disadvantages - Inefficient, structurally weaker



Annular combustor
One large combustor within the engine case.
Multiple fuel nozzles form a solid "ring of fire".
This type is used on the LM2500
Advantage
Most efficient, strongest, frame member of engine
Disadvantage
A repair or replacement requires complete engine
disassembly.


Annular combustor


High Power Turbine & Power
Turbine
Function
To convert high pressure and temperature
combustion gases into mechanical energy and
drive the compressor and generator.

turbine blades
converts the kinetic energy into mechanical
energy




High Power Turbine
HPT cooling
Cooling HPT
Power Turbine
GG lube oil
Synthetic oil is used for the gas generator.
The console is mounted outside of the
turbine enclosure.
Hydraulic oil after filtration is routed to the
fuel metering valve actuator. Hydraulic oil
exiting the fuel metering valve actuator is
returned to the reservoir.
Lube oil after filtration is routed to the
accessory gearbox and bearing sumps.
The lube oil is removed from the
accessory gearbox and bearing sumps by
scavenge pump P5-0502. The oil passes
through filter S5-0506 which has a
pressure 505-PTD-1171 set to alarm at 30
psig (207 kPa G) increasing on gauge
505-PDG-1171.
Magnetic chip detectors are installed in
the drain lines from the accessory gearbox
and each gas generator bearing sump
ahead of the scavenging pumps. An
additional magnetic chip detector is
installed in the common drain header.
Metal carried by the drain oil will
accumulate on the detectors and signal an
alarm.
Scavenge oil after filtration flows to Cooler
E5-0502. A temperature valve 505-TCV-
1173 regulates oil flow through or around
the cooler to maintain oil temperature at
60C.
Air oil separator
GG lube oil sump
GG lube oil

FMV
Hydraulic oil filter
Hydraulic
Oil pump
Lube oil
pump
Lube oil
Filter
Acc Gear
box
Lube Oil Sump
Scavenge oil pump
Scavenge oil Filter
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Gas Generator
7bar
36bar
Power Turbine and Compressor Lube Oil

Mineral oil is used for the power turbine and
compressor lubrication. The console is
mounted outside of the turbine enclosure.
Two pumps are used for normal operation.
One pump is driven by an electric motor and
is used for start-up and standby. The
remaining pump is driven from the power
turbine accessory gearbox and supplies all of
the lube oil to the power turbine and
compressor once the unit is in operation.
Oil from the pumps flows to a separately
mounted fin fan cooler, E5-0506.
Temperature control valve 505-TCV-1108
regulates oil flow through or around the
cooler to maintain oil temperature at 49C.
Lube oil from the power turbine and compressor
bearings is returned to the reservoir.
A third oil pump, P5-0510 (Post Pump) is
included in the lube oil console to provide
cooling oil to the power turbine after shutdown.
Unit control panel logic will start pump P5-0510
after main unit shutdown has commenced.
Lube Oil System (PT)
compressor
Gas Turbine
Filter
Aux LO Pump
Main Pump LO Reservoir
Cooler
Check valve
Emergency pump
Safety precautions

The following safety precautions must be
observed when adding lubricant (top up):

1. Avoid touching moving parts of the machine
2. Keep loose clothing well away from moving
parts
3. Avoid spilling lubricant onto hot surface
4. Clear up spillage immediately
5. Do not remove safety protection from the machine
A good quality of lube oil


Continuous check of physical oil
characteristics during operation will predict
warrant of machinery life spent,
maintenance cost and time saving.
The oil shall be oxidation, foam inhibited
and have good demulsibility for rapid
separation of water.
Lube oil filter S5-0510A/B
hydraulic filters S5-0508A/B
scavenge oil filter S5-0506
PDI alarm at 30 psig


Operating precautions

1. Avoid mixing different grades of oil
2. Avoid mixing different grades of grease
3. Avoid mixing with water or other liquids
4. Avoid contamination with dust or dirt
5. Check that oil cans are free of all foreign
materials before filling
6. Avoid overfilling equipment
Routine Checks

