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Cell Division

Xu Zhaoyang
Department of cell biology
Basic Medical college
Zhengzhou university
Countless divisions of a single-cell zygote produce
an organism of astonishing cellular complexity and
Cell division does not stop with the formation of the
mature organism but continues in certain tissues( i.e.
bone marrow ,intestinal tract) throughout life. This
enormous output of cells is needed to replace cells that
have aged or died.
Division fashion of eukaryotic cell

Amitosis just take place in a small amount of cells

Mitosis serve as the basis for producing almost all

new cells

Meiosis serve as the basis for producing sexually

reproducing organisms.
1.First found in the RBC of
chick embryo by Remark.

2.Spindle and chromosome

are not formed.

3.Genetic material was

separated to two cells

Cells divide to produce two identical

daughter cells. While all the other organelles
can be randomly separated into the daughter
cells, the chromosomes must be precisely
divided so that each daughter cell gets exactly
the same DNA.
Interphase is often included in discussions
of mitosis, but interphase is technically not part
of mitosis.

The cell is engaged in metabolic activity and performing

its prepare for mitosis (the next four phases that lead up to
and include nuclear division). Chromosomes are not clearly
discerned in the nucleus, although a dark spot called the
nucleolus may be visible.
The cell may contain a pair of centrioles (or microtubule
organizing centers in plants) both of which are organizational
sites for microtubules
The picture of interphase

Whitefish cell

The onion root tip cells

Stage of mitosis





1. The chromosomes condense. The proteins attached to the DNA
cause the chromosomes to go from long thin structures to short fat
one, which makes them easier to pull apart.
2. The nuclear envelope disappears. The double membrane that
surround the nucleus dissolves into a collection of small vesicles,
freeing the chromosomes to use the whole cell for division
3. The centrosomes move to opposite poles. During interphase, the
pair of centrosomes were together just outside the nucleus. In
prophase they separate and move to opposite ends of the cell.
4. The spindle starts to form, growing out of the centrosomes
towards the chromosomes.
The picture of prophase

White fish cell

The onion root tip cell


Metaphase is a short resting period where the

chromosomes are lined up on the equator of the
cell, with the centrosomes at opposite ends and
the spindle fibers attached to the centromeres.
Everything is aligned for the rest of the division
process to occur.
The mitotic spindle
of an animal cell
Three classes of microtubules
make up the mitotic spindle
Subunits are rapidly lost and Astral
added from the plus end of the
chromosomal microtubules,
with more subunits are added centriole
to the plus end than are lost, Polar
there is a net addition of microtubules
subunits at the kinetochore.
Meanwhile, the minus ends of
the microtubules experience a
net loss, and thus subunits are
thought to move along the microtubules
chromosomal microtubules
from the kinetochore toward
the pole.
The structure of aster and spindle
The picture of metaphase

Whitefish cells

The onion root tip cells


In anaphase, the centromeres divide. At this

point, each individual chromosome goes from:
1 chromosome with 2 chromatids
2 chromosomes with one chromatid each.

Then the spindle fibers contract, and the

chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles.
The picture of anaphase

Whitefish cells

The onion root tip cells

In telophase the cell actually divides.
The chromosomes are at the poles of the
spindle, disperse and no longer visible under the
light microscope. .
The spindle disintegrates
The nuclear envelope re-forms around the two
sets of chromosomes.
The cytoplasm is divided into 2 separate cells,
the process of cytokinesis.
The picture of telophase

Whitefish cells

The onion root tip cells


The organelles
get divided up
into the two
daughter cells
they go with
whichever cell
they find
themselves in.
Different cytokinesis ways
in plant and animal cells

Plant and animal cells divide the cytoplasm in different ways.

