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Integration of

Cardiovascular Function
Regulation of Systemic Arterial Pressure
 Neural regulation
 Humoral regulation
 Autoregulation
 Long term and short term
regulation of BP
 Neural Regulation

a. Heart: sympathetic and

parasympathetic nerves
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves to the heart,
many of which closely accompany each other in and through
the various cardiac and coronary plexuses.
Contraction ↑
Sympathetic Conduction ↑
Heart rate ↑

Contraction ↓
Parasympathetic Conduction ↓
Heart rate ↓
b. Cadiovascular Center

The neuron groups or

collection located
central nervous
system response to
integrate cardiac
activity and
 Medulla—

basic center, a

source of tonic

activity for


c. Cardiovascular Reflexes

Baroreceptor reflex
The carotid sinus
Swellings in internal carotid artery
Glossopharyngeal nerve to
cardiovascular center in medulla
Maintains normal BP in the brain
The aortic arch
Receptors in wall of ascending aorta
Vagus nerve to cardiovascular
Maintains general systemic BP

 Afferent signals transmitted from the

pressoreceptors by sensory nerves to
the medullary cardiovascular centers in
the brain stem.
 Efferent signals divide into two
o Parasympathetic via the vagus nerve
o Sympathetic nerves to the heart and
peripheral vasculature.
Blood pressure rises


Vagus nerve

Vascular center

Vagus nerve Sympathetic nerve


Contract ↓ , rate ↓ conduct ↓

Blood pressure decrease
 Humoral Regulation
a. Epinephrine & Norepinephrine


• Adrenal gland

• sympathetic terminals.

Binding receptors:

∀α & β
Circulating Epinephrine Causes:

 Increased heart rate


(β 1 adrenoreceptor mediated)
 Vasoconstriction in most systemic
arteries and veins
( α adrenoreceptors)
 Vasodilatation in muscle and liver
vasculatures (β 2-adrenoceptor)
Circulating Norepinephrine Causes:

 Increased heart rate

(β 1 adrenoreceptor mediated)

 Vasoconstriction occurs

(α adrenoreceptors )
b. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone



Functions of Angiotensin

Constricts resistance vessels

Acts upon the adrenal cortex to

release aldosterone, which in turn

acts upon the kidneys to increase

H2O & Na+ reabsorption.

Stimulates the release of vasopressin

(antidiuretic hormone, ADH) from the

posterior pituitary which acts upon the kidneys

to increase fluid retention.

 Short Term Regulation
1. The baroreflex provides a mechanism for
second-to-second homeostatic regulation of
MAP, by bringing about instantaneous
autonomic-mediated reflex adjustments in
CO to restore normal MAP.
2. However, the baroreflex is inefficient in
long-term (minutes-days) regulation of MAP,
because the baroceptors adapt rapidly to
prolonged changes in MAP which changes the
set point for baroreceptor response.
 Long Term Regulation
1. In the lomg-term, maintenance of MAP is totally

dependent on maintenance of constant blood

volume by the kidneys. Blood volume is a major

determinant of arterial blood pressure because it

influences venous return and, consequently CO.

2. This an increase in blood volume leads to increased
venous return which results in increased CO and
MAP. When blood volume increases, the consequent
increase in MAP leads to increased filtration of
blood by the kidneys, which results in increased
urinary excretion of sodium and water, thereby
reducing plasma volume and MAP. Thus there is a
reciprocal relationship between MAP and blood
Overall Blood Pressure Regulation

Short-term regulation (seconds to minutes)

 baroreceptors

lead to changes in sympathetic &

parasympathetic tone
Long-term regulation (hours to days)
largely a function of the kidneys and
elements of the endocrine system with
both CNS-dependent and independent
inputs that reset the baseline blood
pressure, around which the short-term
regulatory mechanisms still operate to
Thank you!
Diseases/conditions Are Associated With
Endothelial Dysfunction and Reduced NO
Production And/or bioavailability

 Hypertension

 Obesity

 Diabetes

 Heart failure

 Atherosclerosis