1. During the shift, routine checks must be carried out
on a regular basis.
2. The operator must carry out routine checks
immediately upon taking over the shift to ascertain
the operating conditions of the unit and/or
equipment.
3. Just prior to the end of the shift, the operator must
again check the unit and/or equipment to ensure that
his handover to the next operator is accurate and
gives a true reflection of the situation at that time.
4. Operating troubles that may have been experienced
on the unit and/or equipment should be recorded in
the log book and verbally
The following check shall be carried out.
1. Check oil level.
2. Check oil temperature
3. Check oil pressure
4. Check and drain water.(Investigate
reason for water in the bearing.).
5. Take samples for laboratory analysis
when requested
Fuel and Start Gas
With control panel switches in proper position for
a unit start, the logic circuits cause the following
events to occur.
Once purge cycle is complete, upstream
fuel gas valve (505-XCV-1181) is
energised to open. Vent valve (505-XCV-
1183) is energised closed and the igniters
are switched on. Starting gas flow control
valve (505-PCV-1192) is ramped fully
open to bring starter up to high speed to
crank the gas generator for startup.
Fuel gas block valve (505-XCV-1184) is
energised open. Fuel is ignited in the
combustion chambers of the gas generator and
speed ramps up to idle.
Once at idle the igniters are switched off.
Starting gas flow control valve (505-PCV-1192)
is de-energised closed. Starting gas upstream
shutoff valve (505-XCV-1191 ) is de-energised
closed and the starter is shutdown.
PT
1182
gas
manifold
X
V
1
1
8
3
XV
1181
XV
1184
VENT
TO SAFE
LOCATION
HP FUEL GAS
FMV
LM2500
GAS GENERATOR
ACC
GEARBOX
XV
1191
P
V
1
1
9
2
STARTER GAS
STARTER
EXHAUST
POWER TURBINE
Enclosure ventilation system
The enclosure surrounding the gas generator
and power turbine is provided with a ventilation
system.
Air is pulled from the inlet air filter through a
silencer by an electric driven fan
Three fans are used for the ventilation system.
Two fans are to be used during normal
operation and the third fan is for emergency
use.
The ventilation air passes through fire shutters
before entering the enclosure.
The shutter actuator is activated by the fire
suppression system.
The differential pressure within the enclosure is
monitored by a differential pressure switch 505-
PDS-1207
alarm and start the emergency ventilation fan
at 2.54 mm H2O decreasing
shutdown after 60 second delay if the
differential pressure does not increase above
the alarm setting



Fire and Gas Suppression Systems
Gas detectors 505-AE-1211, 1212 and
1213 are located in the intake plenum.
Gas detectors 505-AE-1214, 1215 and
1216 are located in the turbine enclosure
The gas sensors monitor gas levels within
the plenum and enclosure. An alarm is
sounded if gas levels reach 20%.
Shutdown occurs if gas levels reach 60%.
All access doors to the air filter enclosure, intake
plenum and turbine enclosure are fitted with limit
switches which will sound an alarm if any door is
left open.
Fire detectors are placed in the turbine
enclosure. The fire detectors are of the optical
type, and response to ultraviolet and infrared
radiation which is emitted by flame. The
detectors have a 120 field of view.
When the detector senses UV or IR radiation, it signals
the control panel module. The module issues signals to
trigger release of CO2, and closes the fire damper doors
to isolate the fire in the enclosure. Two dump nozzles
559 and 560 are provided. The 559 nozzles dump the
CO2 into the enclosure at a fast rate. The 560 nozzle
dumps the CO2 at a slow rate. The CO2 bottles are
stored in a cabinet which is adjacent to the unit. Two
CO2 tanks are provided for the main system (fast dump)
and one CO2 tank is provided for the extended system
(slow dump). A duplicate set of reserve tanks are also
included in the system.
WARNING
PERSONNEL SHOULD NOT BE EXPOSED TO
HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF FOR
PROLONGED PERIODS TO CO2
DISCHARGE.
CO2 MAY CAUSE SUFFOCATION AND
REDUCED VISIBILITY DURING AND AFTER A
DISCHARGE PERIOD.
Gas Detector
Fire Detector (Optical)
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Alarm 20%
S/Down 60%
Response to ultraviolet and
infrared
Gas Turbine Enclosure
C
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C
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Temperature
Alarm 71deg C
S/down 80deg C
Periodic Maintenance
Every 4000 Running hours
detergent wash with boroscope

25,000 Running hours
Replacement of the Hot Section
Note; Depend on vender recommendation
Water wash system

A.Purpose: Used to remove dirt and salt buildup on the
compressor blades.

B.Components: Consists of a 40 gallon tank and permanently
installed piping to direct water wash solution into the inlet of the
compressor.

C.Procedure: Compressor must be washed to maintain
efficiency and prevent compressor stalls.