In plant cells, a new cell wall made of cellulose forms between the 2
new nuclei, about where the chromosomes lined up in metaphase.
Cell membranes form along the surfaces of this wall. When the new
wall joins with the existing side wall, the 2 cells have become

In animal cells, a ring of actin fibers (microfilaments are composed

of actin) forms around the cell equator and contacts, pinching the
cell in half.
Summary of Mitosis
Chromosomes condense
Nuclear envelope disappears
centrosomes move to opposite sides of the cell
Spindle forms and attaches to centromeres on the
Chromosomes lined up on equator of spindle
centrosomes at opposite ends of cell
Centromeres divide: each 2-chromatid chromosome becomes
two 1-chromatid chromosomes
Chromosomes pulled to opposite poles by the spindle
Chromosomes de-condense
Nuclear envelope reappears
Cytokinesis: the cytoplasm is divided into 2 cells
The process of mitosis
Central plate

Nuclear envelope
Animal cell mitosis

interphas prophase
e metaphase

Contractile ring

telophase anaphase

Meiosis I reduces the ploidy level from 2n to n

(reduction) while Meiosis II divides the remaining set of
chromosomes in a mitosis-like process (division).

Most of the differences between the processes occur

during Meiosis I.
a cell division forming gametes
 Goal: reduce genetic material by half
 Why?

from mom from dad child


meiosis reduces
genetic content
The first meiotic division

Metaphase Ⅰ
Anaphase Ⅰ
Telophase Ⅰ


The chromosome condense and

become gradually visible in the light
microscope ( there is no indication
that each chromosome is composed
of identical chromatids).
The telomeres cluster at the inner
surface of the nuclear envelope to
facilitate the alignment of
homologues in preparation for
Zygotene and pachytene
Mature synaptonemal complexes
Axial elements approach one
consist of a pair of paralell lateral
another, becoming lateral
elements flanking a central element. The
elements of synatonemal
elements are connected by transverse

early zygotene Late zygotene pachytene


Chromosome continues Fewer nodules

are present after
shortening and thickening
The 2 chromosomes in each
bivalent begin to repel each
other and a split occurs
between the chromosomes,
but still stick together at

Meiotic spindle is assembled;

The chromosomes , condense and become more
compact, highly dispersed ,are prepared to separation.
Metaphase Ⅰ

Metaphase I is when tetrads

line-up along the equator of
the spindle. Spindle fibers
attach to the centromere
region of each homologous
chromosome pair. Other
metaphase events as in
Anaphase Ⅰ

Anaphase I is when the tetrads

separate, and are drawn to opposite
poles by the spindle fibers.
The centromeres in Anaphase I
remain intact and Sister chromatids
remain attached at their centro-
Telophase Ⅰ

Telophase I is similar to Telophase

of mitosis, except that only one set
of (replicated) chromosomes is in
each "cell".

Nuclear envelopes reassemble.

Spindle disappears.

Cytokinesis divides cell into two.

Meiosis II

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II
Prophase II

During Prophase II, nuclear

envelopes dissolve, and spindle
fibers reform. All else is as in
Prophase of mitosis. Indeed
Meiosis II is very similar to
Metaphase II

Metaphase II is similar to
mitosis, with spindles moving
chromosomes into equatorial
area and attaching to the
opposite sides of the
centromeres in the
kinetochore region
Anaphase II

During Anaphase II, the

centromeres split and the
former chromatids (now
chromosomes) are
segregated into opposite
sides of the cell.
Telophase II

Nuclear envelope assembles.

Chromosomes decondense.

Spindle disappears.

Cytokinesis divides cell into

interphase leptotene zygotene pachytene diplotene diakinesis

metaphase I anaphase I telophaseI interphase

prophase II metaphaseII anaphase II telophase II

How can we produce genetically
different offsprings

random (independent) assortment


recombination from different individuals during

Independent assortment

The homolog
of one
can be
with either
homolog of a
Independent assortment

Since the combination of maternal and parental

chromosomes received by a gamete is random.

And we have 23 pairs of chromosomes

The possible combinations in an egg or a sperm are -

223 = 8,388,608

combinations in an offspring
223 X 223 = 70,368,744,177,664

Result: Generates new combinations of genes (alleles)

when the genes are located on different chromosomes.


- the physical exchange of chromosomal material

between chromatids of homologous

- Result: Generation of new combinations of

genes (alleles) if the genes are located on the
same chromosome.
The difference
between mitosis and meiosis
Mitosis Meiosis
Number of divisions 1 2

Number of daughter cells 2 4

Genetically identical? Yes No

Chromosome # Same as parent Half of parent

Where Somatic cells Germline cells
When Throughout life At sexual maturity
Role Growth and repair Sexual reproduction