EXHAUST SYSTEM
Function:- Convey hot exhaust gases to either
atmosphere or waste heat boiler

- exhaust casing
- provides exhaust gases flow path

- exhaust ducting and silencer
- routes the exhaust gases to chimney or waste
heat boiler with a reduction in noise
UNIT START-UP
Types of start-up
1. Start-up after maintenance.
2. Start-up after temporary shut-down.
3. Start-up after emergency shut-down.

Start-up after Maintenance
Summary
Following a planned shutdown for
maintenance and inspection, the equipment
are handed back to operations department for
start up.
1. Pressure tests must be made to ensure that all
disturbed flanges, valves and pipe work are leak
free
2. The whole system must be thoroughly
purged of air by using nitrogen
3. AII accessories and equipment related to the
operation of the main equipment must be
checked out correctly.
4. Check that all the platforms and immediate
external areas are clean and unwanted
material removed.


Operating precautions

Fuel and Start System
WARNING
INSTRUMENT BLOCK VALVES IN SENSING LINES
TO PT-1182 (Fuel Gas), PS-1187 (Fuel Gas), PS-1193
(Start-up Gas), PG-1195 (Starter Exhaust) AND PGT-
1190 (Instrument Air supply) MUST BE IN THE
OPENED POSITION WHEN UNIT IS OPERATIONAL.
UNIT OPERATION WITH BLOCK VALVES CLOSED
COULD DISABLE THE SHUTDOWN SIGNAL FROM
THE SWITCHES, WHICH MAY CAUSE EQUIPMENT
DAMAGE AND OR PERSONNEL INJURY.

CAUTION
WATER WASH VALVE IS OPENED ONLY
WHEN USING A WATER WASH CART.
OPEN EXHAUST CASING DRAIN VALVE
AFTER WATER WASH CART HAS BEEN
USED TO CLEAN THE UNIT OR TO REMOVE
LIQUID WHICH HAS ACCUMULATED DURING
UNIT OPERATION.
Gas Generator Lube Oil System
The pressure and temperature checks can
only be made after the gas generator is in
operation.

Normal Start Sequence
A Normal Start Sequence can only be
initiated locally from the Local Control
Panel (LCP).
When the mode select switch on the LCP
is in Local, a Normal Start is initiated by
depressing the Start push button (PB-
1314) on the face of the LCP.

"Permissive To Start."

Gas Generator Oil Reservoir Level is OK
Power Turbine / Compressor Oil Reservoir Level is OK
Fuel Metering Valve is at Minimum Position (ZS-1186)
Fuel Shutoff Valves are closed
Start Gas Shutoff Vent Valves are closed (ZSC-1191)
AC Power "OK"
Vibration Monitor is "OK"
Turbine Enclosure Doors are closed
Unit Process Valves are in Shutdown (Prestart) Position

Gas Generator Coastdown Timer Time out
Gas Generator Speed (N1) Ramp is at Minimum
Power Turbine Speed (N2) Ramp is at Minimum
LCP Run Local Mode is Selected (SS-1402)
All Fire and Gas System Alarms are Cleared
All Trip to Idle/Recycle Alarms are Cleared
Unit Shutdown is Cleared
Buffer Gas Supply is greater than the Low Alarm
Fuel Control Summary Shutdown is Cleared

NOTE
If the Permissive To Start pilot light is not
illuminated on the face of the LCP, select the
Start Permissive Screen on the Operator
Interface CRT the status for each of the above
conditions will be displayed.
The corrective action for each point should be
taken in order to achieve a Unit Start
Permissive.
Immediately after the Start push button is
depressed
The Turbine Enclosure Fan selected as Main
will be started
The PT Seal Air Supply valve is opened
The Compressor Separation (Buffer) Gas
Supply valve is opened
Upon establishing of the Compressor Seal Gas
Separation Pressure, the PT Post Cooling Oil
Pump is started for test purposes
The Standby Lube Oil Pump is started and a
Standby Lube Oil Pump test is initiated
Auxiliary Sequences
Stand-by Lube Oil Pump Test
Power Turbine/Compressor Lube Oil Pressure
Lube Oil Pump Sequence
Enclosure fan Sequence
Seal Gas System
After the Auxiliary Sequence has been
completed, the Purge and Pressurising
Sequence for the Compressor will be initiate
Pressurising Sequence
The Suction Bypass Valve (505-XV-0102) is
opened.
When the Differential Pressure across the
Suction Valve (505-XV-0101) is reduced to less
than 1.0 Bar the Suction Valve (505-XV-0101)
will open
After the Suction Valve is fully open, the Suction
Bypass Valve (505-XV-0102) closes and the
Discharge Valve (505-XV-0103) will open

Gas Turbine Start Sequence
The Gas Starter Control and Shutoff
Solenoids 505-XY-1192 and 505-XY-1191
are energised
The Primary Fuel Gas Shutoff Solenoid
(505-XY-1181) is energised to open
The Starter Speed Control Output will be
ramped up until the Gas Generator Speed
(N1) has achieved 1250 RPM
If the Gas Generator fails to reach 1200 RPM within
thirty (30) seconds, a Fail To Crank Shutdown will be
initiated; thus the Unit Start/Run Sequence will be
aborted.
GG Speed (N1) will be controlled between 1250 and
1350 RPM to purge the Plenum, GG, PT/Exhaust Duct
and the GG Purge Timer (TM-08) will begin to time out.
When the GG Purge Timer has timed out, the Starter
Speed Control Card High Speed command will be
enabled and the Starter Speed Control Output will ramp
up to maximum.
The Gas Generator will begin to accelerate. and. The
Ignitors (A or B) are alternated on successive starts of
the Gas Generator.

The Fuel Gas Vent solenoid (XY-1183) will be energised
to close.
The Ignitor Relay (A or B) (IGN-1261 or 1262) is
energised
The Fuel Gas Secondary Shutoff Valve Solenoid (505-
XY-1184) is energised to open 505-XV-1184

Light Off (T5.4 greater than 204C) must
be verified within 10 seconds after the
Secondary Shutoff is opened or a "Fail to
Light Off Shutdown " is initiated. This will
then initiate a High Speed Purge of the
Gas Generator at greater than 2000 RPM
to rid it of any residual fuel.

Once Light Off has been verified, the Gas
Generator will continue to accelerate until the
GG Speed (N1 ) has achieved 4500 RPM. When
the GG Speed (N1 ) is greater than 4500 RPM,
the Starter Control Signal is disabled and both
the Gas Starter Supply and Shutoff Solenoids
are de-energised. Simultaneously, the Ignition is
also disabled. The Gas Generator continues
accelerating to Idle.

Once the Gas Generator has reached Idle
Speed (5000 RPM), the Unit Warmup Timer will
begin to time out. When the warmup Timer has
time out, the Unit is ready to load.
When the Unit Load Sequence is initiated, the
GG will accelerate until the Power Turbine
minimum speed (3250 RPM) is achieved. The
Unit will now be operated in Power Turbine
Speed Control Mode.


Normal operation & routine
checks

During the shift, routine checks must be carried out on a
regular basis.
The operator must carry out routine checks immediately
upon taking over the shift to ascertain the operating
conditions of the unit and/or equipment.
Just prior to the end of the shift, the operator must again
check the unit and/or equipment to ensure that his
handover to the next operator is accurate and gives a
true reflection of the situation at that time.

Operating troubles that may have been
experienced on the unit and/or equipment
should be recorded in the log book and
verbally communicated to the incoming
operator.

Operating aspects to be monitored in order to
keep the performance of the unit under control
and to identify proper corrective actions are:
Compressor and Turbine vibrations
Compressor and Turbine axial displacement
Temperature and pressure of the lube oil systems.
Differential pressure across the Lube Oil Filters.
Differential pressure across the Hydraulic Oil Filters.
Status of the Lube Oil Stand-by Pumps.
Differential pressure across Seal Gas Filters.
Differential pressure across Nitrogen Buffer Gas Filters.
Differential pressure across Instrumental air Filters.
Gas Generator speed.
Power Turbine/Compressor speed.
Types of shut down

1. Shut down for maintenance
2. Temporary shut-down.
3. Emergency shut-down.
Scheduled shut-down

Scheduled shut-downs occur at infrequent
intervals and are carefully planned. This
enables preventive maintenance work to be
carried out e.g. internal inspection of an
equipment.
All maintenance work which cannot be
handled whilst the Equipment is in operation
is carried out at this time. A Previously
prepared shut-down procedure and work list
must be strictly adhered to. This will ensure a
safe, controlled shut-down and a minimum
loss of time in completing maintenance work.
Operating precautions

Close co-ordination between the Panel
Operator and Field Operator is essential for
good control.
Safe operating procedures and safety
regulations must be followed at all times.
Coordinate with other Units and warn the
other departments, especially the Fire
Department.
Temporary shut down

A temporary shut-down is unscheduled and
may only last for a few hours. The shut-down
follows the same procedure as for a
scheduled shut-down except that the
pressure should be maintained ready for
immediate start up.
A temporary shut-down is usually due to
operational requirements, or, a unit upset of
short duration. Every effort must be made to
return to normal operations as soon as
possible.
Emergency shut-down

An emergency shut-down can be caused by
equipment failures related to the plant
operation or utility failures, e.g. loss of
instrument air.
In the event of an emergency shut-down
being necessary the unit must be taken out of
service as quickly and safely as possible.
The prevailing conditions at the time must be
taken into consideration when shutting down
the unit.
WARNING
Safety of personnel and the prevention of
damage to equipment are the primary
considerations. All operations personnel
must be thoroughly conversant with the
procedures to be taken for an emergency
shut-down.
The exact procedure to follow must be
decided in the light of individual
circumstances at the time. Frequent
checking of equipment can normally give
adequate warning of impending trouble
and allow a normal shut-down to be
effected.
A thorough knowledge of all the
equipment related to unit operation is
essential.
The main causes of unit emergencies are:
power failure, instrument air failure, fuel
gas failure.
Unit Vented Shutdown Sequence

Unit Vented Shutdown requires
depressurising the Compressor.
When a Vented Shutdown is initiated,
Fuel Gas is immediately cut off, the
Turbine begins coasting to a stop and
Compressor Vent Valve is opened.
The following conditions will initiate a Vented
Shutdown:
CO2 Release Shutdown
Common Fire Shutdown
Inlet Plenum Gas Shutdown
Turbine Enclosure Gas Shutdown
Compressor Vibrations Shutdown
Compressor Thrust Shutdown
Gas Seal Vent Leakage Primary High Shutdown or
Signal Fail
PT/Compressor Lube Oil Supply Pressure
Low Shutdown or Signal Fail
Compressor Rupture Disc Failure Shutdown
Process Shutdown Vented
Unit ESD
2 of 3 CPUs Failure Shutdown
Engine troubleshooting
Troubleshooting is a systematic analysis
of symptoms that indicate equipment
malfunction. These symptoms usually
appear as deviations from normal values
of observed equipment parameters.
Before concluding that an engine fault
does exist, the troubleshooter must assure
that his knowledge of suspected trouble
area is adequate, that the instruments
used are calibrated and working properly,
and that they have been accurately read
and interpreted.
NOTE
If troubleshooting procedures do not
isolate and eliminate the fault, secure
assistance from vendor service
representative through your customer
service manager.
GG Fails to reach maximum
motoring speed
If engine is hot, allow it to cool for 30minutes
and then attempt motoring.
Check starter supply pressure. If pressure is
below minimum limit, check pressure source.
Check instrumentation. Replace indicator if
defective.
Replace starter.if the rotation is still low,perform
borescope inspection of compressor and HPT.
Check scavenge oil screens for sump problems.
GG Fails to Light Off
Check to make sure GG will motor to
2000-2500 rpm on the starter.
Check supply pressure to fuel control and
fuel manifold
If fuel supply pressure are within the limits,
troubleshoot ignition system.
CAUTION
ALWAYS PURGE FUEL FROM GAS
GENERATOR BY MOTORING THE GAS
GENERATOR AFTER ANY FALSE
START
WARNING
NO FUEL AIR MIXTURE MAY BE
PRESENT DURING THIS TEST.HIGH
VOLTAGE EXISTS AT THE IGNITERS,
THEY MUST NOT BE TOUCHED WHILE
ENERGIZED.
High Vibration in Gas Generator
Check that vibration instrument and its wiring
are operating properly
Check that vibration pickup is securely mounted.
Inspect oil scavenge and magnetic plugs in lube
scavenge pump.
Water wash compressor if inspection reveals
dirty blades and vanes.

High Vibration in Power Turbine
Check that vibration instrument and its
wiring are operating properly
Check that vibration pickup is securely
mounted.
Inspect oil scavenge and magnetic plugs
in lube scavenge pump.

Low Lube Oil Pressure
Oil pressure is a function of gas generator
speed and supply temperature.
If oil supply pressure is low,check supply
oil filters for cleanliness and supply line for
leaks. If low pressure persists, replace
lube/scavenge pump.